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IrrJa^Dlnginil m^ JMural listarq 

i9u6If^l)Elf utitsct f^e J3irccti0rt al tf)c ^actcti? 



Heney Bull, Saint John Steeet. 

Bell & Daldt, 186, Fleet Steeet ; J. R, Smith, 36, Sono Squaee. 






i'^.'.i. **\^' 



Bo. VM. 


11th, 12th, and 13th, 1855— 

Report 4 

Articles exhibited at the Temporary M^^seulIl 13 

On the History of Chippenham : By the Rev. J. E. Jackson 19- 46 

On Edington Church : By the Rev. A. Fane 47- 57 

On Parochial Histories : By the Rev. John Wilkinson 57- 67 

On Lanhill Barrow near Chippenham ; and the Battles of Cynuit and 

Ethandun : By Dr. Thtonam 67-86 

Memoir of George Montagu the Ornithologist, with Pedigree : By W. 


On Pilgrims' Signs found at Salisbury: By J. Y. Akeeman, F.S.A. . . 94- 97 
Coffin Plates of Godolphin, recently discovered at East Coulston : By 

the Rev. Ebwaed Wilton 97-106 

The Old Market House and Great Fire at Marlborough : By F. A. 

Caeeington, Esq 106-114 

Ancient Seals of the Borough of Marlborough : By ditto 114 

Christopher Wren of East Knoyle, D.D. : By J. Watlen, Esq 115-119 

Who destroyed the Images at the West End of Salisbury Cathedi'al ? 

By ditto 119 

Wiltshiee Notes and Qxjeeies: — 

Dr. Hinchclifi''s School, Salisbury 125 

Charlton Park, Accident at 125 

Wiltshire during the Civil Wars 125 

Ancient Documents 126 

The Whittlegate 127 

Contributions to the Museum and Library 128 

Notice of Alteration in Rule IV 128 

List of Members i. 

Balance Sheet iv. 

Bo. Vim. 

The Great Bustard : By the Rev. A. C. Smith 129-145 

On the Solf-Government of Small Manorial Communities, as exemplified 

in the Manor of Castle Combe : By G. P. Sceope, Esq., M.P 145-163 

On a Cromlech-Tumulus called Lugbury, near Littleton Drew : And 

Note on the name of Drew: By John Tiitjenam, M.D., F.S.A 164-177 

Descent of the Manor of Dvaycot Ccrne ; with Pedigree of Cerne and 

Heryng : By CiiAULES Edwaed Long, Esq 178-181 

Bells of the County of Wilts, with their Inscriptions. (No. 3.) By 

the Rev. W. C. LuKis 182-184 



Account of a Barrow on Roundway Hill, near De\izes, opened in April, 

1855 : Bv Mr. W. CraNiNGTON, F.G.S 185-188 

Sherilis of Wiltshire : By the Rev. J. E. Jackson 189-235 

Devizes Seals : By Mr. Edward Kite 236-238 

Font in the Church of St. George, Preshute: By ditto 239 

Pilgrims to Rome from the County of "Wilts, a.d. 1504 : By ditto 241 

The Office of Awakener : By F. A. Caeeington, Esq 242 

Foster of Marlborough, with Pedigree : Bythe Rev. John Wakd 244 

The Despencers' Estates in Wilts : By J. Watlen, Esq 245 

WiLTsniKE Notes and Queries: — 

On " Carduus Tuberosus : " By T. B. Flower, Esq 249 

Family of Noyes 251 

Contributions to the Museiun and Library 252 

Account of the Fourth General Meeting, at Warminster, 

5th, 6th, and "th August, 1857 253 

Articles exhibited at the Temporary Museum 266 

An Addi-ess on Archa3ology: By the Rev. J. 0. Picton 271-280 

Drayeot FoUot Chiu-ch, (Destroyed:) By F. A. Carrington, Esq 280 

The History of Longleat : By the Rev. J. E. Jackson 281-312 

On the Music of the Middle Ages : By John Lambert, Esq 313-336 

On the Ornithology of Wilts (Falconidm) : By the Rev. A. C. Smith 337-357 

An Account of Colerne Church : By E. W. Godwin, Esq 358-366 

Notice of the Botany of Wiltshire : By T. B. Flower, Esq 366 

Mysterious Death of a Lord-Lieutenant of Wilts : By J. Watlen, Esq. 367-376 
Wiltshire Notes and Queries : — 

Wiltshire during the Civil AVars ; Accident to Charles Dryden at 

Charlton Park, near Malmsbury 376 

Clothmaking temp : Henry VIII 378 

Bii-thplace of AVilliam Pitt, First Earl of Chatham 379 

Noyes Family 380 


Map of Ethandun, p. 75. Bratton Camp, 77. Bury Wood Camp, 79. PUgrims' 
Sims, 94. Old Market House and Seals of Marlborough, 106. Old Belfiy of 
Salisbury Cathedral, 124. Cantelow the Devizes Wizard, 126. 

The Great Bustard, p. 129. Tumiilus, with fallen Cromlech, near Littleton 
Drew, 164. Ground Plan of ditto, 172. Seals of Devizes, 236. Font in the 
Chui'ch of St. George, Preshute, Wilts, 239. 

Longleat House, p. 281. Seal of the Prioiy of Longleat, 283. Murder of Thos. 
Thynne, Esq., in Pall-MaU, 298. Illustrations of Mediaeval Music, 336. 
Cofeme Church, Ground Plan, 358. Ditto, East End, exterior, 359. Ditto, 
Sedilia in Chancel, 361. Ditto, Section through Chancel looking North 
(restored), 362. Accident to Charles Dryden at Charlton Park, 377. 



Irrjiipalnginil iin& Intitral listeij 


No. VII. J UNE, 1856 . Vol. III. 



Account of the Third Geneeal Meeting at Chippenham, Sept. 
nth, 12tli, and 13th, 1855— 

Report 4 

Articles exhibited at the Temporary Museum 13 

On the History of Chippenham : By the Rev. J. E. Jackson 19-46 

On Edington Church : By the Rev. A. Fane 47- 57 

On Parochial Histories : By the Rev. John "Wilkinson 57-67 

On Lanhill Ban-o-w near Chippenham ; and the Battles of Cynuit and 

Ethandun : By Dr. Thttenam 67- 86 

Memoir of George Montagu the Ornithologist, with Pedigree : By W. 


On Pilgrims' Signs found at Salisbury: By J. Y. Akeeman, F.S.A. . . 94- 97 
Coffin Plates of Godolphin, recently discovered at East Coulston : By the 

Rev. Edwaed Wilton 97-106 

The Old Market House and Great Fire at Marlborough : By F. A. 

Caeeington, Esq 106-114 

Ancient Seals of the Borough of Marlborough : By ditto 114 

Chi-istopher Wren of East Knoyle, D.D. : By J. Watlen, Esq 115-119 

Who destroyed the Images at the West Encl of Salisbury Cathedral? 

By ditto 119 

WiLTsniEE Notes and Qiteeies : — 

Dr. HinchclifF's School, Salisbury 125 

Charlton Park, accident at 125 

Wiltshire during the Civil Wars 125 

Ancient Documents 126 

The Whittlegate 127 

Contributions to the Museum and Library 128 

Notice of Alteration in Rule IV 128 

List of Members i 

Balance Sheet iv 



Map of Ethandun 75 

Bratton Camp 77 

Buiy Wood Camp 79 

Pilgrims Signs 94 

01(1 Market House and Seals of Mai-lborough 106 

Old Belfry of Salisbury Cathedral 124 

Cantolow the Devizes Wizaid 126 

Henev Bull, Saint John Steeet. 
0. Bell, 186, Fleet Street; J. H. Smith, 36, Soiio Squaee. 






SSEiltsfjire ^rdjEeologtcal antJ i^atural l^istors -Societg, 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, September 11th, 12th, and 13th, 


peesident of the meeting, 
George Poulett Scrope, Esq., M.P. 

The proceedings opened with a Meeting at the New Town Hall, 
lent for the occasion by Joseph Neeld, Esq., M.P. 

The attendance was exceedingly large and influential, including 
the Lord Lieutenant of the county, the Marquis of Lansdowne ; the 
greater part of the Members of Parliament for the various towns 
in North Wilts ; almost all the Clergy and Gentry for many miles 
around, with numbers from a distance. 

Soon after one o'clock, the noble Marquis having entered the 
room, Mr. G. P. Scrope, M.P. addressed the company as follows : — My 
Lord, ladies and gentlemen, — I am really ashamed to appear before 
you in my present position, in the first place because this chair by 
right should belong to our noble Patron, who has been kind enough 
to come amongst us now for the third time, — but he tells me it 
would be inconvenient for him to remain here for any length of 
time, and therefore, though feeling wholly unfitted to assume the 
duties of the chair, I have consented to do so. And I have another 
reason for feeling greater than usual diffidence on this occasion, 


2 Third General Meeting. 

and that is, owing to the overwhelming intelligence we have heard 
this morning, which really almost takes away ones breath and ones 
power of considering any other subject, (loud cheering), and es- 
pecially as probably many here, as well as myself, have relatives 
engaged in the struggles in the Crimea, about whose fate they 
must be exceedingly anxious, and which anxiety is sufficient to 
prevent their taking much interest in battles fought three or four 
centuries ago, and questions relating to family history and local 
topography. Notwithstanding, I will do my best in introducing 
the report, which one of our Secretaries, Mr. Lukis, will presently 
read to you. You are aware that we are now assembled for the 
purpose of holding the third annual meeting of the "Wiltshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society. You will shortly hear 
the report ; but I think I may so far anticipate the tenor of it as to 
assure you it is of a most satisfactory nature, and that the members 
of the Society may rest assured that we have made from the first 
continual progress ; and that on the whole we may consider the 
Society as established on a satisfactory basis, and to an extent quite 
as great as the most ardent supporters of it could have anticipated. 
(Cheers). It will not on this occasion be necessary for me to dwell 
at all on the advantages to be derived from the studies which it is 
the object of our institution to promote and encourage. Every one 
who takes an interest in his native countr}^ must feel anxious to 
become acquainted with all those material evidences, upon which 
its history is founded. The facts which every historian is bound to 
know, are derived in a great degree from objects which the archae- 
ologist brings together and secures. The national MSS. of a country, 
the spots on which great events have taken place, the dwellings 
which have been inhabited by personages of historical importance, 
the buildings which piety or superstition has raised in former days, 
and even the decorations, clothing, armour, ornaments, coins and 
medals of former generations compose the real materials of history, 
and by giving us an insight into the manners, customs, and habits 
of those times, form records as important as the account of battles 
and sieges, and the intrigues of monarchs and statesmen. To supply 
these evidences is the object of the Archaeologist. (Cheers). As to 

. Mr. Poulett Scrape's Address. 8 

the second object which this Society has in view, namely, to en- 
courage the study of Natural History, it is quite as interesting and 
important. AVe should all know something of the beautiful world 
in which we live. We are scarce worthy to live in a world so 
replete with objects calculated to excite our admiration and grati- 
tude, unless we feel an interest and desire to become acquainted, 
as far as opportunity serves us, with the wonders of the animate 
and inanimate creation ; with the miracles of the animal, vegetable, 
and mineral kingdoms. (Cheers). Therefore I think you will agree 
with me, in saying that this Society is seeking to encourage studies, 
which are not altogether useless and vain. All this is very trite, 
but I know true ; and if true of general, it is much more true and 
forcible with regard to the study of local history, — the Archaeology 
and Natural History of each province of the county ; and to that 
especially our experience and studies have been directed. All this, 
I say, is very trite, and I must apologize for making such observa- 
tions, but I trust the truth of them will come home to every one 
who will examine the remarkable objects that are brought together 
in this room, and the adjoining ones, or who will accompany us in 
our excursions during the next two or three days, to objects of 
interest in the neighbourhood. It has been asked why we selected 
Chippenham as our place of meeting this year. People have said, 
" what is there at Chippenham deserving the attention of Archae- 
ologists ? we only know Chippenham as having a railway station, 
and sending two members to Parliament." But the railway station 
is not so unimportant a thing as some may suppose ; but for the 
railway station I believe we should not have brought together such 
a com}: any as I now see before me. And then as to the members 
for Chippenham, we owe to the munificence of one of them the 
very handsome room in which we are assembled. (Cheers). But 
really I think I may promise myself that in the course of the next 
two or three days, ladies and gentlemen who have come to Chip- 
penham, with the object of making themselves acquainted with the 
Archfcology of the neighbourhood, will not be disappointed. I 
think those who listen to the paper that will presently be read by 
our uccomplijiihed Secretary, Mr. Juckson, will think there is a good 

B 9 

4 Third Getteral Meeting. 

deal to interest them even in connection with the town of Chip- 
penham. And with regard to the neighbourhood, those who will 
accompany the learned Recorder of Devizes this evening to the 
"Abbeys of Lacock and Stanley, and the Priory of Lockswell," 
will find that there are undoubtedly objects of great interest to be 
met with here as elsewhere, and, notwithstanding that we have 
not at Chippenham an Old Sarum, a Stonehenge, an ancient Castle, 
nor a Cathedral, as at those towns in which we have formerly met, 
yet we shall find that there are many objects of interest in this 
neighbourhood, as well as in those. We shall have the opportunity 
also, of opening one or two remarkable barrows ; — one of them 
"Hubba's Lowe," which marks the site of a very remarkable 
battle between the Saxons and the Danes, as the result of which 
Alfred took possession of the British throne. There are other 
interesting places to be visited, besides several churches ; Lord 
Methuen has kindly opened Corsham Court to our inspection, and 
another noble lord, our Patron, has had the kindness and generosity 
to invite the members and subscribers to visit his house and grounds, 
(cheers), where they will have the opportunity of seeing the per- 
fection to which high art can attain, under the patronage of the 
most consummate taste, I am sure those who are assembled here, 
and look around this room, who listen to the papers that will be 
read, and follow our excursions, will not be disaj^pointed. The 
difficulty will be to find time to inspect the objects of interest that 
will be presented. With these remarks I beg to introduce Mr. 
Lukis, who will read the report of the Society for the last twelve 
months, and thereby give you some idea of our position and progress. 


" The Committee of the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, in presenting their annual Report, deem that it 
will be sufficient on the present occasion, to place before the meeting 
a brief statement of the position of the Society, at the close of the 
second year of its existence. 

It has made a most satisfactory progress since its formation in 
the year 1853. At the period of the Inaugural Meeting in the 

Society's Report. 5 

October of tliat year, the members numbered 137. At our second 
general meeting, held in Salisbury last year, they reached the 
number of 281 ; and up to the present time the total number of 
persons who have been admitted is 375, being an increase of 94 
during the last twelve months. We have to regret the loss by 
decease of 4 Life Members, and of 3 Annual Subscribers, and by 
withdrawal or removal from the county of 13 Annual Subscribers ; 
leaving a total at the present time of 355, of whom 20 are Life 

With reference to our financial position, A^our Committee have to 
report that the subscriptions and donations have amounted, during 
the year, to £354 15.s. 7d. ; the disbursements to £227 lis. 2d. ; 
we have in hand, £134 ISs-. lid., and arrears of subscriptions, 
£97 lOs'. 6d. Many subscriptions having continued unpaid, it 
was resolved at a committee meeting held in Devizes, June 20th, 
1855, that forms of receipt should be printed and supplied to the 
local secretaries, who were also requested to collect subscriptions 
from members residing in their respective districts. By these 
means manj^ arrears and subscriptions have been gathered in, which 
it would have been found difficult and troublesome to obtain in any 
other way. 

The Committee desire to impress upon the consideration of the 
members the necessity of their zealous co-operation. The objects 
which the Society has in view are so extensive, viz. — the collection 
of accurate information on the Archaeology, Ecclesiology, and 
Natural History of the entire county, that without such co-opera- 
tion, it will be impossible for the Committee to prosecute their 
labours with success, or to accomplish that which the members in 
general expect from. them. We look to you for materials for our 
Magazine, and we would even invite those gentlemen residing in 
the county, or possessing subjects of interest relating to it, who are 
not members of the Society, to communicate with us. It is sometimes 
not convenient, or possible, for them to incur the risk and expense 
of printing their collections, whereas at a trifling cost to themselves 
for postage, and by means of our Magazine, they nuiy make known 
much very valuable information. However essential the subscrip- 
tions of the members may be for the support of the Society, its 

Third General Meeting. 

labours can only be properly continued, and its objects successfully 
attained, by the intelligent co-operation of your minds. 

Whilst, therefore, the objects which the Society has in view, 
would be greatly facilitated by a stricter attention to the rule 
which relates to the regular payment of annual subscriptions, the 
publications themselves would be rendered more valuable and 

It is to be regretted that several works of interest which were 
alluded to at our former general meetings, as desirable to be pub- 
lished, have not been undertaken in consequence of the non-payment 
of arrears." 

At the conclusion of the Report, the President called upon the 
Rev. J. E. Jackson to read his Paper " On the History of Chip- 
penham," printed in a subsequent page. The town being one of 
those in the northern part of the county, which had not hitherto 
been made the subject of close topographical research, the greater 
part of the information contained in this paper was new, and ap- 
peared to be received by the audience with much satisfaction. At 
its conclusion 

The M.A.RQUIS of L.^N'SDOWXE said he had heard with very great 
interest the ample account of Chippenham which had just been read, 
and he wished to detain them for one moment in reference to it. 
They must be aware of the vast amount of research, labor, and 
diligence, which Mr. Jackson had bestowed on the subject ; and 
certainly the history of any district was never more fully opened 
and distinctly traced, than that of Chippenham had been to-day; 
and they were indebted to him for the interest it attached to that 
meeting. The neighbourhood of Chippenham having never been 
explored before, this essay would remain as a permanent record, 
both as to the families and localities of the place. He was sure 
they would allow him to propose that the thanks of the meeting be 
presented to Mr. Jackson. 

The Pre.sident said that for his part he did not anticipate such 
an account as they had now heard of Chippenham and its locality, 
— not one word of which he had ever heard before, and which Le 
believed must have been new to every one present. 

Third General Meeting. 7 

The Rev. J. Wilkinson, of Broughton GifFord, then read a 
paper on "Parochial Ilialorics," the purport of which was to recom- 
mend that (under the sanction and direction of the Bishop), a 
history of each parish should be compiled by its clergyman, the 
whole, when finished, forming a complete county history. As a 
precedent for this, he referred largely to a " History of Scotland," 
that had been compiled in this way, under the supervision of the 
Kirk Session. The thing was perfectly pracficable, the clergy 
were the best, and indeed the only qualified j^ersons to write such 
parochial histories ; the scheme had the sanction of the Bishop ; 
and he (Mr. Wilkinson) hoped to see it speedily carried out. 

This paper which will also be found in exfemo, in the present 
number, closed the morning's proceedings. After inspecting the 
articles in the Museum, the company dined together at the Angel Inn. 
About 150 ladies and gentlemen assembled under the liveh^ presi- 
dency of H. A. Jlerewether, Esq., Recorder of Devizes. At the 
evening meeting in the Town Hall, Mr. Scrope having again taken 
the chair, the Rev. Prebendary Fane read a paper on Edington 
Church, and Mr. Merewether another on the Abbeys of Lacock 
and Stanley, and the Priory of Lockswell. 


It had been doubted whether Chippenham would be a favorable 
spot to be selected for the meeting of an Arch geological Association, 
the town itself being certainly not rich in objects of curious interest. 
But the experiment proved successful beyond all anticipation. As 
a central position, easily accessible by railways, with a neighbour- 
hood abounding in resident influential gentry, and by no means 
destitute of antiquities of various kinds ; the result showed, that, 
perhaps no better place of meeting could have been selected. The 
time was limited to three days, whereas, it turned out that a week 
would scarcely have sufficed for visiting, in detail, all that the bill 
of fare presented for the entertainment of the company. 

Perhaps no holiday was ever more thoroughly enjo3'ed than 
Wednesday. The noble owner of Bowood had announced his in- 
tention of receiving the Society, of which he is Patron ; and never 
was intention more hospitably fulfilled. 

8 Third General Meeting. 

The place and hour of meeting having been announced, the 
excursionists were left to choose their own course thither, amongst 
the several routes pointed out in the programme. Some took the 
way by Corsham Court, which, by the kindness of Lord Methuen, 
was thrown open for inspection. The celebrated collection of pic- 
tures was, as might be expected, the chief point of attraction, but 
the recent addition of several fine rooms and halls, has enabled his 
Lordship to set forth a number of other interesting objects, with 
the examination of which the visitors were highly gratified. The 
grounds also, around the house, filled with fine cedars, and forest 
trees of many kinds, of which the noble owner is a most diligent 
protector, combine to render Corsham Court one of the most com- 
plete of English baronial residences. 

Lacock Abbey was the next rendezvous. The peculiarity of this 
house consists in its being, in some respects, unaltered since the 
days when it was occupied by a convent of nuns. It has indeed 
undergone considerable change ; but the cloistered quadrangle 
stands almost exactly as it used to be ; and some parts also of the 
chapel, and the kitchen still remain. Mr. Fox Talbot and his family 
were absent from home ; but a general order had been left for 
unlimited range over the apartments and pleasure grounds ; and 
domestics were everywhere in attendance, who, with an unwearied 
civilitv, continued for some hours to point out to the numerous 
visitors, every thing that w^as worth seeing and that they wished 
to see. They had however, another, and a most agreeable cicerone 
in Mr. H. Merewether, whose residence being close to Lacock, 
enabled him to undertake the office of interpreter, with a more 
familiar knowledge of the subject than others could be expected to 
possess ; and we need not add, in a vein of humorous desci'iption, 
that in no degree diminished the pleasure of the listeners. 

From Lacock Abbey the company proceeded up Bowden Hill, 
through Captain Gladstone's grounds, Spye Park, and thence to 

Here they were received with a cordial welcome by the noble 
Marquis and his family, and were immediately introduced into the 
house, to examine at leisure the multitude of rare and beautiful 

Third General Meeting. 9 

•works of art witli which it is so richly stored. The Earl of Shelburne 
and the Rev. Mr. Guthrie, of Calne, chaplain to Lord Lansdowne, 
kindly attended to point out and explain the pictvires ; but the throng 
was so great that it was not easy to come within reach of them, 
nor indeed, had the whole day been given to this occupation alone, 
would it have been a moment too long for the purpose ; for few are 
the mansions of our nobility or gentry, that can vie with Bowood 
in the variety and niunber of works of art, all of the most tasteful 
selection, that have been gathered together under this roof by its 
present distinguished owner. But other occupation now awaited 
the archaeologists ; and the ringing of a bell summoned them to 
make acquaintance with the interior of an immense tent, erected 
upon the lawn. The noble Marquis, followed by the members of 
his family, and personal friends, led the way, and in a few moments 
the large company, not less than 300, found themselves seated at 
an exquisite entertainment. When it was over the noble host 
addressed the company in a few words. Taking advantage of the 
news just arrived of the fall of Sebastopol, he called upon them to 
drink the health of the Queen and the Emperor, and the united 
gallant armies and navies of England and France. One more toast 
was given, by Mr. G. P. Scrope, the health of the noble Marquis 
himself, who, in acknowledging it, expressed the real pleasure which 
he felt in seeing his visitors, and kindly requested them to amuse 
themselves in and about his house and pleasure groimds, so long as 
might be agreeable; and they would find tea and coffee ready for 
them in the course of the evening. Of this permission the company 
then availed themselves ; and we can truly say that never was a 
holiday more admirably conducted by a host, or more thoroughly 
enjoyed by the guests. To name the company is impossible, for it 
included the whole neighbourhood. 

In the evening the Mayor and Corporation of Chippenham gave 
a Conversazione at the Town Hall. The large room, as well as a 
smaller one adjoining, was filled with various illustrations of 
Wiltshire antifjuities, the examination of which supplied great 
amusement to a crowded assembly. The Rev. Mr. Bingliani, of 
Redcliffu Church, read a portion of a paper on ecclesiastical sculp- 


10 TJdrd General Meeting. 

ture; after which John Lambert, Esq. entertained the company 
with an exceedingly interesting lecture on the Music of the Middle 
Ages, of which he gave practical examples by the aid of a piano- 
forte, accompanied by his own excellent voice. This lecture being 
quite novel, and most scientifically treated, was received with 
universal approbation. 


The example of Wednesday was followed ; and, indeed, the pro- 
fusion of kind hospitality that attended this congress at Chippenham, 
was almost bewildering. On Thursday, the signal for assembling 
was hoisted at Castle Combe, by Mr. G. P. Scrope; and at Draycote 
House by Yiscount Wellesley. Those who chose the former, took 
the route by Lanhill Farm, at Allington, occupied by Mr. Edward 
Little, and the property of Mr. Neeld. Here was to be examined 
an ancient timiulus, known by the name of " Hubba's Lowe," and 
supposed to be the mound under which had been buried the famous 
Danish General of that name, who, according to one of our chroni- 
cles, had been killed in the reign of King Alfred, in a fight close 
to Chippenham. The "Lowe" (which means mound), had been 
already laid open, and several graves brought to light. They consist 
of rude cells, formed with large rough slabs of the country ; but 
the mound which was originally very long and of oval shape, being 
formed entirely of stones, all laid with the hand and not promis- 
cuously thrown together, had been so sadly pulled to pieces, many 
3^ears ago, by non-archaeological surveyors of the highways, for the 
sake of the materials, that we are afraid Hubba's remains have long 
since disappeared, even if they were ever there, which is doubtful. 
Mr. Scrope explained to the company the history of the spot and 
the tradition, as old as Leland (1540), which assigned it to the 
Danish leader of this name. But Dr. Thurnam, of Devizes, who 
has given much attention to these subjects, expressed his opinion 
to be that it was a British tumulus, and had probably been erected 
long before the Danish invasion. It was one that had required 
considerable time and trouble in erection, and therefore not likely 
to have been placed over a chieftain fallen in battle, whose burial 

Third General Meeting. 11 

would be hasty. A few fragments of human bones and a flint arrow 
head were found upon this occasion. From " Hubba's Lowe " the 
party set forth to inspect the site of Slaughterford and Bury Camp, 
which another tradition pronounces to have been the scene of a 
battle with the Danes, as well as Yatton Down, which Whitaker 
considers to have been the Ethandun of Alfred's great victory, 
although it is placed by others either at Headington, near Calne, or, 
with more probability, at Edington, near Westbury. But the rain 
coming on put an end to this exploration ; so the party proceeded 
at once to Castle Combe. Here, notwithstanding the weather, the 
more zealous, ladies as well as gentlemen, visited the fine old posi- 
tion on which the ancient Castle of the Dunstanvilles formerly stood, 
lying about half a mile beyond the present mansion house ; and 
thence crossed the valley which forms the pleasui'e grounds, to 
inspect a cromlech and mound, near the Foss Road, known by the 
name of Lugbury. Labourers had been already at work, and had 
arrived at three interments, nearly perfect. The company then 
adjourned to a tent in Mr. Scrope's grounds, where about a hundred 
sat down to an excellent collation, highly consolatory under the 
adverse circumstances of the weather. This being disposed of, Dr. 
Thurnam entered into an explanation of the discoveries at Lugbury 
cromlech ; and with numerous addresses from Mr. Scrope, the Rev. 
Mr. Fane, of Warminster, and Mr. Britton, who, at the age of 85, 
made a gallant response to the toast of the "Beauties of Wiltshire," 
the afternoon passed pleasantly away. They then inspected Castle 
Combe church, where Mr. Fane gave an extempore lecture for 
nearly an hour, upon architecture, as illustrated by the building 
before them. 

Mr. Lambert, of Salisbury, was so kind as to continue the subject 
of his lecture on Mediaeval !Music, by further illustration upon the 
church organ. After these agreeable efforts, and further refresh- 
ments at the house, this party returned at night to Chippenham. 
Another party had gone, either direct or taking a tour by Braden- 
stoke Abbey or Malmesbury, to Draycote House, where they first 
inspected the church. This is an interesting building, chiefly of 
early English character, and contains several memorials of the 

c 2 

12 Third General Meeting. 

Cerne and Long families ; also a brass of the date of about 1380. 
They then proceeded to the house, where, in the absence of the 
noble owner, Lord Wellesley, unluckily detained from home, they 
were by his special direction most sumptuously entertained. After 
the repast had been duly discussed, Mr. Sergeant Wrangham called 
upon the company to make their hearty acknowledgments for the 
noble Viscoimt's hospitable entertainment, which they did with a 
thorough cordiality. Draycote House contains many objects of 
interest, such as paintings, ancient and modern ; a collection of fine 
fossils, some beautiful Sevres china, a pair of curious fire-place 
" dogs," and candelabra, presented to the Longs by King Charles 
II. after the Restoration. The Park is one of the finest in North 
Wiltshire, richly studded with ancient oaks, and crowning a hill 
from which is an extensive prospect. The party then retui-ned home, 
and with these various and well sustained festivities, ended this 
annual meeting of the Wiltshire archaeologists. 

Other excursions had been projected to Chalfield, South Wraxhall, 
and Kingston House, Bradford ; and hospitalities were kindly pro- 
vided by the Rev. J. WUkinson, of Broughton, and other gentlemen : 
but it was found absolutely impossible in the time allowed for the 
meeting, for the visitors to avail themselves thereof. 


51 tbl nf 5lrtirlr0 (ExjjihitEi 

m THE 


September 11th, 1855. 

Those marked with an Asterisk have been presented to the Society. 

By G. Potjletx Sceope, Esq., Castle Combe: — 

The Gore Chartulary, a fine illustrated folio voliune, in the handwriting 
of Thomas Gore, of Alderton, the Wiltshire Antiquary, who died in 1684 ; 
containing the genealogy of his own family, and copies of all the ancient 
charters and other deeds, relating to their estates in several parishes, as 
Luckington, Alderton, Hullavington, West Kington, &c. See Mr. Scrope's 
" History of Castle Combe," p. 311. 

Copy of the " History of Castle Combe." 

" Geology of France." 
By Hin^'GEBFOED Pollen, Esq., Rodhourne : — 

Bronze figui-e of a knight on horseback. 
By p. a. Lovell, Esq., Colcpark, Malmeshury : — 

A magnificent MS. Latin Bible in 4 volumes, large folio, written on 
vellum, with the initial letters, &c. exquisitely iUuminated. 
By Rev. J. E, Jackson, Leigh Delamere: — 

Portrait of Margaret [HaUiday], wife of Sir Edward Hungerford, of 
Corsham, K.B., and foundress of Corsham Almshouse, who died a.d. 1672. 
Paintings: — Of Farleigh Castle as it appeared in 1645; interior of the 
Chapel in its present state ; old Manor House at Norton, near Malmesbiuy, 
and South Wraxhall Manor House. Two Drawings, showing the exterior 
and interior of Leigh Delamere old Church, taken down in 1846. Also 
portion of an ancient Cope of velvet, with embroidery, representing the 
Crucifixion, now used as a pidpit cloth in HuUavington chiuch. On this, 
the Redeemer is represented in the centre suspended on the cross, with 
angels catching the blood in chalices ; the velvet ground is powdered over 
with angels with outspread wings, standing on stars of Bethlehem, with 
fleurs-de-lis, and a curiously flowered pattern. Sec "Archaeological Jour- 
nal, Vol L, p. 330, 

14 The Museum. 

By Rev. "W. C. Lukis, F.S.A., Collinghourne Ducis: — 

Small drinking Cup of coarse pottery, and Bead of Kimmeridge Coal, 
found, with the hody of an infant, in a harrow at Collingho\irne Ducis. 
Seven Beads, (two of jet), portion of a Bone instrument, fragments of coarse 
Pottery, and a remarkable human Jaw, from other barrows; also an ancient 
British Silver Coin, and several others, together with a Flint Celt, all found 
in the same Parish. Bronze, Iron, and Ivory articles, found in a Roman 
ViUa at Great Bedwyn. 
Bt F. a. Caeeington, Esq. , Oghourne St. George : — 

An extensive and miscellaneous collection of Antiquities, consisting of 
MSS., impressions from Moniunental Brasses, Coins, Medals, &c. 

MSS. — An illuminated Breviary, temp. Edw. III. A small volume of 
Law Forms, temp. Edw. II. Lists of Wilts Magistrates, temp. Rich. III. 
and Charles II. 

Brass Rubbings. — Thomas and Johan Goddard, (1517), Ogbourne St. 
George. John Seymour, (1514) ; and inscriptions to Thomas Dogeson, 
(1501), and Edward Lord Beauchamp, (1664), Great BedwjTi. WiUiam 
Bayly, (1427), and incised inscription to Frances Cripps, (1646), Berwick 
Basset. Edward Seymoiir, aged 11 months, (1631), Collingbourne Ducis. 
Robert Weare alias Browne, (1570), Marlborough. Francis Rutland and 
Wife, (1592), Chiseldon. Thomas Polton and Wife, (1418), and an in- 
scription in the Belfry, (1435), Wanborough. John Bailey and Wife, (1518), 
Preshute. Rev. Thomas Alcock, (incised inscription), (1664), Broadhinton. 
Henry Frekylton, (1508), and incised effigy to John Stone, (15 . . ?), Aldbourne. 

Sword of John Banning, of Burbage, Wilts, and of Magd. Coll., Oxon. ; 
B.A. 1630, M.A. 1634. Specimens of Encaustic Tiles, from Wick, near 
Marlborough, Buildwas Abbey, and St. Chad's Church, Stafford. Drawings 
of Flags in Charles Ist's army, at the muster at Aldbourne, in 1644. Im- 
pressions from the Seals of Great Bedwyn, Worcester, and Stafford. Draw- 
ing of a Coffin Lid at Broad Hinton. List of Wiltshire Gentry fined by 
Charles I. Shells of Helix Pomatia, a species of snail used by the Romans 
in soups. Bronze Jug from Pompeii, &c., &c. 
Bt Miss Applefoed, Oghourne St. George : — 

Cribbage Board, with legend, temp. Charles I. Alms Bag, of Beads, 
with date 1632. Egg-shaped Watch, made by Grinkin of London, temp, 
Charles I. Ladies shoes of the last century. 
By Rev. J. Bliss, Oghourne St. Andrew : — 

Spectacles formerly belonging to, and used by the poet Cowper. 
By Rev. G . A. Biedeemann, Dauntsey : — 

Mediaeval Painting on wood, representing the great Doom, found beneath 
some plaster in the chancel-arch of Dauntsey Church. Two twisted co- 
lumns of oak, with richly carved capitals, dug up under an old house near 
Malmesbury Abbey. Two stone Candlesticks found at Bradenstoke Abbey. 
Sundry Fossils including some remains of large Saurians from the strata 
of the neighbourhood. 
By Me. E. W. Godwin, Bristol: — 

Drawings, (accompanied by a written description), of a Roman Tesselated 
Pavement found at Colerne. Also some remains of Pottery. 

The Museum. 15 

By the DrRECTOES of the Bath Liteeakt Institxttion : — 

A collection of early antiqmties, consisting of Spear-heads, Celts, Fibulae, 
Armlets, &c. 
By J. B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., Parliament Street, London: — 

Chasuble, (probably of the 13th century). 
By John Beitton, Esq., Burton Street, London: — 

Several elaborate Photographs of the west front of Wells Cathedral, and 
one of the doorways of the west front of Exeter Cathedral, by — Bird, Esq. 

Sketches and Drawings of the Cloister, Kitchen, Chapel, &c., at Lacock 
Abbey, and Lacock Church ; Chippenham Church and Town ; Avebury and 
Stonehenge ; Kington St. Michael Church, Almshouses, and the house in 
which Mr. Britton was born ; Malmesbury Abbey, &c. Also Prints and 

Autograph Letters and Papers by John Aubrey, Dr. Stukeley, and 
Bishop Tanner. 

A model of Stonehenge, made by Joseph Brown of Amesbury, for Mr, 
Britton, being a careful representation of all the stones, together with 
those in the embankment, &c. 

Roll of Furniture in the Castle of Coleshill, Warwickshire, written on 
parchment, the one side in 1584, and the other in 1684. 
By Eet. E. C. Awdey, Grittleton : — 

A series of rubbings of Monumental Brasses, comprising some of the 
finest and earliest specimens of these memorials, remaining in England ; 
amongst which may be noticed the magnificent brass of Thomas Delamere, 
Abbot of St. Albans, (engraved probably about 1360), in the Abbey church 
of that place. The early military brasses of Sir John D'Aubernoun, (1277), 
at Stoke Dabernon, Surrey ; and Sir Roger de Trumpington, (1289), at 
Trumpington, Cambridgeshire. Also some Wiltshii-e specimens from the 
churches of Bromham, ClyfFe-Pypard, Lacock, Dauntsey, Draycote, and 
Salisbury ; with others from Fairford in Gloucester, and Oxford. 
By Robeet Cole, Esq., F.S.A., Up2ier Norton Street, London: — 

A MS. Psalter of the 13th century, in the original oak binding. * A 
ctirious and rare work on aquatic animals, by Francis Boussuet, published 
at Leyden, a.d. 1558. It is illustrated with many well executed wood- 
cuts, and the original Latin verse is considerably augmented by the addition 
of manuscript notes in an ancient handwriting. A valuable collection of 
autograph Letters, &c. 
By De. Thuenam, F.S.A., Devizes: — 

Arrow-heads and Knife of flint ; Beads of glass and Kimmeridge coal ; 
Pins of ivory and bone ; small Cup of baked clay ; all from early British 
barrows near Wansdyke and Shepherd's Shore. 
By H. J. F. SwAYNE, Esq., Stratford:— 

Knife and Fork of the 17th century, lately found behind the wainscot of 
a room in the Saracen's Head Inn, Blue Boar Row, Salisbury : the property 
of Henry Cooper, Esq., Salisbury. 
By Rev. O. T. Maesu, Sutton Benger : — 

A hundred specimens of Stuffed Birds, found mostly in Wiltshire. 

16 The Museum. 

Amongst the more remarkable specimens Mr. Marsh particularizes the 
following, viz.: — 

"1. The golden-winged Woodpecker ; killed in Amesbiiry Park in the 
autumn of 1836. No other specimen of this bird has been recorded as killed 
in England, nor has it appeared in any published work on British Birds : 
it is a native of North America. 

2. "Wilson's Petrel ; this bird was picked iip dead at Sutton Benger, 
in the autiuun of 1849. It has been met with very rarely on the coast : 
no other specimen ever recorded for Wiltshire. 

3. The Hawfinch ; this bird was killed at Winterslow, in the year 1832. 
It is rare. 

4. The Hoopoe ; killed at Winterslow in the year 1830. Very rare in 
Wiltshire and in England. 

5. The Great Shrike ; killed near Malmesbury in the year 1837. A 
very rare bird in Wiltshire. 

6. The Crossbill ; large flocks of this bird were seen in North Wilts in 
the year 1837. 

7. The Ringed Dottrel ; rare in Wiltshire ; killed near Malmesbury in 

8. The Mountain Finch ; killed at Bowood, 1838. 

9. Montagu's Harrier ; killed at Somerford Common, 1839. 

10. A rare species of diver ; killed at Salisbury, 1830. 

11. Rough-legged Buzzard ; kUled at Grittenham wood, 1840. 

12. Pied Flycatcher ; killed at Ford in 1837." 
By Miss Meredith, Bromham: — 

A specimen of the Great Northern Diver, caught at Chittoe in November, 
Bt Mr. CuNNrsGTON, F.G.S., Devizes: — 

A very perfect specimen of Ichthyosaurus Intermedins, seven feet six 
inches in length, from the Lias of the neighboui'hood of Glastonbury. 

Five cases, containing about 500 specimens of Fossil EchLnoderms from 
the Corn-brash, Coral-rag, Upper Green Sand, and Chalk of Wiltshire. 

A series of large Saiu'ian Bones and Teeth, from the Kimmeridge Clay of 

Some new specimens of Ammonites from the Chalk Marl of North Wilts. 

Three volumes of the publications of the Palceontographical Society, 
containing engravings of Wiltshire Fossils. 
Bt Mr. H. Weaver, Bevershrook, Cable : — 

A collection of Coral-rag and Chalk-marl Fossils ; also a small case con- 
taining a series of Roman Coins, about 35 in niuuber. 
Bt Mr. CoLBORNE, Chip2}enhum : — 

Several specimens of Encaustic Tile, from Chippenham Chiirch and 
Bradenstoke Abbey . 

Engraving of G. Poulett Scrope, Esq. 
ITy Rev. D. Malcolm Clerk, Kingston Deverill: — 

Curious instrument of bronze, probably a curry-comb or scraper (strigilis) 
used by the Romans whilst in the baths. Tobacco stopper temp, Jas. I. 

The Musemn. 17 

By Mr. C. Moore, F.G.S., Cambridge Place, Bath: — 

A series of Fossil Fishes of the genus Pachycormus ; ditto of the genus 
Leptolepis ; a Cuttle Fish from the Lias ; Fossil Lobster, Prawn, and Shrimp ; 
two Fossil Teleosaiiri ; a pair of Ej'es belonging to an Ichthyosaiu'iis ; a 
series of Fossil Insects from the Lias and Tertiary beds ; a series of Brachi- 
podous Shells, and Fossil Foramenifera ; the latter arranged in. glass tubes 
with enlarged di'avrings. 
Bt Mk. Howitt, Devizes: — 

Plaster Cast (from a squeezing in clay) of a beautiful Finial, of early 
English date, from the monument of Bishop Bridport, (1262), in Salisbiuy 
By Mb. J. Peovis, Chijyjwnham : — 

An original portrait of Thomas Hobbes, born at Malmesbury, 1588, died, 
1679 ; large engraving from Michael Angelo's celebrated painting of the 
Last Judgment ; coloured drawing of Bowood House. Sixty specimens of 
Fossils from the Oxford clay ; also some interesting remains of Mammalia, 
from the drift of North Wilts. Two cases containing plaster Casts of 
Grecian antiquities. 
By Mr. Alfsed Keene, Bath : — 

Portfolio of coloiired Drawings, including views of Farleigh Castle and 
Chapel; Maud Heath's Pillar atWickHiU; Malmesbury Abbey; the Churches 
of Great ChalHeld and Bremhill ; South WraxhaU Manor House ; tomb of 
Inverto BosweU, Idng of the Gypsies, in Calne churchyard ; Fountain at 
Derry HiU, &c. 
By Me. Bkackstone, Lyncomhe Hill, Bath: — 

A cube of stone, with three of its sides engraved as if for a seal ; one side 
represents a lion, another a wolf or dog ; the third has a lion fuU-faced, 
with a stag in front of it, and in the foreground a lamb. It was found in 
July, 1852, in the garden of the late Mr. GiUer, at Corsham. 

An ancient sword, four feet in length, the hilt inlaid with silver, foiind 
in cleaning out the moat surrounding the ancient manor house at Eiugton 
Langley, Wilts ; also a large iron key found at the same time. 

An oblong piece of polished flint, found, together with a beautifully 
formed arrow-head of the same material, in grubbing up an ash tree on 
some waste land at Pick Rudgc, in the parish of Overton, Wilts, 1848. 

Bronze sword, dagger, and axe, from the counties of Tyrone and Donegal, 
By Me. Spencee, Bowood: — 

• Fossil teeth and tusk of Elephas primigenius, found at Foxham ; also a 
collection of Fossils from the Coral-rag, Kimmeridge clay, and Oxford clay 
of the neighbourhood of Chippenham. 
By J. Eawlence, Esq., Wilton: — 

A personal Seal, formed of an antique intaglio set in silver, A\-ith mcdiasval 
By a. Ogee, Esq., Melksham : — 

A desk Seal, engraved \vith the arms of Trapncll, of Groat Challiold. 
By Rev, G. Faeley, Chcrhill: — 

A small collection of Fossils from the chalk. 

18 The Museum. 

By Mr. R. Beotitebitood, Chippenham : — 

A numerous collection of Fossils and Minerals from the strata of North 
Wilts ; also some fine Mammalian remains from the drift of the same district. 
Bt Mk. Thomas Hill, Nettleton : — 

Fragments of armour, weapons, horse-trappings, &c., found in a tomb or 
vault formed by a wall five feet in thickness, at the south side of the Priory 
Farm house, Nettleton. 
By Me. H. Gale, Chippenham : — 

A limb of fossil oak from the railway cutting near Kellaways. 
By Mr. A. P. Holland, Devizes : — 

A collection of rubbings from monumental brasses, chiefly in the counties 
of Wiltshire and Gloucestershire. 

The following information respecting the ancient Bible exhibited by P. Audley 
Lovell, Esq., and mentioned in the foregoing list, p. 13, arrived too late for 
insertion in that place. 

It is an exquisite maniiscript probably of the foiirteenth century, and appears 
to have been executed on the continent. The initial letters contain representa- 
tions of various saints, in gilt and rich colours. According to a note inserted in 
the title-page of one of the volumes, it appears to have belonged originally to 
a foreign convent of Carthusians. It was brought to England a.d. 1407, and 
deposited probably in the library of Malmesbury Abbey, from whence it passed 
into the hands of an ancestor of the present owner, by whom some of the Abbey 
property, including a Manor House formerly occupied by the Abbots, was piir- 
chased from the crown at the dissolution of religious houses, temp. Hen. VIII. 
The manuscript is in excellent preservation, and each volume retains the ancient 
wooden binding. 


(i)n tlje IBmtarii nf Cjiifptnljcm. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 

I HAVE chosen the History of Chippenham for a paper upon this 
occasion for two reasons : first, because the Wiltshire Archeeologists 
have done the town the honour of chusing it for their Annual 
Meeting ; and next, because as a topographical subject, it has not 
been much investigated before. Though it may not contain much 
that is curious or remarkable, still the place has a history. The 
difficulty has been where to find it; for, in most of our more 
ancient authorities, local memoranda are excessively rare. A short 
reference to ancient times will be necessary ; but only so far as to 
enable you the better to understand the original condition of this 
neighbourhood, without which it is impossible to throw a proper 
light upon the early history of the town itself. 

Every one knows that Britain, as ovir island was at first called, 
was visited in turn, by what an old writer calls four eoourgea ;^ the 
Romans, the Saxons, the Danes, and the Normans. 

The Britons. 
Of the primitive state of this part of Wiltshire before the first 
scourge fell upon it, there can be very little doubt. It was covered 
with forest, cleared here and there by a scanty population, and 
affording the finest hunting ground — not for fox-hunting, which, 
in its present style at least, is a modern invention — ^but deer hunting. 
If any body could have been found to foUow him so far, a stag 
might have run, almost without leaving shelter, from North Wilts 
to the lower part of Hampshire. Of this long, and as it must have 
been, beautiful range of open forest scenery, the names and traces 
are still left in the forests of Braden, (which came down as low as 

' Henry of Huntingdon. 

T) 2 

20 On the History of Chippenham. 

Bradenstokc,) Calne and Bowood, Chippenham and Pewsham, 
Blackmore, Selwood, Groveley, Gilliugliam, Cranbourn Chase, and 
the New Forest. At no great distance we still have Savernake 
and Marlborough Forest, probably a fair sample of what the whole 
must have been. It is quite certain that no county in England 
has been at all times more famous for field sports than this, from 
the days of King Arthur, to those of His Grace the Duke of Beaufort. 
If venison is good living, these old Wiltshii-e Britons lived well. 
It is scarcely possible to open a barrow upon the Downs, without 
finding by the side of the skeleton the heads of hunting spears, or 
bones and horns of deer ; so that it woidd almost seem that they 
not only lived upon venison, but sometimes died of it. Thriving 
on such fare very happily in their own way, they were interrupted, 
B.C. 65, by the lash of the first scourge, viz. : — 

The Romans. 

There is no mention of Chippenham in the Commentaries of 
Julius Caesar, for several good reasons, of which two will suffice. 
First ; because, in his time, there was probably no such place, 
certainly no such name : and next, even if there was such a place, 
Caesar did not come into Wiltshire to look at it. It may be added, 
that even if he had come so far and had described it, I do not 
know that we should be bound to put implicit faith in his descrip- 
tion. For though Ca)sar was undoubtedly a very great soldier, he 
was also occasionally given to story telling. He has been 
convicted of this by (amongst others), a Wiltshire clergyman, 
of this very neighbourhood, the late Bev. Henry Barry, Rector 
of Draycote, in a little treatise called " Caesar and the Britons." 
Mr. Barry maintains, ingeniously and with much learning, that 
the Britons could not have been the absolute savages described 
by Csesar; and though, perhaps, Mr. Barry may have ridden 
his own hobby a little too far into the opposite extreme, and 
would appear to attribute to them a higher degree of civilization 
than they are likely to have possessed; still he points out great 
misrepresentations in Caesar's narrative. 

Caesar was an invader, but not a conqueror. He was forced 
to retire ; and as soon as the Britons had driven him out, they 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 21 

became as independent as before. The real conquest was by 
Claudius, 62 years after Christ ; and luider the Romans this 
island remained until a.d. 450. Not that Chippenham so re- 
mained; for, (as just observed), of any town or even village having 
been on this site during the presence of the Roman scourge, 
no trace seems to have been discovered. In the neighbourhood 
there are several marks of Roman habitation ; as at Studley, 
Bromhara, Lacock, Box, and Colerne ; (the remains of villas 
at the two latter places being at this moment open for inspec- 
tion) ; near Bath, of course, very frequent ; but at Chippen- 
ham, so far as I know, nothing. Devizes rejoices in a Roman 
name — a mark of the scourge : but, (as will presently be ex- 
plained), that of Chippenham is Saxon ; and, therefore, later 
than Roman. The site of the town is between, and at some dis- 
tance from, two great Roman roads; the Foss on the north, which 
ran from Bath by North "VVraxhall and Sherston ; and another on 
the south, which went from Bath by Neston, and a little south 
of Lacock, through Spy Park, past Wans House and Hedding- 
ton, to Marlborough. No main road passed over the site itself; 
so that as there is no Roman " Chippenham Station" to stop at, 
we may go on to the next scourge. 

The Saxons from a.d. 450. 
It is to the early part of the Anglo-Saxon period, that Chip- 
penham seems capable of being traced ; the name is undoubtedly 
of Saxon date ; and, as to its meaning, there is no difficulty. It 
is not spelled quite in the original way ; but names are often 
spelled as they are pronounced. Railway pronunciation has reduced 
it to two syllables — " Chip'nam : " and, on their labels, for the 
sake of still greater despatch in business, they have even shortened 
it to one — "Chip." In so doing, however, (though without any 
design to restore the Anglo-Saxon tongue in its purity), they are 
really returning to that which is called, in grammar, the root 
of the word. In Saxon, c-e-a-p, pronounced cheap, signifies 
goods of any kind, cattle, or whatever is bought and sold ; and tlio 
place where the buying and selling went on, was culled — " the 
chepyng." The word is still retained in some of our towns, as 

22 On the History of Chippenham. 

Chipping Sodbury and Chipping Norton. In London, wc have 
Cheap-side and East Cheap. In Bath, we have Cheap street ; and 
all who go to buy, with the laudable design of making a good 
bargain, are still so far Anglo-Saxon, that they do their best to 
" cheapen" their purchases. The word "chepying" continued to 
be used for " market " long after the Saxon period. In the first 
English translation of the Bible, by Wycliffe, about 1330, the 
text in St. Matthew, (xi. 16), which is now translated "It is 
like vmto children sitting in the market," is rendered "It is like 
unto children sitting in chepyng." 

"Ham," the last syllable, is also Saxon, signifying either a 
house, a farm, or a village. In the latter sense we still use it, in 
the diminutive, hamlet. Chepyng-ham, therefore, signifies neither 
more nor less than " market- village." 

How it came by the name will be obvious, when you recollect 
what has been already said as to the early state of this neighbour- 
hood ; that it was chiefly open forest, cleared here and there, and 
peopled by degrees. As numbers increased, some place of course 
woidd be required for buying and selling ; hence, judging from 
the name only, the origin of the town. But we have other 

If the old British natives, spoken of above, had one amusement 
— ^hunting, the Saxon kings had two — hunting and fighting. "When 
they were not doing the one, they were sure to be doing the other : 
and it is hard to say, to which of the two they were most addicted. 
The whole history, or nearly so, of the Saxon occupation of England, 
is a succession of wars, almost without ceasing. They fought for 
a long time to win the country, and "Wiltshire still bears marks of 
those battles, in its earthworks, camps, barrows, and the like, as so 
many stripes of the Saxon scourge. 

Ha\Taig at length got possession, they established, not as it is 
commonly said, seven — but eight separate kingdoms. One of 
those was the kingdom of "Wessex, or the "West Saxons. It 
included Berkshire, Hampshire, part of Devonshire, Somersetshire, 
and "Wiltshire. After many years of contest for supremacy, the 
Kings of Wessex became the masters of England ; and the last 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 23 

battle which made them so was fought at "Wilton. So long as 
there were eight petty kings, each resided within his own province, 
and the King of Wessex being as fond of field sports as hia 
predecessors, Hke them came to North "Wilts for that purpose. He 
had several hunting seats, and one at Chippenham ; for this is all that 
is meant by the Royal Palace which constant tradition has given 
to this place. It is not necessary to suppose that there was a 
"Windsor Castle here. The Windsor Castle of the King of Wessex 
was at Wiachester. Chippenham was his Balmoral, or his 

But why did he fix upon Chippenham? Simply, and without 
suggesting various reasons which your own partiality might 
approve, because it belonged to him. The Wessex crown had 
a very large property in this neighboui'hood, including the whole 
parish, or, as it would then be called — Manor, of Chippenham ; 
aU Cable, Bromham, Melksham, Corsham, and Warminster. 
These Manors together formed one noble demesne, of which the 
king was landlord. Whatever villages or farms may have been 
within it, were held directly of the crown, without any intermediate 
lord. Of course, wherever kings take up their residence, were it 
even in a wilderness, there will presently spring up the needfvJ 
establishment of followers and appurtenances ; a church and 
chaplains, farmers, labourers, mechanics, and the other materials 
of society. The places just named, of whatever size they were 
in Saxon times, (probably humble enough), must have owed their 
origin and growth to their dependence upon the crown of Wessex. 

Such, then, was the condition of this neighbourhood, when 
scourge the third suddenly fell upon England in the form of 

The Danes. 

These visitors also, like their predecessors, came from the northern 
coasts of Europe, Jutland and thereabouts, and made their first 
descent, A.n. 833. 

Not long after this. King Alfred was bom at Wantage, in Berk- 
shire. He was properly, and by family descent. King of Wessex ; 
but, by position. King of all England. His history, so well known, 
must only be alluded to so far as concerns the pi'esent subject. 

24 On the History of Chippenham. 

In A.D. 866, (Alfred being seventeen years old, and not yet 
king), a s^\'arm of these Danes settled on tlie east coast, under two 
leaders, Hungar and Hubba. They spent their winter where they 
landed ; and in the spring went to York, took it, and then came to 
Nottingham, where they wintered again. Then they turned their 
steps westward, taldng Reading in their line ; where they fought 
a battle at a place called, in the Saxon chronicles, Englefield, since 
called (probably from one of these two Danish chiefs) Hunger- ford. 
"After that," says one of the Chroniclers, (and here is the first 
time that this town is named,) " they fought at Chippenham ; and 
there was Hubba slain : and a great hepe of stones layed coppid 
up, where he was buried."^ 

There are in the neighbourhood, two or three ancient motmds, 
or burial places, which had been piled up, no doubt in memory of 
some event of this kind. One, a hundi'ed feet long, composed 
entirely of stones laid with the hand, is close to Badminton Park, 
on the side towards Alderton. Another stood, imtil lately, on the 
boimdary of the parishes of Leigh Delamere and Castle Combe, but 
being made of earth, and not of stones, it had no claim to the 
distinction of containing the remains of Hubba. 

The place hitherto supposed to be the one alluded to, and 
long called Hubba's Low, {Loiv being a corruption of hlaiv, the 
Saxon word for a burial place), stands three miles north-west of 
Chippenham, by the side of the road leading to Marshfield, in 
Lanhill mead, the property of Mr. Neeld. It corresponds exactly 
with the description in the Chronicle, being a large pile of stones, 
now covered with bushes and moss. Part of it was taken away 
some years ago : what remains has been opened during the present 

The Danish wars continued; Alfred becoming king in a.d. 871, 
defeated them in his first battle at Wilton ; afterwards he was less 
fortunate. In the seventh year of his reign, a.d. 878, they had got 
possession of the whole kingdom north of the Thames ; and even 

1 The Scala Chronica, quoted by Lcland, (Collect. II. p. 521). Another 
accoiuit says, that Ilubba was killed ou landing, at Appledorc, on the north 
coast of Devon. 


By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 25 

that, (says tlic Chronicle) they grudged him. In the winter of 
that year they advanced after Twelfth-night from the central 
part of England into Wessex, and took up their quarters at Chip- 
penham. From this place, they over-ran the country, driving the 
people out ; Alfred himself they forced to take refuge in the wild 
country (as it then was) about Athelney, below Glastonbury. 

Now, as Chippenham, from the nature of the case, could not 
have been at that time a place of any size, what could induce the 
Danish army to come here ? The answer seems very simple : they 
wished to catch the king at home. Here was his residence, in the 
middle of the royal demesne just described. That he did live here 
there is proof. His sister, iEthelswitha, was married at this place 
to the king of central England, then called Mercia ; and, (says the 
Latin authority), the nuptials were celebrated with royal splendour, 
*' in the villa regia, which is called Cippenham."^ 

Some topographical writers upon Wiltshire, without duly con- 
sidering the previous state of things, have been misled by these 
two words " villa regia," to describe Chippenham as having been 
at that time " a considerable city, one of the strongest and finest 
towns in England !" I cannot flatter your local vanity by con- 
firming that statement. There is in this immediate neighbour- 
hood, it is true, a highly respectable town, which, for some reason 
or other, assumes the privilege of bestowing upon its suburb the 
exalted title of " the City" ; but Chippenham is more modest than 
Melksham : and though, if any manor in England had a fair right 
to dignity of title, arising from connection with the Crown, this 
certainly had ; still, looking at the plain circumstances of the case, 
though a royal residence, it is simply absurd to suppose it to have 
been what we usually understand by a royal city. In the remote 
days now alluded to, it was only a liumble " Chepyng-ham," or 
market-village. But, being the king's own estate and residence, 
it would naturally be a point of chief attraction to a Danish 
army, wliosc first object would be, above all things, to pounce 
upon the crown itself. Further, as a military position, for winter 

' Lcland Coll. III. 280. Ex Chroiiioo Mariani Scotti. 


26 On the History of Chii^penham. 

quarters, it may not have been a bad one ; for it stands, wlicn you 
examine the situation, upon a kind of peninsula, the river winding 
roimd it in the form of a horse shoe. On the land side, towards 
the south-east, a line of earthwork would easily protect a tempo- 
rary camp. 

After a few months, Alfred came out of his Athelney retreat, 
and defeated the Danes, who broke up their quarters at Chip- 
penham and retired to Cii'encester, leaving him at liberty to 
re-occupy his villa regia in peace. He died in a.d. 901, and was 
buried at Winchester, leaving, by his will, his Chippenham manor 
to his youngest daughter, Alfritha, who married Baldwin, Count 
of Flanders. This, of course, was only a provision for life ; as 
Chippenham continued to belong to the Crown for centuries after- 
wards. It is next mentioned in the reign of king Edward the 
Confessor, about a.d. 1042, when we have a partial description of 
its condition. The record states that there was a church ; the 
rector was one bishop Osbern, and one hundred acres belonged to 
the church. King Edward had also given to his huntsman Ulviet, 
a small farm for his life ; and three others are named, to whom 
small portions of land had been granted ; but, with these excep- 
tions, the whole manor was still in the king's own hand. It paid 
no tax or assessment of any kind ; so that this must have been 
its golden age. But iron days were drawing near : the fourth 
scourge was ready, and Chippenham manor fell into the hands of 

The Normans. 
One of the Conqueror's most celebrated acts, was the great 
survey of England, called Domesday Book. In making it, he had 
two objects in view; the first, to find out how much he was himself 
worth : the second, what every body else was worth, and how 
much taxing they would bear. He sent commissioners into every 
manor, (the word parish does not occur in Domesday Book^), Avho 
made inquiry so searching, that, as one person complains, the king 
knew of every cow and pig in the country, and even how many 

' Notices on the Domesday Book for Wiltshire, by H.Moody, "Memoirs of 
the Archjcol. Inst, at Salisbury," p. 177. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 27 

hives of bees the old women kept. The return made from Chip- 
penham manor shows that, during the preceding forty years since 
Edward the Confessor, it had undergone very considerable change; 
that cultivation, and the number of the inhabitants, had very much 
increased ; and that, instead of being unprofitable pleasure ground, 
it was broken up into useful farms ; aU, however, still held di- 
rectly of the king, as landlord. Amongst them there were 113 
holders, great or small, of arable land ; 23 hog-keepers, with six 
miles square of wood ; and 12 mills. The number of persons men- 
tioned in various employments (altogether about 180) referring 
probably to heads of families only, we may suppose the whole 
population to have been about 600 or 700. 

At this point in the history of Chippenham, (the Norman Con- 
quest), there comes, in all printed notices of the place that I have 
ever seen, a dead blank for more than three centuries, tUl the 
reign of Henry YI. Its name does not occur, as those of 
Malmsbury, Devizes, and Trowbridge, frequently do, in the wars 
between Stephen and the Empress Matilda ; and we must, there- 
fore, infer that there was no strong castle here, as there was in 
those towns. Whether it continued to be visited occasionally as a 
hunting seat, by the early Norman kings, is uncertain. They had 
several other villas for that purpose in this county, as at Corsham, 
Fasteme near AYotton Basset, Marlborough, Clarendon, and 
Tollard Royal. But their chief residence was now in or near 
London ; and if they spent Christmas, Easter, and Wliitsuntide, as 
their custom was, in the country, it was generally at some of the 
larger towns, as Gloucester and Winchester. I fear that, after the 
Conquest, Chippenham must have lost favour with royalty, and 
that our villa regia would be — " to let, unfurnished," the various 
dependents being left quietly to follow their own ways, cropping 
lands, driving mills, and fattening hogs in Chippenham Forest. 
Still, the place has a history during those 300 years, as well as 
since ; and this I believe it is now in my power to bring to light, 
from the Conquest down to the present day. As you will not caro 
to require from me continual reference to the authorities from 
which it has been obtained, I will only say, once for all, that 

E 2 

28 On the History of Chippenham. 

every statement that may be made, rests upon the evidence of 
original documents. 

The Manor having been for some hundreds of years private 
demesne of the Crown, began under the early Norman Kings to be 
granted out piecemeal, until at length it was all disposed of to 
various subjects. The matter will be clearer if taken in the follow- 
ing division: — 

I. Grants to Laymen. 
II. Grai^ts to Religious Houses. 

I. The Grants to Layisien consisted of 

1. The Manor of Sheldon and Lordship of the Hundred of 


2. Rowdon. 

3. Lowdon. 

4. Chippenham and Pewsham Forest. 

1. The Manor of Sheldon, (forming the western side of the 
Parish,) and the Lordship of the Hundred of Chippenham. 

This was given by one of the early Norman Kings, (the authority 
does not state which) to William de Beauvilain, a Norman, on 
whose death it reverted to the Crown. In 1231, King Henry III. 
bestowed it upon Sir Walter d© GodarviUe and his heirs. The 
Godarvilles were also Norman. They had another estate in Wiltshire, 
at Cheverell, and were keepers of Clarendon Forest. The last of 
them left two daughters, coheiresses, one of whom married Sir 
Godfrey Gascelyn, of a Dorsetshire house ; who, in right of his wife, 
became owner of Sheldon, and lord of the Manor of Chippenham. 
The GasccljTis continued for about 174 years, from 1250 to 1424, 
during which time they obtained for the towTi two of its fairs ; one 
held on the 17th May, and the Long Fair held on the 22nd June. 
In grateful memory for these benefits, Chippenham still wears as 
one of its two coats of arms, the shield of Sir Walter Gascelyn — 
a golden field surmounted by ten billets azure, and a label gules. 
There are copies of the charters for these fairs, as well as many 
particulars of the Gascelyn property, in deeds dated at Sheldon, 
from which it appears that the family resided there. It ended in 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 29 

an heiress, Christina Gascelyn, who married Edward Hales, Esq. ; 
and in the year 1424, (2 Hen. VI.) she and her husband sold the 
Hundred of Chippenham and the Manor of Sheldon for the sum 
of £1000, to Walter Lord Hungerford, High Treasurer of England. 

Sheldon continued in the Hungerford family for about 250 
years, being during that period more than once forfeited, but again 
restored. In the year 1684 Sir Edward Hungerford, having reached 
the crisis of extravagance, was compelled to break up all his noble 
inheritance. He sold Sheldon (then under lease to Mr. Gorges 
Scrope) to Richard Kent Esq. of London, afterwards Sir Richard 
Kent, Kt., and M.P. for Chippenham. Sir Richard did not keep 
it very long ; for being in debt, his estates were sold by order of 
the Court of Chancery in 1698, and the purchaser of this part was 
Sir Richard Hart of Hanham, near Bitton, beyond Bath. In 12 
years it changed hands again ; and was bought in 1710 by Mr. 
Norris of Lincoln's Inn. The last owner of this name died at 
Nonesuch some years ago, and Sheldon now belongs to his rela- 
tives, the Marshalls. 

The lordship or liberty of the Hundred of Chippenham accom- 
panied the Manor of Sheldon through the older families, down to 
the Hungerfords. It fell to the Crown on Lord Hungerford's 
forfeiture in 1540. It was then, and has since continued, severed 
from the Manor of Sheldon. King Edw. VI. sold the fee simple 
of this hundred to Thomas Lord Darcy, K.G.^ Lord Darcy sold it 
to Sir AVilliam Sherington of Lacock. In 1650 it belonged to 
the Danvers family of Dauntsey. When forfeited by Sir John 
Danvers the regicide. King James II. granted it to Charles Mordaunt, 
the celebrated Earl of Peterborough. From him it descended to 
Mr. Mordaunt Fen wick, who sold it in 1854 to Joseph Neeld, Esq.* 

' Sir T. Pliillipps's Index to Grants in the Augmentation Office, temp. Edw. 
VI., p. 6, Bund. 1)., No. 12. 

2 The Hundred of Cliippcnhain was anciently (i.e. in the year 1423), called 
the Hundred of Bishopstone, Donolewe, and Chippenham. The connexion of 
any Bishopst<^)nc willi the hundred of Chippenham I cannot explain. Diinley 
sunnvos -within it : it lies hetwccn Orittleton and Aldcrton, and was I'ormcrlj' 
a bUiuU Imudrcd of itself, about whicli thoiu arc records. 


On the History of Chippenham. 

2. RoMTJON, South-west of Chippenham. 

Ilo\ydon lies on what was formerly a down, (the old name was 
Rughdon, probably meaning rough dotcn), and is traversed by the 
road to Bath. Upon the principal estate there is an old mansion, 
now a farm-house, close to the Avon. It bears marks of having 
seen better days, when it was the residence of families influential 
in this town ; and it was once the scene of a little military exploit. 

The oldest document I have seen relating to it, is (if correctly 
interpreted), a curious one. King Richard I. about the year 1190, 
charges Rowdon with £7 10s. a year, as a provision for life to a 
person described in the Latin document as " Hodierna Nutrix," a 
name which seems to admit of but one translation, " Hodierna the 
Nurse." The name of Odierne is still attached to a parish in 
South "Wilts, Knoyle Odierne or West Knoyle, in the Hundred of 
Mere; and Sir R. C. Hoare, in his account of that parish, p. 38, gives 
authority to show that lands also at Knoyle belonged to this very 
Hodierna the Nurse ; but who she was, he says he never could find 
out. A simple solution of the difiiculty may perhaps be, that she 
had been nurse to the king himself; chief controller of the juvenile 
department of Queen Eleanor's household, when Coeur de Lion 
was in his long-clothes. It is certainly a tradition in Wiltshire 
that his brother. King John, was christened in the font of Preshute 
Church, close to Marlborough ; and it used formerly to be said that 
Richard himself was box'n at Fasterne, near Wotton Basset, one of 
the royal hunting seats. Be this as it may, he must, like any body 
else, have required in the early stage of his life, those peculiar atten- 
tions which none but a nurse can render ; and possibly Queen Eleanor 
may have sent to Chippenham for that important domestic : but 
whoever nurse Hodierne was, and wherever she came from, she was 
rewarded for her services with part of the rents of the king's estate 
at Rowdon. Such manner of provision was common enough. We 
have already seen that Edward the Confessor pensioned an old 
huntsman, with part (probably the same part,) of this parish ; and 
many other similar cases might be produced. Nothing is more 
likely, than that Richard, being rather short of ready money in the 
days of the Crusades, adopted this way of making his old nurse 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 31 

comfortable : and all admirers of the lion-hearted king will be of 
opinion, that the rents of Rowdon were very well bestowed, in 
rewarding any "bonne," who had undertaken to manage so un- 
manageable a young gentleman as he must have been. 

When nurse Hodieme ceased to require the pension, it was 
again used for similar purposes for two lives ; and at length the 
estate was granted (subject to a rent to the Crown of £7 10s.,) by 
King Henry III. in 1250, to the Lady Agnes, widow of Sir Godfrey 
St. Maur, sometimes called "Agnes de Eoudon." Her son Henry 
St. Maur, being obliged to abscond in 1274, on a charge of felony 
and rebellion, Rowdon was forfeited. But it was afterwards restored, 
and Henry St. Maur sold it to Nicholas Husee. This family held 
it for 142 years, down to 1392. Their name in Latin is " Hosatus," 
signifying "hosecV or "booted," and their armorial device was 
"three boots sable," which is the second of the two shields now used 
by the Borough of Chippenham. What particular service the Husees 
may have rendered to the town does not appear, but the arms used 
by the town are clearly those of the two private families ; GasceljTi, 
Lord of Sheldon, and Husee, Lord of Bowdon. Whence the palm- 
tree, from which the two shields depend, was borrowed, I know not. 
It is a tree remarkable for unfading verdure, and is often referred 
to in Scriptural language as an emblem of the prosperity of the 
upright. Finding it therefore introduced into your municipal 
blazonry, in association with the motto of " Unity and Loyalty," 
I gladly regard the whole as a favourable omen, both of your 
flourishing condition, and of the principles which animate the 
heart of Chippenham. 

It was mentioned just now, that when King Henry III. granted 
Rowdon to the Husees, he reserved an annual rent of £7 10s. 
Out of that simi, his successor, King Edward I., granted a pension 
of £5 a year, to the Monastery of Ederose or Ivy-church, near 
Clarendon. In the Schedule of the property of that monastery, 
taken at the dissolution 300 years afterwards, this identical pension 
of £y a year, appears as paid out of lands at Chippenluim and 
Rowdon, formerly belonging to Nicholas Husee. There cannot bo 
much doubt which were the particular lands that provided the 

32 On the History of Ckippenham. 

pension to Iv}'"-ch.urch. monastery. The name itself seems to indicate 
tliat it must liave been what is called "the Ivy-house, and the 
islands in the Ivy," close to Chippenham bridge. The origin of 
the name of that property has long been a puzzle, for which this 
pension to Jry-chiirch may perhaps suggest a satisfactory expla- 

In the year 1392, the Husees sold Eowdon to Sir John Erleigh, 
of Beckington in Somerset. His only daughter Margaret Erleigh, 
married Sir "Walter Sandes, Kt. ; and in the year 1434, Sir "Walter 
Sandes and Margaret his wife sold Rowdon to "\Yalter Lord 
Himgerford, who, ten years before, had purchased Sheldon and 
the Manor and Hundred of Chippenham. Some of the Hungerford 
family resided at Rowdon House. In January, 1469, Sir Thomas 
Hmigerford, Kt., (a young man, eldest son and heir of the baron 
of the day, and great-grandson of the purchaser,) was beheaded at 
Salisbury for an attempt to restore King Henry VI. He is de- 
scribed in the indictment as " of Rowdon." During the civil wars 
of Charles I., it was the property of Sir Edward Hungerford, the 
Parliamentary Officer ; and after the battle of Roundway Down, 
the Parliament troops occupied it as a garrison. It was immediately 
surrounded by the Royalists. Col. Stephens governor of Beverstone 
Castle (near Tetbury) for the Parliament, came to its relief with a 
body of horse, and forced his way in : but instead of forcing his 
way out again as fast as he could, he being tired with his gallop from 
Tetbury stayed to eat and drink, giving the Royalists outside the 
house time to rally and send for more help. So the Parliamentary 
gentlemen being cooped up were obliged to capitulate. The 
Royalists then dismantled the house, which was at that time a 
large one, with a quadrangle inside, and a moat round it. Sir 
Edward Hungerford the owaaer died in 1648, and a few years 
afterwards it passed to a relative, the spendthrift Sir Edward. 
The story is that he lost this estate by gambling, and that at a 
bowling match he staked the property, calling out as he threw his 
last chance, " Here goes Rowdon." Whether this story is true or 
not, Rowdon certainly loent ; but the legal way in which it disap- 
peared from his rent-roll was this : — Sir Edward mortgaged it for 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 33 

£3000. The mortgage was assigned to Sir Richard Kent (mentioned 
before as the purchaser of Sheldon,) sometime M.P. for Chippenham. 
When Sir Richard Kent's property was sold by order of the 
Court of Chancery in 1698, Rowdon was bought by Mr. Thomas 
Long of Monkton, near Melksham, from whom it has descended to 
the present owner, Walter Long, Esq., of Rood Ashton. 

3. LowDON, West of Chippenham. 

This was granted by the Crown, first to the Pavely family of 
Westbury ; afterwards to the family of Turbervile or Turvile. 
Whilst in their hands. King John granted to Roger de Turbervile 
a market at Chippenham every week on Wednesday, and one fair 
every year, viz. — that which is now held on the 29th October. In 
1258, King Henry III. gave the property to William de Valence 
Earl of Pembroke, his half-brother, a foreigner, and a very trou- 
blesome gentleman. He took part against the king at the battle 
of Evesham, and so lost Lowdon, which was restored to the Pavelys. 
In 1272 they sold it to the Gascelyns of Sheldon. 

From this period, i.e. from the union of the Lowdon and Sheldon 
estates under the Gascelyns, the Manor of Chippeuliam came to be 
called (as it still continues to be) the Manor of Chijipenham, 
Sheldon, and Lowdon. Christina Gascelyn and her husband 
Edward Hales, Esq., sold Lowdon with Sheldon to the Hungerfords, 
It is now broken up into various smaller holdings. The Knights 
of St. John of Jerusalem had some land in Chippenham, I do not 
exactly know where, but probably in this part of the parish. 

4. Chippenham and Pewsham Forest. 

This portion of the royal manor continued in the hands of the 
Crown many hundred years after all the rest had been granted 
away. From the dimensions given to Chippenham Forest in 
Donicsday Book, where it is called six miles square, it would seem 
probable that the Forest extended originally much farther than 
what in later times was Chippenham and Pewsham Forest proper. 
The Forest proper lay towards the South, extending from the town 
to Dcrry Hill. The western side of it lay towards Lackham. It 
formed what may be called the home park of the king's hunting 

84 On the Histonj of Chippenham. 

villa. The Forest was fenced round for deer, and within it also 
ranged, by special license, the living Wiltshire bacon belonging 
to the monks of Stanley and of Farley. The monks of Bradenstoke 
were still more favoured. King John who was frequently at their 
Abbey, allowed them grazing within the Forest for 40 cows, as 
well as a place, then called Aldebiri, for building a Dairy^ farm. 

In the year 1275, (1 Edw. I.) owing to the confusion that had 
arisen in course of years, from vaiious grants of land by the Crown, 
and from encroachments made upon the Idng's rights all over 
England, a royal commission was issued, to inquire into and correct 
these abuses. The return for the Manor of Chippenham (made 
by a jury at Malmesbury) is amongst the public records, and is a 
valuable illustration of the history of the town. In this document 
the Forest of Chippenham, then of course in the king's own hands, 
is described as beginning at a place called " Fermerie House," and 
ending at " Hinlond." " Fermerie " is no doubt a corruption of 
" Infirmary," and the place meant is, in all probability, the same 
that is now called " Spital " (i.e. Soapital) " Farm." This stands 
exactly on the southern edge of Chippenham Forest. It is believed 
to have been the infirmary belonging to Stanley Abbey, and it is 
now the property of the Marquis of Lansdowne. " Hinlond," the 
other extremity, is a large piece of gromid close to the town of 
Chippenham, and as it is now commonlj^ known by the misnomer 
of "England's," the present opportunity may be taken of cor- 
recting this error in the parish nomenclature. Inland is a Saxon 
word, which meant exactly what we now call "home ground," 
lying about a mansion, as distinguished from land outlying, and 
let to tenants. This " inland " lay close to the site, or the reputed 
site, of the king's viUa, which tradition assigns to the spot now 
occupied by the premises adjoining the new County Court, including 
perhaps the Angel Inn. 

Pewsham takes its name from a little stream, anciently called 
the Pewe, which rises at Lockswell, and runs at the back of the 
Swan public house into the Avon, opposite Lackham. In the record 

1 Is not Derry Hill a corrui)tion of Dairy Hill ? 


By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 35 

of the inquisition held at Malmesbury mentioned above, the jury 

particularly state that the Abbot of Stanley had committed a 

trespass, by some hiaderance to the Pewe rivulet, which had caused 

it to overflow and flood the king's highway, to the annoyance of 

his Hege subjects and all passers-by. 

The Forest was granted by King James I. to Christopher Yilliers, 

Earl of Anglesey, (brother of the Duke of Buckingham who was 

stabbed by Felton). It was disafibrested in the year 1630. The 

people of Chippenham, (as well as the monks of Stanley, Farley, 

and Bradenstoke,) had certain rights of feeding within it, and the 

loss of these rights seems to have given rise to a serious riot in the 

neighbourhood. This fact is incidentally obtained from Sir William 

Davenant's poetical works, amongst which is "A copy of verses 

written to the Coimtess of Anglesey, upon being led away captive 

by the rebels at the disafforesting of Pewsam." John Aubrey also 

preserves a doggerel rhyme, current in his day, (1670), relating to 

the same event. 

" "WTien Chip'nam stood in Pewsam's wood, 
Before it was destroyed, 
A cow might have gone for a groat a year. 
But now it is denyed." 

" The metre," he adds, justly enough, " is lamentable ; but the cry 

of the poor was more lamentable." He also says that "he knew 

several, amongst them Robert Smyth of the White Hart, that did 

remember the going of a cow for Ad. a year. The order was, how 

many they could winter they might summer ; and pigges did cost 

nothing the going." 

The Earl of Anglesey, to whom the Forest had been granted, 

had two grand-daughters, coheiresses. One of them married Mr. 

Edward Cary of Torr Abbey in Devonshire, by whose son, George 

Gary, the principal part of Pewsham was sold in 1791, to Mr. 

Montagu of Lackham ; and on the breaking up of his property, it 

was bought by Mr. Lysley, whose family are now the owners of 

the Lodge Farms. Elizabeth, the other grand-daughter of Lord 

Anglesey, married James Touchet, Lord Audley and Earl of 

Castleliavcn ; and her poi-tion of the Forest now belongs by purchase 

to Mr. Ludlow Bruges. 

F 2 

36 On the History of Chipj)cnham. 

Pcwsham is cxtraparocliial, a privilege which is perhaps a relic 
of that golden age, (before alluded to) when, being royal demesne, 
taxes and assessments were unknown within the manor. 

The "VYardenship of Chippenham Forest was attached to the 
ofl&ce of Constable of Devizes Castle. 

The portions of the parish thus far described as having been 
granted to Laymen, lay on its southern, south-western, and western 
sides. "We now come to the district on the north-west, east, and 
south-east, granted to Religious Houses, consisting of the principal 
estates at Ai.ungton, Monkton, and Stanley. 

1. Allington. 

This was given by King Stephen to the alien Nunnery of 
Martigny, in the upper valley of the Rhone ; and by the Prioress 
and Nuns of that house, it was transferred in the reign of Edward 
I., to the Priory of Monkton Farley, near Bath. The monks held 
it in their own hands, and had a farming establishment there. 
There is an account of their farming stock when they were deprived 
of it. "Wheat was then 5s. a quarter, barley 2s., oats Is. 4f^., and 
their oxen were valued at 6s. ^d. a piece. 

Allington was granted at the dissolution of monasteries, in 
August 1537, to Sir Edw^ard Seymour, Viscount Beauchamp, after- 
wards the Protector Duke of Somerset. In 1623 it was the 
residence of Sir Grilbert Prynne, of a Bristol family, who, wdth 
his Lady, was buried in Chippenham church. In the house which 
he occupied, now a large barn, fire-places and windows may still be 
observed. Algernon Duke of Somerset, who died without heirs 
male in 1749, was succeeded in one of his titles (the Earldom of 
Egrcmont,) and in some of his estates by Sir Charles "Wyndham. 
In this way Allington came to the Wyndhams, Earls of Egremont, 
from wliom it was purchased in 1844 by Mr. Neeld. 

2. Monkton, N.E. of Chippenham, beyond the Avon. 

Tliis portion of the royal manor was given by Matilda the 

Empress (motlier of Henry II.,) to the Priory of Monkton Farley. 

There does not appear to have been any house on the estate for the 

residence of a religious society, though they cultivated the lands 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 37 

on their own account, probably under the superintendance of one 

or two of their order. At the dissolution, it was granted by Henry 

VIII. to Sir Edward Seymour, who, (as above stated) had recently 

obtained the grant of Allington. Moukton remained in his family 

till the marriage of the heiress. Lady Elizabeth Seymour, with 

Thomas Lord Bruce, afterwards Earl of Ailesbury. In 1686, 

Lord Ailesbury sold his property at Monkton, to Mr. Arthur 

Esmeade of Calne, from whom it passed by family arrangements, 

first to the Edridges, and from them to the present owner G. Moore 

Esmeade, Esq. 

2. Stanley Abbey. 

Of Stanley Abbey nothing is left but the green site, which lies 
just within the eastern edge of the parish of Chippenham. It was 
a house of Cistercian Monks, placed originally at Lockswell, near 
the top of Derry Hill, but removed two or three years after to the 
lower ground on the bank of the rivulet of Marden. What the 
monks may have lost in fine air, they gained in good land. The 
house was founded by the Empress Maud, and her son King Henry 
II., and further endowed by Edward I. with a large portion of the 
land in that quarter of the royal manor, extending southward from 
the Marden, imder Derry Hill, to Nethermore. For a history of 
this monastic establishment there is plentj' of material, but of the 
appearance and extent of the building itself, I am not aware that 
any view is preserved. The monks were the improvers of a large 
tract of waste land on the outskirts of the Forest ; and in Nether- 
more, where the various landowners of Chippenham had rights of 
feeding, the Abbey, by degrees, procured the transfer of those rights 
to itself. At the dissolution, the principal part of the Stanley 
Abbey estate was purchased by Sir Edward Baynton of Bromham, 
to whose representative, the owner of Spy Park, it still belongs. 
The Abbot's house stood for some time afterwards, and was occupied 
by a family of Ansty, one of whom married the daughter and 
heiress of Andrew Baynton, Esq., who is buried in Chippenham 

The Borough of Chippenham. 

"VVc have now made the tour of the parish, a tedious one I fear 
for the lady Archajologists ; but having ended the walk at Monktou 

38 On the History of Chippenham. 

close to the town, you will allow me to say a few words about the 
Borough itself, promising to confine your attention only to such 
points in its history as are most likely to be novel. 

The Bailiff. 

Chippenham is now ruled by a Mayor, Aldermen, and Councillors. 
As a municipal power these officers are very young, not much above 
twenty years old, having been created under the ISIimicipal Reform 
Act. Before that time the town was governed by a Bailiff and 
twelve Bm'gesses, who traced their title as a Corporation to a 
Charter granted by Queen Mary in the first year of her reign, 
dated 2nd May, 1554, just 300 years ago. It was confirmed by 
Letters Patent of Elizabeth, dated 29th January, 1560 ; and a 
new one was granted by King James II. five weeks after he came 
to the throne, dated 13th March, 1685. 

Concerning the government of the town before the charter of 
Queen Mary, nothing appears from the borough records, as they 
only begin in 1554, and throw no light upon more remote times. 
But from other sources the state of things seems to have been as 

"Whether he had, or had not, a council of discreet and honest 
Burgesses to assist him, I cannot say, but Chippenham was certainly 
under the authority of a chief officer called the Bailifi", for many 
hundred years before the charter of Mary, There are (as will be 
shown) notices of such an officer in the reign of King Edward I., 
300 years before Queen Mary ; but I believe the fact to be that 
the town always had a Bailiff, ever since it was a royal demesne, 
which, as you have already heard, was a very long time ago. Every 
private estate of the Crown was under charge of some resident 
official. He was not always called Bailiff, but sometimes Steward, 
as was the case at Calne ; or Portreeve, as at Great BedwjTi : but 
BaLlifi" was the title at Bromham, Corsham, and Melksham, all 
which places, like Chippenham, were royal demesne. The duty 
of this officer was to protect the king's property, and to keep things 
right, if he could ; and that the Bailiff of Chippenham was originally 
armed with formidable powers so to do, and was a person not to be 
trifled with, is clear from the fact that he had not only a pillory 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 39 

and a prison at his command, but also a gallows. In short, within 
the manor he was second only to the king himself. All this may 
have worked very well so long as the whole manor was in the 
king's own hands, and there were no rival proprietors to quarrel 
with the agent of the Crown. But when the king's demesne had 
been granted out in parcels to noblemen and others, (as has been 
described), and the royal authority began to be less absolute, the 
Bailiff had sometimes a hard matter to hold his own. The " market 
village" was growing by degrees into a town, and as various new 
rights arose, the old ones would suffer encroachment. This statement 
is founded upon evidence. In the year 1275 (3 Edw. I.), when 
the inquiry (alluded to before) was made into the state of this 
manor, it was reported to the Crown amongst other grievances, that 
several matters touching the king's authority at Chippenham 
required to be looked to, that his Bailiff was thwarted either by 
the Sheriff of the county, or by some of the principal landowoiers 
under the Crown within the parish. Two or three distinct cases 
are mentioned in the record. A certain fellow imprisoned in the 
castle of Old Sarum on a charge of felony, had turned king's 
evidence, and had implicated in the charge one " Solomon the Jew 
of Chippenham." The Sheriff of Wilts issued his warrant to 
Robert Stoket the Bailiff of Chippenham, to arrest the said Solomon. 
But before he had time to do so, Godfrey Gascelyn, then lord of the 
manor of Sheldon and Chippenham, interfered by forbidding the 
Bailiff to meddle in the matter until he, Gascelyn, had conferred 
with the Sheriff upon the subject. The consequence was that the 
Bailiff's perplexity was the Jew's opportimity. Solomon improved 
it ; took to his heels, and when at length he was wanted, was " no 
where to be found." 

Another case was thus : — During the civil troubles in the pre- 
ceding reign of Henry III., raised by Simon de Montfort against 
the Crown, the same Bobcrt Stoket, Bailiff of Chippenham, had 
seized as they were passing through the town, sundry packs of 
wool, which one Simon the Draper was conveying from Bristol to 
Southampton ; but the Slieriff ordered the Bailiff to release the wool. 

Again : one Nicholas Ilamund, imprisoned by the Bailiff on a 
charge of larceny had been released by the Sheriff. The jury 

40 On the Hiatery of Chippenham. 

quietly arid in their report, "how much the Sheriff got from 
Nicholas they do not know." 

These cases show, first, that Chippenham had a permanent 
officer imder the title of Bailiff long before the charter of Mary ; 
and next, that his power was subject to continual challenge. Per- 
haps it may safely be concluded, that when Queen Mary granted 
a charter with a view of setting the local authority upon a fresh 
footing, it was not before it was wanted. 

The Borough Lands. 

It was of little use to grant a charter to the town and to 
endeavour to set the local authority on a better basis, without pro- 
viding ways and means for strengthening its usefulness and 
dignity. Accordingly, together with the charter came the Borough 
Lands. The history of this donation is curious. It wiU be seen 
by reference to the dates of the several grants of land above recited, 
that in the reign of Mary no part of the original royal demesne 
remained in the hands of the Crown except the Forest of Chippenham. 
This portion was still available, but it was probably of insufficient 
value. The alternative therefore was to take what was required 
from somebody else. Very conveniently for the purpose, it hap- 
pened that Walter Lord Hungerford of Heytesbury and Farley, 
owner (by descent from the Lord High Treasui'er of that name 
temp. Henry YI.) of a large part of Chippenham parish, had, a 
few years before Mary came to the throne, fallen into fatal disgrace 
by calling King Henry VIII. a heretick, and by having conspired 
with one William Byrd, Vicar of Bradford (in Wilts) against the 
king's life. The conspiracy (so far as appears) only amounted to 
this ; that the reverend gentleman was a dabbler in the strange, 
but then jjopular, branch of chemistry called Alchymy, and had 
ventured upon some experiments in Lord Hungerford's house, to 
find out how long this heretick sovereign should live. His Majesty 
not approving that sort of inquiry on the part of his subjects, and 
being no doubt very sensitive of the stigma of heresy, called the 
two alchymists to accoimt more sharply than they had probably 
anticipated; for Lord Hungerford lost his head on Tower Hill, and 
with his head he also took leave of his Manor of Chippenham, 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 41 

Sheldon, and Lowdon, besides a very considerable number of good 
Wiltshire manors elsewhere. The whole of his property was 
forfeited ; and the Crown kindly promised to take care of it until 
the next heir, then a minor, should reach the age of twenty-one. 
Before that time arrived King Henry and his successor King 
Edward VI. died : and Queen Mary wishing to ingratiate herself 
with her new Bailiff and Burgesses of Chippenham, severed a goodly 
slice from the Hungerford estates and bestowed it upon them. 
The Bailiff and Burgesses were only just in time to receive it, for 
the Heir of Lord Hungerford came of age twenty-three days after 
the date of the charter, when all the rest of his family property 
was restored to him by Letters Patent. The conditions annexed 
to the grant of these lands to the borough were, that the profits 
thereof should maintain two Burgesses in Parliament, and keep in. 
repair the bridge over the Avon and a high footpath called "the 
Causeway" leading from the town to Derry Hill. 

About sixty-six acres of Lord Hungerford's land given by Queen 
Mary were afterwards claimed by the Crown, as assart land of the 
Forest of Chippenham, but on payment of £40 they were secured 
to the borough by Letters Patent of King James I., dated 21st 
November, 1607. 

The Parish Chxjrch 
Is in one respect not a bad study for Archaeologists, exhibiting as 
it does samples of various styles, very old, very new, very good, 
and verj' so so. 

That a church, held by one Bishop Osbern, was here in the reign 
of the Confessor, has been already stated, but as Chippenham had 
even at that time been for some hundreds of years the residence of 
Wessex Roj'alty, some building of the kind, with a clerical establish- 
ment attached to the court, would probably have been on the spot 
from the first conversion of the province to Christianity. No visible 
part of the present church is quite so old as the Norman Conquest, 
but the chancel arch is not far short of it, being apparently of about 
A.D. 1120. The masonry of the chancel walls outside, consisting 
of small unhewn stones, and a small window on the nortli side, are 
also much older than the general body of the church. If the chauccl 

42 On the History of Chijypenham. 

was built about a.d. 1120, (Henry I.) it must have been almost 
before any part of tlie manor had been granted to subjects ; also 
before the Tithes were appropriated and whilst there was a Rector 

Into any detailed description of Chippenham church I cannot 
now enter. The best parts of it (both of them much later than 
the chancel) are the two chapels on the south side; the one against 
the chancel, the other against the nave. The former was, I believe, 
dedicated to St. Mary,^ the latter to St. John the Baptist. Both 
were originally Chantries for the use of private families, the Hun- 
gerfords, and the Beauchamps of Bromham, or their successors the 
Bayntons. The difficult}^ has been to decide Avhich was buUt by 
which, for the evidence usually decisive of such points, (as monu- 
ments, family devices, coats of anns, &c.), is so confused that it is 
not easy to distinguish the respective foimders. That the chapel 
against the chancel was built by the Hungerfords seems most 
probable, for the ceiling is still covered with their arms, and Aubrey 
who lived close to Chippenham in 1650 and knew the living 
Hungerfords well, describes this part of the church as theirs, iden- 
tifying it by certain marks which still remain. In the corner of 
it is a monument to Andrew Baynton, Esq., which has been perhaps 
the reason why this has often been called the Baynton chapel. 
But as his family were living in 1579 (the date of his death) at 
Howdon House, which belonged to the Hungerfords, possibly he 
may have been buried in the Hungerford's chapel. 

There are notices of a third chantry dedicated to St. Andrew. 
^^Tiere this was is uncertain. A few years ago a large fragment 
of gravestone (now preserved in the vestry) was found under the 
church floor near the present lesson desk, bearing a portion of 
very old inscription, which mentions a chantry founded by one 
Clerk and Alice his wife. 

Some part of the church was also used for sacred purposes by a 
guild, (a company formed either for protection of trade or for 

1 One of the tenements with which this chapel was endowed, was in that 
part of Chippenham called " Foghamshu'c," and was Iuiotsti as "the house of 
St. Mary." 

By the Rci\ J. E. Jackson. 43 

some benevolent purpose) called "the Fraternity of St. Katharine," 
and their altar was endowed with lands and houses. 

The church is dedicated to St. Andrew, and to this the town 
owes its fourth fair. I have already mentioned three fairs as 
granted to the town by charters. For the fourth there was no 
charter, and the reason is this. The fair is now kept on the 11th. 
of December. Before the change from Old to New style it used 
to be kept on the 30th of November, and the 30th of November is 
St. Andrew's day. There is therefore no manner of doubt that 
this fair arose out of the holiday originally kept in observance of 
the Dedication of the church, and that this is therefore the oldest 
fair in Chippenham. 

The Tower. 

The common tradition is that it was built by Lord Hungerford, 
lord of the manor in Henry YI. That he did so or helped to do 
it, is very likely, as his coat of arms within the Order of the Garter 
(and he was the only one of the family who was a Knight of that 
Order) is, amongst others, still preserved high up against the 
present belfr5^ But his Lordship's tower came long since to an 
untimely end, through the partiality of Chippenham for bell-ringing. 
An old Churchwardens' book testifies that the townsfolk appear to 
have been ready with a peal for every body. They rang when 
King James I. passed through the town in 1621, and when his son 
the Prince came back safe out of Spain ; for my Lord Bishop ; for 
all the days of triumph in the year ; when Sir John Danvers's son 
came to town, (he was the son of the lord of the hundred) ; and for 
the routing of the Scotch : and when Colonel Cromwell came through 
and slept at the White Hart, they not only welcomed him in the 
usual way, but in order to make his evening still more agreeable, 
presented him with two bottles of sack. With so much ringing, 
no wonder the old tower began to quake. A few violent storms 
brought matters to a crisis ; so in 1633 they took down and re- 
stored (an old church-book says) tower and spire. Tliis cost £320, 
towards which Sir Francis Popham, then M.P. for the borough, 
gave ,£40, and as bankers' checks and penny postages were in 
those days unknown, the town spent 8s. 2(f. in sending to Littlecoto 

G 2 

44 On the History of Chippenham. 

for his donation. The arms of Sir Francis are on a large shield 
above the western door. 

In 1655 the north side of the church was rebuilt. It has been 
once more rebuilt in modern times, and the sooner it undergoes 
the operation again, the better the church wtH look. 

The Rectory and Vicarage. 
Chippenham would have a Rector resident until about a.d. 1150, 
when the tithes were for the first time severed from parish uses. 
They were bestowed, about that year, by the Empress Maud, on 
the Monastery of Monkton Farley ; the gift consisting of the tithes 
of the whole parish, including the chapeh-y of Titherington-Lucas. 
The Prior and Monks then appointed a Vicar, with a small en- 
dowment. The Vicar frequently complained that it was too little, 
and the Bishop augmented it. Again he complained, and again it 
was increased. Under the second application of the Episcopal 
screw, the Prior and Monks began to wince, and presented a re- 
monstrance in their turn that the Vicar's share was too large, that 
his income was now "immoderate;" Avhereupon the Bishop directed 
an entirely new Ordination. A copy of this document is preserved 
in the Registry at Salisbury, and it forms in fact the title-deed of 
the present Vicarage. In it the Official, one Master Stephen, 
professes his determination to pursue a just and middle course. 
He will do on the one hand, not too little, on the other not too 
much. The Vicar's income, for all time to come, shall not be lean, 
but it must not be exuberant. The Parish Priest must live, but to 
be pampered is not good. Following out these cautious principles, 
his sentence therefore is that the first augmentation shall stand, 
and that in addition to it, the Vicar shall take and enjoy the profits 
of the chapelry of Titherton-Lucas, the tithes of which had hitherto 
belonged to the Prior. But Master Stephen's mind still secretly 
feared the error of excess to the secular clergy. The Vicar might, 
after all, be overpaid and imderworked. He would have indeed 
upon his hands the care of the parish, and the ministrations of the 
parish church. This might one day be enough, whilst the emolu- 
ments of Titherton might be superfluously plenteous. The 
further precaution was therefore taken, that out of the Titherton 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 45 

incomings the Vicar should pay a pension of 40s. a year to the 
impoverished Prior of Farley, and should also provide for the 
services of Titherton chapel, by proper ministers, at his, the Yicar's, 
own cost. This deed is dated 20th April, a.d. 1272, the 56th year 
of King Henry III. This was the way in which the chapel of St. 
Nicholas and Rectory of Titherton-Lucas became annexed to the 
Vicarage of Chippenham. 

Things having been thus amicably arranged between the Prior 
and his Vicar, the Monastery of Farley continued to take the tithes 
(plus the 406\ a year from the Vicar) until the dissolution, when 
the estate of the Priory in this parish was bestowed (as mentioned 
above) upon the Protector Somerset. The Rectorial tithes were 
then transferred, not, as they ought to have been, back to the 
parish, but to Oxford ; being granted by King Henry VIII. to the 
Dean and Chapter of Christ Church, then newly foimded. The 
grant is dated 11th December, 1546, just two months before the 
king's death. 

Distinguished Natives. 

One more point must be alluded to in this sketch of Chippenham 
history. It will not detain you very long, but you would perhai^s 
not object to its being longer, as it is to refer to the distinguished 
natives of your town. No doubt there have been many, but un- 
luckily (" carent vate sacro,") for want of some one to collect in 
times past the particulars of this interesting property, we are left 
in considerable ignorance of the eminent deceased. At present 
my list is very brief, for it contains only two names. 

One of these was Dr. Thomas Scott, the author of " The Christian 
Life." Born at Chippenham, as the Register states, in October 
1638, he became a very celebrated Divine ; was within reach of 
Prebends, Deaneries, and twice, of Bishopricks ; but from private 
scruples he refused all. Ilis works were printed in two volumes 
folio. I need not more particularly allude to them, as of course 
they aro to be found in every library in Chippenham. This will 
hardly be the case with the literary remains (if indeed there are 
any) of the second fellow-to^vnsman to be brought before your 
notice, for the very fact of his connection with the place at all will 

46 On the History of Chijipenham. 

probably be quite novel to tbe greater part of tbe audience. But 
>vitli his name you will be liistorically familiar ; for every one will 
remember amongst tbe extravagances of the Commonwealth, a 
certain denomination of fanatics who rejoiced in the title of 
Muggletonians. I have no claim to particular intimacy with their 
doctrines, and therefore in giving authoritj^ for the fact that their 
foimder, Lodowick Muggleton, was Chippenham born and bred, I 
can only hope that there is no Muggletonian present to take offence 
at the pungent description of his chief which I am obliged to borrow. 
A memoir of this person, in which he is said to have been born 
here, "of poor though honest parents," is printed in the Harleian 
Miscellany,^ and its title is as follows: "A modest account of the 
wicked life of that grand Impostor, Lodowick Muggleton: whereia 
are related all the memorable actions that he did, and all the strange 
accidents that have befallen him, ever since his first coming to 
London, to this 25th day of January, 1676. Also a Particular of 
those reasons which first drew him to those damnable principles ; 
with several pleasant stories concerning him, proving his com- 
mission to be but counterfeit, and himself a cheat." The biography 
goes on to show that Mr. Muggleton (of Chippenham) began his 
religious career as a Church of England man ; exchanged for 
Independent ; slipped off to Anabaptist ; tasted Quakerism ; and 
finally, as might be expected, subsided into no religion at all. His 
practice is described as having been as loose as his theories were 
wild, and through the one or the other he appears to have fallen 
occasionally into troubles. 

"Howbeit," says the "modest account," "a little before Oliver's 
death, Muggleton, by continual flatteries had got into his books, 
and, amongst other prophecies concerning him, had declared that 
OKver should perform more wonderful actions than any he had yet 
achieved, before he died. But, he happening to depart this life, 
before he had done any thing else that was remarkable, Muggleton 
was demanded whj^ his prophecy proved not true ? He answered 
very wisely, and like himself, viz., that he was sure Oliver would 
have performed them had he lived long enough." J. E. J. 

1 Vol VTII. p. 83, (8vo. 1810). 


By the Rev. ARTHina Faxe. 

It devolved upon me at the last year's Archgeological Meeting 
at Salisbury, to endeavour to elucidate the antiquities and throw 
some light upon the historical associations of an ancient church of 
much beauty and rare interest in the Vale of "VVylj^e, — a church, 
too, which was the centre of many stirring historical traditions, but 
which remains at once a monument of the munificence, splendour, 
and architectural style of past ages, and of the neglect and want 
of taste of more recent times. 

It chances, from near residence, that another church has specially 
interested me, which in all particulars seems a twin church to that 
of St. Mary's, Boyton. The Church of All Saints, Edington, to 
which I purpose calling the attention of my brother archaeologists, 
is a far grander and more imposing building than its sister church ; 
it is also as remarkable a specimen of the transition from one style 
to another, as the mortuary chapel of the GifFards at Boyton. As 
in the latter building we see the struggle between the harsher and 
more severe times of early English, gradually blending into the 
trefoil or quatrefoil of Decorated architecture, and the fuller foliations 
of the architecture of the middle of the 14th century warming the 
acute cuspings and plain mouldings of the 13th ; so in the church 
of Edington, we may observe the straight and more formal lines of 
the Perpendicular dispersing the elegant tracery and cutting the 
flowery developments of the 14th century. We see at Boyton, so 
to speak, Ileiiry the 3rd contending with Edward the 1st ; whilst 
at Edington we see the struggle of Edward the 3rd with llichard 
the 2ud. 

48 On Edington Church, and Memorials of its History. 

"Without further delay — except to entreat the most favourable 
consideration for a paper roughly sketched amidst the engrossing 
cares, the ceaseless anxieties of a large parish, and the usual share 
of social and domestic occupations which I believe entangle anti- 
quarian quite as much as more modern students — I will proceed 
to the details of the church and parish of Edington. 

The table-land which, dispersed in several groups, is called by 
the common appellation of Salisbury Plain, terminates fromWestbury 
to the high road hanging over Earlstoke in a series of ramparts of 
turf, which seem to stand out against the Vale of Pewsey with the 
sheer massiveness of a fortified town. At no point does the upper 
plain rise more abruptly than where the down lands, forming a 
bason in which the little hamlet of Bratton is placed, sweep round 
to the northwestward and rise up almost perpendicularly from the 
Vale of Pewsey below. Close under this natural rampart, about 
four mUes from Westbury, a rich fringing of gigantic elms and 
walnuts surrounds the village of Edington, whilst on a sort of open 
space where cross roads meet, the magnificent old church startles 
the passer by with its almost cathedral proportions and rich outline 
of pinnacle, and battlement, and tower. The village is mentioned 
by Camden — "At Edindon, heretofore called Eathendone, King 
Alfred won the most glorious victory that ever was obtained over 
the ravaging Danes, and drove them to that extremity that they 
took a solemn oath immediately to depart the land." It would 
appear, on the authority of Tanner and Leland, that as early as 
the reign of John, the Church and Manor of Edington were held 
under the Abbey of Romsey, and that the church was held as a 
prebendal benefice under that Abbey. "William of Edington, 
Bishop of Winchester, and so well known by the commencement 
of that work of restoration in AVinchester Cathedral which was so 
gloriously carried forward by his successor, "William of "Wykeham, 
determined to acknowledge God's goodness in raising him to so 
high a post in His Church, and built the present church ; and 
furthermore, moved by the same pious gratitude and zeal, foimded 
subsequently a college for a dean and twelve ministers, to the 
honour of the Blessed Virgin, St. Katharine, and All Saints. The 

By the Rev. Arthur Fane. 49 

confirmation of the good Bishop's grant and establishment seems to 
have been made in 1347; so that we ma}', without any stretch of 
credulity, believe that whilst the mighty and victorious Edward 
was haughtily demanding the lives of the patriotic citizens of Calais, 
the good Bishop was in the conqueror's camp, pleading for the 
royal protection to his munificent endowment at the lowly village 
perched at the foot of Salisbury Plain; and the pious Bishop's 
prayers may have been blended with Philippa's, that the ignominious 
halters should be removed from the necks of the brave Eustace and 
his fellow-patriots. Subsequently to the first grant to the dean 
and ministers, at the request of the Black Prince the government 
of the new monastery was altered, and a body of Monks of the 
order of Bonhommes, a ramification from the Augustinian root, be- 
came the proprietors of the newly-founded church. Edington and 
Ashridge in Bucks, are the only two places in England, according 
to Tanner, where this order existed. Probably from that time to 
the dissolution, the monastery of Edington contained the usual 
amount of knowledge and ignorance — of true devotion to God, and 
hypocritical pretence — the same amount of zeal and apathy, of 
virtue and vice, which at this day is to be discovered in any com- 
munity of men. When the Reformation — that fiery tide of religious 
zeal and irreligious avarice — that mingled storm of godly refor- 
mation and ungodly destruction — fell upon the monasteries, Edington 
and its community of Bonhommes fared no better than the rest. 
The revenue of the monastery amounted to the sum of £442 9«. 7rf., 
or, according to Speed, to £521 12«. 6d. The whole monastery- 
buildings, lands, and tenements were granted to Seymour of Sudeley, 
the Protector's brother. On his fall, the site was granted to William 
Powlctt Lord St. John, from whom it passed to the Duke of Bolton, 
and finally became the property of the Taylor family, to whom it 
now belongs, in the person of the worthy High Sheriff of this 

I purpose giving this meeting a few details of the church, which 
rivals almost any sacred edifice in the diocese, both in size and 
beauty of detail. Placed at the foot of the groat down ramparts of 
Salisbury Plain, this beautiful building stands out in bold relief 


50 On Ellington Church, and Memorials of its History. 

against the opposing hill. Its proportions are beyond most paro- 
cliial churches, as the following dimensions will show : — length of 
nave, 75 feet; breadth of ditto, including aisles, 52 feet 8 inches; 
height of ditto, 45 feet; square of tower, 25 feet 4 inches by 20 feet 
6 inches; length of chancel, 54 feet; breadth of ditto, 23 feet 9 
inches ; transepts, length 71 feet 9 inches, breadth 23 feet 7 inches. 
Outside, the church strikes us by the beauty of the stone and the 
clearness of the cuttings. The state of repair outside is far from 
giving the idea of the decay which strikes the visitor on entering 
this magnificent fabric. The drawings which I now exhibit, the 
work of entirely amateur artists, will show you the peculiarity of 
the style, as well as the exquisite beauty of this church. First, the 
east window is one of the most elegant specimens I am acquainted 
with, of that style which we might call Decorated Perpendicular. 
The upright line of the mullions, the general arrangement of the 
moiddings, and some of the tracery is almost Perpendicular ; whilst 
the upper portion partakes of the rich tracer)^ and the flowing and 
graceful arrangements of the Decorated style. The general efl:ect is 
almost perfect. If the straight lines of the centre mullions seem stiff 
and elongated, observe the way in which the stone seems to spring 
into flowery grace and lightness in the tracery above the lower portion 
of the window. Observing this window and the rich and exquisite 
carving of the north and south and side windows of the chancel, as 
well as the statuary in the inside, we cannot doubt but that this part 
is the work of the predecessor of William of Wykeham — that Wil- 
liam of Edington whose -wandows and arches inWinchester Cathedral 
are the forerimners of the more decided Perpendicular work of his 
more celebrated successor. Nor can we fail to blend the historical 
associations with the architectural, and to realize the pious Prelate 
submitting the plans of his new chm'ch to the warbUce Edward, 
and perhaps opposing the more stifi" and less elegant style of 
Wykeham, whose innovations were then beginning to be felt. I 
wdll draw your attention to the side windows also of the chancel, 
■which are formed of Decorated quatrefoils in very perfect proportion 
and finish. The tower also has a window which has the same 
peculiarity of style which distinguishes the east : fo\ir slightly 

By the Rev. Arthur Fane. 51 

cusped trefoils meet at a centre, and the junction of the four sides 
forms a cross pattee of elegant design. The windows and exterior 
of the nave generally are inferior and certainly later than the 
chancel, especially on the north side, where the arches of the 
cloisters may be traced above the wall, and the malformation of 
tlie side aisle windows may be accounted for by the abstraction of 
tlie cloisters which formed an integral part of the original plan. 

On the north side of the church stood the conventual buildings, 
connected with the church by a continuous cloister. The traces of 
the abbot's pond, the massive stone walls of the abbey gardens, 
and a majestic yew tree of colossal proportions, form a collection 
of objects which seem to complete the interest which the church 
itself must excite. 

But I must hasten to the inside. Here the decay and neglect 
of past ages form a sad contrast to the traces of glorious beauty 
with which this church must have been adorned when fresh from 
the chisel of William of Edington's workmen. Pews unsightly 
and of all heights — the floor a chaotic plateau, with traces of 
stolen brasses and ruptured inscriptions — green and dank walls — 
a huge oven, similar to a brewing vat, to warm the church — the 
mutilated statuary of "William of Edington — all speak of the wreck 
of magnificence and beauty caused by the hasty zealots of the 
Reformation, and of the apathy of many succeeding ages. Entering 
by a lofty southern porch, with a parvise or priest's room above, 
we find the nave divided from the side aisles by six lofty arches on 
each side, under one of which is a singular altar tomb, of which I 
am able to present a drawing. The tomb seems to have combined 
a brass memorial to the dead, which has been removed by sacri- 
legious hands, with a small oratory wherein the priest might 
repeat the daily service for the souls of the departed. 

Resuming our walk through the nave, and hoping as we pass on 
that the day will come when the hand of restoration shall cleanse 
those noble pillars and arches from the three centuries' white and 
ochro wash which cloaks their mouldings, begrimes their fair 
proportions, and disfigures the once beautiiul stone — wc arrive at 
the tower. Nothing can well be more graceful or elegant than 

II 2 

52 On Edington Church, and Memorkils of Us Ilidory. 

this part of the church. Four lofty arches, meeting from nave, 
transepts, and chancel, are joined by fan tracery which once was 
light and chaste, but which now is defaced by the usual church- 
wardens' bounty of obliterating washes of many colours and divers 
shades. The south transept claims special notice. A lofty window 
of Decoi'ated architecture lights it, and underneath the southern 
window we observe a tomb, of which again I present a drawing. 
Whose is it ? Who is the lordly monk or mitred abbot who there 
reposes ? The architecture and style speak of a later date than the 
times of William of Edington. An ecclesiastic of evident dignity 
reposes mider a canopy, the upper part of which is formed of two 
quatrefoils, with long perpendicular tracery meeting at the centre 
of the arches. Four quatrefoils on the body of the tomb contain, 
in their centres, two butts or barrels alternating with two Tudor 
roses : each butt has a branch projecting from the bung. An angel 
above the tomb holds a shield with the same device ; whilst on the 
cushion at the feet of the figure are the initials J. B. A delicate 
bordering of Perpendicular foliage runs along the top moulding of 
the tomb; whilst many traces of colouring are to be observed on 
various parts of the tomb, telling us plainly that once it was a rich 
and gorgeous memorial of the departed ecclesiastic. The initials 
J. B. and the rebus on the tomb have suggested to me an elucidation 
of the name of the monk who slumbers below. The purpose of a 
rebus, we all know, is to convey the name of an individual by 
outward symbols. If we take the branch to be a heck, which is an 
old word expressing a twig, and then look at its insertion in the 
ton or barrel, we make the word Beckinton ; and as the most 
ordinary mode of describing a monk or friar in those days would 
be the conjunction of his Christian name and place of abode — and 
as the village of Bcckington is near enough to have probably 
supplied recruits to the neighboiu'ing Monastery of Edington — may 
it not be that John of Beckington is the name of the monk who 
slumbers in death beneath ? This may seem a wide guess ; but this 
tomb is just one of those subjects of mystery, that wide guesses 
may be hazarded even at the risk of some archa;ological Edie 
OchUtrec dissolving the dream by clearly proving that J. B. means 

By the Rev. Arthur Fane. 53 

nothing else than John Bro'WTi, and the rebus that from his love of 
the abbatical beer, his life was as lively as a growing branch. 

The survey of the church must recall our minds from archaeo- 
logical guesses to the more patent beauties of the church. The 
windows in the transepts still give us examples of the contending 

Between the windows of the chancel a light canopy of exquisite 
work formerly contained a statue : two of these are wholly emptied 
of their tenant. The remaining two figures are headless ; but, even 
thus mutilated, show a high school of art in proportion and drapery. 
Two other canopies at the east end are remarkable for the light- 
ness and beauty of their details. 

It remains for me to mention the tomb which is placed on the 
south side of the altar, of the renaissance period of architecture ; 
and also one of modern art, which appears to be an imitation, and 
which is to be found in the nave. A magnificent tomb of alabaster 
and marble contains two efiigies, one of a lady of high rank, placed 
in a loftier position even in death than her husband. The tomb is 
a really beautiful specimen of the age, and the faces have a sharp- 
ness and grace and life about them that will not altogether seem 
despicable even in the presence of the exquisite work of the immortal 
Chantrey which is placed] exactly opposite. The male figure is 
dressed in the plate amiour of the early part of Charles the Ist's 
reign, and represents, as the inscription informs us. Sir Edward 
Lewys, gentleman of the Privy Chamber of Charles I. The lady 
is gorgeously arrayed in the ruflled and plaited and buckramed 
splendour of the Court of Henrietta, and represents Ann, Lady 
Bcauchamp, widow of Lord Bcauchamp, and daughter of the Earl 
of Dorset, and, by second marriage, wife of Sir E. Lewys. Aromid 
the plinth of the tomb arc five kneeling figures, marble effigies of 
the sons and daughters of the lordly coxq)lc above. According to 
the fashion in mortuary matters of that day, the little sons and 
daughters arc all in act of prayer, kneeling along the front of the 
tomb. Even these look scarcely comfortable in their trunk hose 
and angular doublets, or stiff stomachers and stifi'cr ruffles ; and 
they seem to have required some Medusa's head to have fixed them 

64 On EdiiKjton Church, and Memorials of its Sistory. 

tlius stiffly at their orisons. We must feel uncomfortable ourselves 
whilst we look on the forced attitudes and painful prostrations of 
the little knights or lordlings around their parental pattern of 
buckram and stiffiiess. Angels hover above, of inferior material 
and vastly inferior workmanship to the human figures below. The 
whole tomb would really be an ornament in almost any other part 
of the church, but it seems so exceedingly out of place in the chaste 
yet rich chancel of William of Edington, that the archaeologist 
cannot but wish Sir E. Lewys rested in some other spot than where 
now his effigy meets our view. 

Opposite to this tomb is an entirely modern work of art. When 
I say it is from the chisel of Chantrey, I say enough to make it 
acceptable to the most scrupulous Gothic archaeologist. It repre- 
sents the last moments of Sir Simon Taylor. The dying youth 
seems scarcely alive, scarcely dead, and the marble is so wondrously 
wrought that the looker-on hardly knows whether the figure has 
passed from life or not. The afflicted relatives watch the passing 
spirit, and hang over the beloved form as though they would grasp 
that passing spirit, even if it must quit the earthly tabernacle. 
Chantrey has fully maintained his high fame in this exquisite 
monument, which even of itself repays a visit to this beautiful 

In the nave is a singular monument, which appears to be the 
erection of a sculptor who was fired with an ambition to rival the 
monument of Sir E. Lewys. I have no doubt the descendant of 
the gentleman and lady represented on this tomb were fully as 
piously desirous of doing justice to their ancestor as the children 
who raised the monument in the chancel, but I trust I shall be 
excused observing that the modern dress of our bold yeomanry — 
I mean gaiters and tight (what shall I call them ?) tight trunk- 
hose are not well suited for monumental immortality. I trust in 
this, and any other remarks I may have made, no person will 
suppose that I would ofiend any Hving being ; indeed, in any 
observations I have made with regard to the dilapidation of the 
fabric, I have fully before my eyes the fact that this generation 
has nearly three centuries of destruction, fanatic spoliation, and 

By the Rev. Arthur Fane. 55 

cold-blooded neglect to replace, to restore, to regenerate ; and that 
whetlier in this churcli or in the one I last treated of, we may say 
with Ilorace of old — 

" Delicta majorum immeritus lues, 
Komane, donee templa refeeeris, 
^desqixe labentes deorum, et 
Foeda nigro simulacra fumo." 

The names of two ecclesiastics of fame — the one for his prosperity 
and intellect, the other for his misfortunes — must be briefly men- 
tioned ere I close this paper. William of Edington, Bishop of 
Winchester, is the first of these prelates : from his bounteous liberality 
arose the beautiful church of which we have been treating. The 
other ecclesiastic whose name is connected with this building is the 
unfortunate Bishop Ayscough, or Askew. It would seem that he 
was a singular favourite of the weak and vacillating Henry YI. 
Apparently employed about the Court, he rose to the post of Bishop 
of Salisbury. For twelve years he administered the diocese ; and, 
uniting high offices of courtly employment with his more sacred 
work in his diocese, he was Confessor to the King. He had retired 
from his more worldly occupations, and had sought out the quiet 
retirement of Edington for a short repose, and for celebrating the 
holy offices in more private and calm retreats. The mass was 
chaunted, the holy Eucharist was about to be administered, the 
Bishop was himself administering at the altar. Was ever retreat 
more suited for a mind palled with the splendours, anxieties, and 
cares of a court ? Can any din of war, or strife of tongues, reach 
that holy temple of God, in the midst of that calm village ? The 
Bishop kneels and partakes of the holy elements — he turns to offer 
the same privilege to the monks and the waiting congregation. 
What meant that wild shout which reigns through the vaulted 
church ? The worshippers start from their knees — the awful sounds 
increase — the surging voices of a crowd again echo through the 
church. The doors are burst open — the crowd rushes in — the 
Bishop, in his episcopal robes, faces the approaching crowd — the 
monks, aghast, expect instant death ; but the Bishop stands before 
the altar, calmly awaiting whatever violence may be in store. 
Again and again the fatal cry is heard — " Death to the Bishop — 

56 On Edington Church, and 3Icnionals of its Hidorij. 

death to the King's Confessor." His holy office — the sacred work 
in which he is engaged — the sacredness of the place — avail nothing. 
The ringleaders seize the Bishop — they drag him through chancel 
and nave with rude violence ; and now the cry arises, " to the hill- 
top with the traitor." The Bishop takes one long lingering look 
at the calm, holy retreat below — it is his last look. The crowd 
gather round — the heaped-up flints that chance to be nigh give 
ready means for execution — the first blow is struck, and now the 
blood flows over the sacred vestments — another and another — he is 
prostrate — his venerable brow and calm visage become one ghastly 
wound — he breathes a prayer — he dies. 

Such was the fate of William Ayscough, Bishop of Salisbury — 
the victim of Jack Cade's rebellion, brutally murdered upon the 
hUl above Edington, by his own people, upon the plea that he was 
the King's Confessor, and did not hospitably entertain his people. 
The mob concluded the horrid tragedy by spoiling his palace of 
10,000 marks, and leaving his body naked and gory upon the 
down above. Such is popular violence — such is King Mob in his 
full reign. The shocking tragedy of the murder of Bishop Askew 
may leave a mournful impression. Let me, then, conclude by 
reading to you the exact counterpart of this tragedy in the most 
truthful and accurate of writers, William Shakespeare. 

"Dick. The first thing we do let's kill aU the lawyers. 

Cade. Nay, that I mean to do. Is not this a lamentable thing, that of the 
skin of an innocent lamb should be made parchment : that parcliment, being 
scribbled o'er, should undo a man ? Some say, the bee stings : but I say, 'tis 
the bee's wax : for I did but seal once to a thing, and I was never mine own 
man since. How now : who's there ? 

Enter some, bringing in the clekk of Chatham. 

Smith. The clerk of Chatham : he can write and read, and cast accompt. 

Cade. monstrous ! 

Smith. We took him setting of boys' copies. 

Cade. Here's a villain I 

Smith. H'as a book in his pocket, with red letters in't. 

Cade. Nay, then, he is a conjuror. 

Dick. Nay, he can make obligations, and vrrite court-hand. 

Cade. I am sony for't : the man is a proper man, on mine honoiu: : unless I 
find him guilty, he shall not die. Come hither, sii-rah ; I must examine thee : 
what is thy name ? 

Clerk. Emmanuel. 

On Parochidl Hisfon'es. 57 

Dick. They use to write it on the top of letters : 'Twill go hard with you. 

Cade. Let me alone : — Dost thou use to «Tite thy name : or hast thou a mark 
to thyself, like an honest plain dealing man ? 

Clerk. Sir, I thank God, I have been so well brought up, that I can write 
my name. 

All. He hath confessed : away with him ; he's a villain and a traitor. 

Cade. Away with him, I say : hang him with his pen and ink-hora about his 
neck." \_Sxeuiit some with the Clerk, 

Hexet VI.— Part II.— Act IV.— Scene II. 

(S^n ^nrnrljinl ififetarfe. 

By the Rev. John "Wilkinson. 

f Rector of BrougMmi Gifford.J 

I suppose that I am not wrong in believing that the collection of 
materials for a County History was one of the main objects proposed 
at the foundation of this Society. In the preface to our Magazine 
a hope is expressed, " that such a work may be not only a means 
of providing popular amusement and instruction, but may also 
serve as a valuable assistant to those who may hereafter undertake 
the more serious task of finishing the history of the county." In 
the report of the Provisional Committee, it was expressly said 
that " one of our chief pui-poses is to collect materials for a county 
history," and the clergy were appealed to for their assistance. In 
the inaugural address we were reminded that Wilts was, in this 
matter, " unfortunately much in arrear of other counties ; indeed, 
that there is scarcely any district of England whose local histoiy 
has been, till very lately, so much neglected ; or, where so much, 
even now, remains to be accomplished." It was safely asserted that 
" the history of no part of the kingdom is more deserving of close 
examination and study; while it is too certain that few coimtics 
have profited less from the labours of the local historian." This 
reproach was said to rest particularly on the Northern division of 
the county; and the hope was indulged that "nianj' of us may live 
to see a complete County History of Witts, worthy of the title, 
wortliy of tliis UKjst important part of England, in which so many 


58 On Parochial Uistorioi. 

interesting liistorical events have occured, with which so many 
remarkable historical characters have been connected." One of 
our secretaries, in his address, pointed out what a covxnty history 
ought to be, stated from his own experience the difficulties which 
beset the task, and showed how they coidd be met and overcome, 
namely, by the power of combination, directed and animated by 
this Society. Mr. Jackson has done more than deliver precepts 
on this subject. He has taught by example, by his various 
contributions to our Magazine, and particularly by his account of 
Farleigh-Hungerford — which may be regarded as the model of a 
parochial history. That parish indeed lies chiefly in Somersetshire, 
though part of it is within the County of "Wilts ; but we have 
further in our own county the history, by our President, of a parish, 
as rich in matters of historical interest, as happy in its historian. 

A County History then is one of the main objects before the 
members of this Society. 

Now, such a history must, from its very nature, consist of many 
component parts ; it will be, if in any way full and perfect, a com- 
bined whole, made up of the histories of a county's sub-divisions — 
the Parishes : for every parish has a physical, civil, and ecclesiastical 
story of its own, more or less interesting. Its very name requires 
etymological investigation ; it has a certain configuration of surface, 
certain geological strata, certain peculiarities of climate, of drainage, 
of animals, and of plants ; certain natives or inhabitants, who, at 
some time may have been historical characters ; certain buildings 
of note, public or private : its industry will always repay inquiry ; 
if agricultural, we may ask how many acres under the plough ? 
how many in grass, what the management of each, what the rent, 
the produce ? what the condition of the labouring population, their 
amusements, their toils, their habits, the state of the cottages, what 
improvements have been made, what are still wanting? if the 
industry be manufacturing, the questions will refer in our neigh- 
bourhood to the state of the woollen trade in the West, as distin- 
guished from that in the North ; the factories and their management, 
theprogressof thepower loom, the displacement of home manufactures 
by hand, the effects of this on the physical and moral condition of 

By the Rev. John Wilkinson. 59 

the artisans. Then the means of communication, the roads, canals, 
railways ; the religious and ecclesiastical condition, the church and 
those who frequent it, the Parsons, past but not present ; the means 
of education and of moral improvement, the schools, the libraries, 
the mechanics' institutes ; the charitable societies, the poor and 
other parochial funds. A Parochial History should not be a piece 
of antiquarian research merely; not a sketch of what a parish was, 
so much as of what it is. Let us aim at presenting a faithful 
picture of the present age, remembering that what is present to us, 
and from its very familiarity but little noticed by us, will soon be 
matter of past history and of much inquiry to those who will follow 
us, and who will require from us what we are now requiring from 
our predecessors, and what we blame them for not handing down 
to us — a plain statement of what was every day before their eyes. 
Antiquarian detail may be interesting to a few, but we want some- 
thing useful to all. 

The accounts of some parishes wUl be more full than those of 
others, but all these sub-divisions of the county must be more or 
less described, before the county historian, the man of the future, 
can enter on his task. Parochial Histories then 1 imagine to be 
the materials which we are called on to provide, and which were 
contemplated by the Society at its foundation. 

Who is to do the work before us ? No one man can. No number 
of persons simply visiting the different localities will do it. Such 
peripatetic investigators may look round a place, but have not 
time or opportunity to look into it ; they will certainly overlook 
much most worthy of attention, and their published reports will 
be, as often before, meagre, superficial, inaccurate, and generally 
unsatisfactory. Our parochial historians must be residents in, or 
near, the places they describe. But who is there resident in each 
parish, interested in and acquainted with its affairs, past and present, 
of sufficient zeal, intelligence, and knowledge, to undertake the 
work ? This is not a very easy question to answer, but, unless it 
be answered, we are stopt at the very threshold. Perhaps I may 
be prejudiced in favour of my cloth, as the cobbler of the besieged 
town was in favour of his leather; 1)ut for the life of me I cannot 

I 2 

60 On Parochial Histories. 

think of anybody but the Clergyman, as in any way meeting our 
requirements. ^Vho else is there in very many of our rural parishes? 
Look at the progressive changes taking place in the residences of 
our population. It may be worth while marking for a moment the 
slow, sure, and silent course of the stream. " 'Tis sixty years since," 
or more, that farms were small, and the occupiers were their own 
landlords, the chief occupier was the Squire, himself a farmer. 
But small farms have not been found profitable, many have been 
merged into one, economy has been enforced, there are fewer 
dwelling-houses to keep in repair, improved modes of cultivation 
have been introduced ; the former gentlemen yeomen have become 
either tenants or bailiffs, and their sons have gone into trade and 
taken to other occupations in life. The squires, small and great, 
are gone to watering places, to the neighbourhood of the railway 
termini, or to London, for pleasure, for business, for the education 
of families : the smaller have no country house whatever ; the larger 
cannot keep up all the country houses which belong, or did belong, 
to the several estates which compose their accumulated possessions, 
so they retain one which they may occupy for a few months in 
each year; the other baronial mansions are deserted or occupied by 
tenants, or in many cases by paupers. Within a mile of the parish 
in which I live there is the finest existing English specimen of 
domestic Gothic architecture, built in the middle of the 15th cen- 
tury, occupied as a farm house. The manor house of the adjoining- 
parish is filled with paupers. There are, close to me, four houses, 
once of consideration, occupied by tenant farmers or by paupers. 
The second largest resident landed proprietor, if not the largest, 
and the owner of a large proportion of the houses, is a beer house 
keeper. What is true of my parish is true of those around me. 
The smaller manor houses are every where deserted. Such is the 
abandonment of the country, resulting in a great measure from 
railroads, that persons of intelligence, knowledge, and education, 
are not generally to be met with in the country. We must then, 
as a rule, have recourse to the Parish Priest, he, at least, is adstrictus 
glehce, the last sole remnant of feudalism ; for him the law of settle- 
ment is in full force, and will be, long after our President and 

By the Rev. John Wilkinson. 61 

others like minded have repealed that law in regard to the labouring 
poor: the sooner the better. But will or can the clergy undertake 
the work ? The want of willingness will be very exceptional, and 
may be provided for as such. But the want of ability, arising 
from occupations which admit of no interference, wlU. be more 
frequent. We must remember however that this difficidty will 
occur in towns and populous neighbourhoods — the very places 
where it can be most easily met — by enlisting the services of other 
most competent residents. Here in Chippenham you could not 
indeed ask the Vicar to write a physical, civil, and ecclesiastical 
history of his pai-isb, he has other and more serious calls on his 
time and attention. But he has already found a brother Clergyman 
who has done the most difficult part of the work for him, and I am 
very sure there are many here perfectly willing and able to finish it. 
In every parish of any size or importance there must be a division 
of labour : a committee of parochial historians must be formed, who 
shall divide the composition between them ; and generally, in asking 
the Clergyman to undertake the work in any parish, you would 
permit him to call in what helpers he chose. All the reports of 
the several parties would be in answer to certain specified heads 
of inquiry, and the whole would be revised, consolidated and ar- 
ranged by a competent body of editors. 

But, of course, it is not for me, nor for any other private 
individual, nor indeed for this Society, to summon the Clergy to 
this labour. "We miglit call, but I fear they would not generally 
answer. " Do nothing without the Bishop" must be our motto in 
this as well as in other matters in which the Clergy are concerned, 
and I bave not failed to observe it now. Before moving in this affair, 
I consulted the Bishop of Salisbury. He has twice written to me, 
approving warmly; and he authorizes me to say this. He hopes 
that the promoters of the scheme will visit him at the Palace, and 
form with him a plan of operations ;^ he wishes the Palace to be 

1 This meeting has been held. The plan, already in progress, is, that a paper 
of parouliial topics, together with a specimen liistjry of one parish in "Wilts and 
of another in Dorset, be prepared, printed, and circulated among the Clcrgj', 
with an address from the Bishop. 

62 On Parochial Illsfon'r-s. 

considered tlie head quarters of this movement, which he desires 
should embrace the whole diocese, Dorset as well as part of Wilts, 
lie has alreadj' laid the matter before the Archdeacons and Rural 
Deans of the whole diocese, and secured their co-operation and 
good will. 

If there remain in any corner of any one's mind a doubt as 
to the feasibility of this plan, perhaps I may remove that hesitation 
by showing that all the difficulties, incident to a much more extensive 
scheme, have been met and conquered. I can show you a history, 
not of a county, but of a kingdom, successfully executed hj the 
parochial Clergy. I allude to the new statistical account of Scotland, 
by the ministers of the respective jjarishes ; a complete topography, 
parish by parish, county by county, of the whole of the Island 
north of the Tweed, contained in fifteen volumes. 

This work is so remarkable, that I ask to be allowed to describe it, 
and the circumstances which led to it, a little in detail. I shall take 
my facts and my views chiefly from an article which appeared in the 
"Quarterly Review," number 164. Sir John Scot of Scotstarvet, 
suggested, as early as 1641, to the general assembly of the 
Kirk of Scotland a general scheme for describing the country by the 
parochial ministers, imder the directions of the assembly. But the 
undertaking had fallen on troublous times, and when the work, with 
the maps accompanying it, did after some years issue from the press, 
it jjlainly showed in its imperfect condition, its sympathy with the 
disasters of the country it professed to delineate. It was, however, 
meritorious, in spite of its defects, as a first attempt, and was the 
starting point of all succeeding inquiries. The geography and topo- 
graphy of Scotland passed through several hands — Sibbald, Walter 
Mac Farlan (from whom Sir Walter Scott largely borrowed), 
Pennant, and others, with more or less assistance from the Clergy ; 
till at last the Kirk and the Highland Agricultural Society united its 
strength in a great work of parochial statistics and local history. 
Towards the close of the last century, the project of a general 
topographical account, to be furnished by the ministers, was taken 
up by one to whom Scotland owes much of her present forward 
position in agriculture and intelligence — Sir John Sinclair, the 

By the Rec. John Wilkinson. 63 

President of the Highland Agricultural Society. He circulated, 
among the ministers, a number of queries respecting the geographical 
and natural history of each parish, its population, its productions, 
state of religion, morals, manners, education ; of the poor, their 
maintenance and employment, antiquities and historical events; 
it being intimated that the great object of the inquiry was to know 
the present state of the country, and the means most likely to 
promote its welfare. Being a member of the General Assembly 
he obtained the co-operation of that Ecclesiastical Parliament. 
"Nothing" he says "could be more flattering than the reception 
the queries met with. Scotland is divided into 950 parishes or 
districts, and in less than eighteen months reports were received 
from above half that number." He conquered all obstacles chiefly, 
according to his own account, by four fortunate peculiarities : first, 
the winning affability of his manner and address, which was irresist- 
able to young Clergymen; second, having an estate and residence 
in the north part of the kingdom, which gave him superior access 
to information, and opportunity of cultivating an uncommonly 
extensive acquaintance; third, the golden rule of pointedly answering 
every letter he received; fourth, a spirit of perseverance which no 
obstacle could resist, and which was kept up, from time to time, by 
animating eulogies from various respectable quarters, some of which 
eulogies the worthy Baronet has, with very pardonable complacency, 
printed in his appendix. This work of Sir J. Sinclair's is called 
" The Old Statistical." 

For forty years the Kirk rested on her oars, as well she might; 
but at the lapse of that period, after a general war had been 
followed by as general a peace, and by the important and inevitable 
changes which took place on the recurrence of men and money to 
civil occupations; after the impulse given to every branch of our 
domestic industry, after the extraordinary advances of that age in 
science, arts, and manufactures; after the increase of intelligence 
in all ranks of population, of various employments, of public 
institutions and charities, of religion and education, the ministers 
of the Kirk wisely tliouglit that the time had come for another 
and a more important endeavour to murk the progress, the state, 
and the capabilities of their own, their native laud. 

64 On Parochial Jlistones. 

The undertaking was again nnder the sanction of the General 
Assembly, who " recommended the members of the church to 
give all the aid in their power towards its completion." Heads 
of inquiry were circulated among the Clergy in 1831 by the 
committee of the Society for the sons and daughters of the Clergy, 
to whom Sir J. Sinclair had bequeathed the copy-right of " The Old 
Statistical." Several gentlemen of literary and scientific distinction 
were appointed to revise the contributions in the several departments. 
Professor Jameson for geology and natural history, Mr. Tytler for 
civil history. Professor Low for agriculture. The publication began 
in 1834, and ended in 1845. The information is grouped imder 
the heads of Topography and Natural Historj^, Civil and Ecclesias- 
tical History, Population, Industry, Parochial Economy. Perhaps 
this arrangement might admit of improvement ; it is hardly 
necessary to require from the ministers of adjoining parishes, answers 
to the same string of minute queries as to geography, hydrography, 
and geology. These are pretty much the same within a certain 
district larger than the parochial. The whole county might be de- 
scribed by some scientific person. So again in regard to zoology and 
botany. A condensed and digested physical histoiy of the county 
might be given according to its natural di-vdsions, reserving for the 
minor and often capricious divisions of parishes, what might be 
peculiar to each, and so lightening the burden imposed on the 

But these are matters of detail. Taking the work as a whole, 
it must be acknowledged that the ministers of the Kirk of Scotland 
have furnished a compilation which must long be regarded as a 
lasting memorial of their intelligence, of their zeal, of their research, 
and of that varied and intimate acquaintance with the affairs, 
history, condition, and resources of their parishes, which so well 
becomes them. Be it remembered also, that they have raised a 
monument to the honour of their countrj^, such as no other can 
boast, unaided by public funds, and supported throughout by no 
other means than such as might arise from the sale of the work. 
They have been entii-ely self-reliant. The work has paid and more 
than paid its way. 

By the Rev. John Wiihinsoii. 65 

Now, shall it be thouglit that the Clergy of the Church of England 
cannot do for one county, what the ministers of the Kirk of Scotland 
have done for a whole kingdom ? Dr. Johnson is reported to have 
said, " Shall the Kirk of Scotland have its General Assembly and 
shall the Church of England be denied its convocation ? I will stand 
before a batterj^ of cannon to restore convocation." Without 
entering into the question of the revival of convocation, and without 
professing the fire-eating zeal of the High Church Lexicographer, 
we may stir up our own church to a reasonable jealousy, and ask, 
Shall the Kirk of Scotland have the completest parochial history 
existing, and shall we of the Church of England have none ? 
AVhjr? Are we less naturally intellectual, less highly educated, less 
zealous and inquiring, less fond of research, less literary in our 
tastes, less interested in our several spheres of duty? I reject the 
notion of our inferiority in any of the qualifications for the task: 
that we have not yet undertaken it with a simultaneous efibrt is 
an accident which may be repaired. Indeed in one very essential 
requisite — knowledge of church historj"-, of christian and ecclesias- 
tical antiquity, we may, without much vainglorying, suppose 
ourselves better informed than they are in the north. We should 
not probably, it is hoped, fall into such mistakes as some which I 
am going to mention in the great Scotch work. Many churches 
in Scotland, as well as elsewhere, are dedicated to Michael the 
Archangel. The ministers of one of these (Kirk Michael) says, in 
"The New Statistical," that "the name of this parish, which is 
common to no fewer than five others in Scotland, is obviously 
derived from St. Michael, a saint of groat note in the Roman 
breviary, who flourished in the 10th century." The minister of 
Cross Michael also tells us that " St. Michael seems to have been 
regarded as an individual of more than ordinary sanctity :" quite 
imconscious that he is speaking of him wlio in heaven made war 
on the great Dragon. Again, the Church of Kilmorack — a Gaelic 
word meaning literally "the Church of Mary" — Avas dedicated, of 
course, to tlic Blessed Virgin. The minister was at a loss who this 
Mary might be, and adds, " from what family this lady sprang 
cannot with certainty be ascertained, though it seems most lilcely 


66 On Parochktl Uutories. 

she was a descendant of one of the laii-ds of Cliislioliu." This 
occurs first in " The Old Statistical," but the suggestion appeared 
so valuable, and probably so gratifying to the clan, that it has been 
rejjeated by the more recent topographer. The same reverend 
gentleman may be excused for quoting the foundation charter of 
the Prior}' of Beaulieu 1230, as confirmed by Pope Gregory III. 
who lived in the 8th century. 

Another describes the choir of a church as that part "in which 
some special rites of the Church of Rome were performed." A 
Font is said to be " a large circular basin of freestone, used as the 
depository of holy water in times of Popery." We happily have 
not that narrow-minded contempt for church learning, which would 
cause us to fall into these little errors. 

We are not wanting in successfid examples of parochial histories 
by members of our own body. Dr. Kenuett's "Parochial Antiquities 
of Ambrosden and Burcester" is a classical work. It is not indeed 
necessary or desirable that we should each of us compile two quarto 
volumes, nor perhaps that we should read all that Dr. Kenuett has 
written ; but if any want a vindication of these pursuits, and of the 
propriety of the Clergy's joining in them, he may be referred to Dr. 
Kennett's preface, in which he attacks those "idle, witty people, who 
think all history to be scraps, and all antiquity rust and rubbish. I 
say only this," and he speaks with authority, for he was afterwards 
Bishop of Peterborough, "next to the immediate discharge of my 
holy office, I know not how in any course of studies I could better have 
served my patron, my peoi^le, and my successors, than by preserving 
the memoirs of this parish and the adjacent parts, which before lay 
remote from common notice, and in a few years had been buried 
in unsearchable oblivion. If the present age be too much immersed 
in cares and pleasures to take any relish, or to make any use of 
these discoveries, I then appeal to posteritj^, for I believe the time 
will come, when persons of better inclination will arise, who will 
be glad to find any collection of this nature, and wUl be ready to 
supply the defects and carrj^ on the continuation of it. Men would 
delight to read anj^ accoiuit of former ages, if they could themselves 
hope to make au}' good figure in future story." He appeals also 

On the Barrow of Lanhill near Chippenham. 67 

to his successors — " I liave the vanity to hope that some of those 
who shall succeed in the benefice I now enjoy, will be glad to 
recollect that thej- had a certain predecessor who seemed to have 
some zeal for the good estate of his church and parish, and who 
was at some charge and pains to search into histories and records, 
upon no other motive but the love of his parochial charge and the 
benefit of posterity." J.W. 


13nrrniD at f ntijjill nenr CjiippenljEm, 


Cljr %[\\\\m nf Cijnuit anii (Etjianhm, 

A.D. 878. 
By John Thuenam, M.D, F.S.A. 

The Lanhill Barrow is situated about three miles north-west of 
Chippenham, very near a farm-house of that name, in a meadow 
close to the road leading to Marshfield and Bristol. It is thus 
described, as it existed in the middle of the 17th century, by Aubrey 
in his " Monumenta Britannica"^ " On the left hand of the road 
from Chippenham to Bristow, about half a mile short of Biteston, 
near a ground called Lanhill in Chippenham parish, is a barrow 
or tumulus, commonly known by the name of BarroAV Hill, where 
they say one Hubba lies buried. This monument is sixty paces 
long, it is raised of small stone-brash stones, such as the fields 
thereabouts doe so plentifully yield; and is covered with earth a 
quarter of a foot thick ; which I came to know by the tenant, who 
thought to have digged down this hill, for the earth to lay on 
other land. Perhaps there might have been some stones at the 
gp'cat end as in Lugbury." To what is here said, as to this barrow 
being regarded as the burial-place of Ilubba, we Avill return. 

I Sec "Ancient Wilts" by Sir 11. C. lloaie, vol. II. p. 99. The oiif,'inal 
MS. of Aubrey's " Monumenta llritannica" is now in the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford; and a copy of tlio jjart rclatin;,' to Wiltshire is preserved in the library, 
collected by the late Sir It. f". Iloare, at Stourlicud. 

K 2 

68 On the Barrow at LanhlH near Chippenham; 

Since the time of Aubrey, this tumulus has been much levelled ; 
and it is known that, about fifty years since, a former tenant removed 
a large quantity of the stone of which it is formed. The only 
particidars we have been able to obtain of these excavations are 
from an old man, who states that many human bones were thrown 
uj), among which he particular!)^ recollects several lower jaws. 
At present, the mound has the appearance of several irregular 
hillocks, in part overgrown with thorns and briars, resembling 
somewhat the site of an old quarry. Sufficient still remains 
to show that it was a long barrow, ranging cast and west, about 
160 feet in length, broadest near the east end, and with its present 
greatest height not exceeding six or seven feet. About thirty or 
forty feet from the eastern extremity, the upper edges of two flat 
stones were just visible above the turf. These stones were parallel 
with each other, placed from east to west, and about four and 
a half feet apart. Their position was such as to lead to the in- 
ference that they formed part of a stone chamber or cist; and, on 
the occasion of the meeting of the Wiltshire Archfcological Society 
at Chippenham, in September last, it was agreed to make some 
excavations, with the view of determining the period to which the 
barrow belongs. It would have been proper to record what was 
then ascertained, had this even been less than was actually the 
case. Enough however Avas observed to establish the agreement 
of this with other long stone barrows, containing cists or chambers, 
found in this part of England; and which must be regarded as 
altogether distinct from the round, (bowl, or bell-shaped) barrows so 
common on the downs of Wiltshire and the adjacent counties. An 
excavation was made between the two stones, which soon disclosed 
a third flat slab, like the othei's, of a rough oolite. This was placed 
between, and at right angles with, the others, so as to form the 
figure of the Roman letter \r\, having the cross-bar disproportion- 
ately long. The two side stones are about four and a half feet in 
height, and about the same in length; the stone which separates 
them, and by which they are maintained in the erect position, is 
about five and a half feet high, and four and a half long, being 
sunk about a foot deeper in the earth than the two others. These 

and on the Battles of Cynult and Ethandun. 69 

stones differ altogether in size and character from tlie large massy 
stones forming the megalithic monimients, usually caUed triliths, 
dolmens, or cromlechs, such as are found at the east end of some 
.long barrows; the most perfect example in this part of England, 
being that called Lugbury, near Littleton Drew. The space 
between the two upright stones was filled up with the small 
cornbrasb of the district, roughly thrown in. Exterior to these 
large stones, the barrow must have been piled up, by hand, in the 
same way as a common drj^ wall at the present day. The stones 
were placed in regular layers, and their under surface encrusted 
with a remarkable white calcareous efflorescence. The same ar- 
rangement of the stones, and the same incrustation were observed, in 
other parts of the barrow. It was clear that the space enclosed 
by the two upright stones had at some time been disturbed, as 
nothing was found beyond a few scattered fragments of human 
bones, and a few belonging to lower animals, among which were 
those of some bird. These were at a depth of from three to four 
feet. Among the human remains, were parts of the lower jaw of 
a person about twent)', and another of perhaps fifty, years of age, 
both probably females. These remains were found on each side 
of the transverse stone, but chiefly on the west. The only object 
of art discovered, was a single flint flake, of very dark colour, 
and somewhat clumsy form, which might however have served 
as a knife, or as a spear or arrow-head. At a depth of about 
four and a half feet, the natural soil of a reddish clay was 
found, and below this the substratum of cornbrash. Further to 
the west, the barrow had been almost entirely levelled; and the 
excavations made in that situation only disclosed the natural soil. 
Nearer the centre, it preserved in great measure its original eleva- 
tion, and at a distance of about forty feet from the former, another 
considerable excavation was made. The stones here presented 
their original stratified condition, as already described; but there 
were no traces of cists or chambers. Nothing was found beyond 
the jaw and molar teeth of an ox, very much dccaj'cd and encrusted 
with calcareous deposit. These were about two feet below the 
surface, where they had evidently reuiaiued for ages undisturbed. 

70 On ihc Barrow at Lanhill near C/tippen/iam ; 

In a hollow, ou the north side of the barrow and of this excavation, 
the upper edge of a somewhat thick flat stone, about five feet in 
length, projected above the turf. On digging round this, it proved 
to be about two and a half feet in height, and to range from S.S.E., 
to N.N.W. On the east side, a piece of the large horn of a red deer 
was found, and on the west, were a few fragments of two human 
skeletons, which, as indicated by the lower jaws, were probably 
those of men, of about twenty and forty years of age. The stone 
rested on the natural soil, and at its south-west corner, a much 
smaller stone was observed, which was placed at a right angle with 
the other; and perhaps indicated that a small rude cist had existed 
in this situation. Nothing else was foimd. 

Whilst we have no hesitation in classifying the Lanhill tumulus 
with the other long stone barrows of this part of England, we 
must remain in doubt whether the dilapidated stone structure near 
the east end had formed part of a chamber, such as may be seen 
at Stoney Littleton and Uley,^ or whether it had rather been a 
larffe cist. If a chamber, intended to be entered from the east end, 
we must suppose that the covering stones had been removed, and 
that the stone now placed transversely between the two others, had, 
possibly during some earlier examination, been forced into its 
present place, with a view of preserving the position of these two 
side stones. If this transverse stone is regarded as always having 
occupied its present position, we must then conclude that the three 
stones formed the western end of a small chamber or large cist, 
the rest of the stones having long since been removed. On the 
whole, the former view appears the more probable. As to the 
stones on the north side of the centre of the barrow, we can have 
little difficulty in tracing in them the remains of a small cist, such 
as have been found in long stone barrows in this district; and 
of which we have examples at Littleton Drew, Duntesbourne 
Abbots, and other places. The occurrence of stone cists, with 

1 See " Archreologia," 1819, vol. XIX, p. 43, for Stoney Littleton ; " Archreo- 
logical Joiu-nal," 1854, vol. XI, p. 313, for Uley. 

and on the Batiks of Cynuit and Ethandim. 71 

interments in sucli a position, should induce future explorers 
to examine with care the sides of these long barrows. 

AYe need hardly here reproduce the argimients by which it may 
be shewn that these long barrows are to be assigned to a very 
ancient British period, prior to the introduction of metallic imple- 
ments or weapons, whether of bronze or iron. Lest, however, the 
historical evidence should be thought to outweigh the archaeological, 
it seems proper to take some notice of the statement that this 
tumulus was the burial place of the Danish chief, Hubba, who died so 
late as towards the end of the 9th century. Aubrey, as we have seen, 
alludes to a popular tradition to this effect, when he says, here "they 
say one Hubba lies buried." Of such a tradition there are, now at 
least, no traces in the neighbourhood. Aubrey, in a note, adds, 
" Mr. Wood ! " (meaning Anthony A' Wood) " I leave it to you 
to give the name to this sepulchre, wliether Hubbaslow or Barrow 
Hill. Sir Charles Snell, of Kington St. Michael, told me of it in 
1646 or 47, when I was a freshman, and said it was Hubbaslow. 
He shewed me then an old Stow's chronicle of the first edition, in 
a thick octavo, or rather quarto, which mentioned it ; but Caxton's 
chronicle makes him to be buried in Devonshire, which I presume 
is an error." In this last statement, Caxton, as mil be shown, was 
in all probability correct ; his narrative, however, is full of incon- 
sistencies and improbabilities ; and neither he nor Stow, writers of 
the 15th and 16th centuries, can be accepted as authorities in a 
disputed question of this sort. 

On turning to the cotemporary, and nearly cotemporary 
historians of this period, Asser, the Anglo-Saxon chronicle, and 
Florence of Worcester, we find in them an almost uniform statement 
to the following effect, of the events early in the year 878. 
" The brother of Ilynguar and Hcalfdcn, with twenty-three ships, 
came from the country of Demetia, (South Wales,) where he had 
wintered, and sailed to Devon, where he was slain before the Castle 
of Cynuit, by the king's servants ; and wlierc was gained a very 
large booty ; and, amongst otlier things, the war standard called 
the Raven ;" which, as the annals, (erroneously attributed to Asser,) 

72 On the Barroic of Lunhill near CJiijipcnham ; 

add — perhaps from a fabulous source^ — " tlie three sisters of 
Ilj^nguar and Huhha wove in one day." That the brother of 
Hynguar and Healfden, here named, was really Huhixt, is almost 
certain ; and, indeed, his name is expressly mentioned by Geoffi-ey 
Gaimar, Roger of Wendover, and Matthew of Westminster; 
whose authority, however, has not the same weight as that 
of Asser and the other historians quoted. These two last writers, 
describe the three brothers, Hynguar, Hubba, and Healfden, 
as all being slain at Cynuit. It is certain that their names do not 
again appear as engaged in these expeditions. 

There is no sufficient proof, to be derived from the earliest 
authorities, that Hubba was ever in the neighbourhood of Chippen- 
ham. Though no doubt frequently in alliance with Guthrum, the 
Danish king of East Anglia, Hubba and his brothers were more 
intimately connected with the Danes of Northumbria, of whom, 
one of them (Healfden) was the actual ruler. In the year 876-7, 
the Danes, tmder Guthrmu, had wintered at Exeter, and were 
besieged there by Alfred. Notwithstanding temporary advantages, 
Alfred, being supported only by the people of Somersetshire, was 
obliged to retire from the contest, taking up his abode in Athelney, 
towards the end of 877. At the same period, the Danes under 
Guthrum left Exeter and went to Chippenham, where they win- 
tered. Asser is very particular, in describing these movements of the 
Danish forces, to distinguish between those under diiferent leaders. 
He appears to have the Danes under Hynguar and Hubba, who 
were at this time in South Wales, as well as another force, which 
had retired to Mercia, in view, when in speaking of the departure 
of the army under Guthrum from Exeter to Chippenham, he terms 
it the army before mentioned — " supra memoratus sa3pe exercitus." 
The other Danish leaders, kings as they are called, immediately 
associated with Guthrum, according to Asser, the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, and Henry of Huntingdon, were Oscytel and Amand, 
or Anwynd; who, if we credit the latter authority, accompanied 
Guthrum to Chippenham. As to the sons of tlie celebrated 

I See "Mon. Hist. Brit.," p. 481; also Gaimar "L'Estorie des Engles," 
line 3147. 

and on the Battles of Ci/nuit and Ethandun. 73 

Ragnar Lodbrok, Healfdcn seems to have been occupied in con- 
solidating liis conquests, and settling his followers on the lands of 
Northumbria ; whilst Hubba, almost certainly, and Hynguar, 
probablj^ had fallen at Cynuit, 

Guthrum's army was still at Chippenham, when, a few days 
before Whitsuntide, which this year fell on the 11th of May, Alfred, 
encouraged by the recent defeat of the Danes at Cynuit, rallied his 
followers, and entering "Wiltshire from Athelney, marched north- 
ward, and attacked the invaders of his country, at a place called 
Ethandun. Here he gained that great victory, by which the 
supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon power was decided. After defeating 
the Danes in a pitched battle, with great slaughter, he piirsued 
them flying to their fortress, (no doubt some earth-work in the 
neighbourliood,) where he besieged them fourteen days. After an 
almost unconditional surrender, they entered into a treaty; and 
soon after Guthrum with thirty of the most distinguished of his 
army came to Alfred, and embracing Christianity, received baptism 
at his hands. In none of the narratives, do we find mention 
of any other king or leader, as might certainly have been expected, 
liad so celebrated a chief as Hubba either been killed at Ethandun, 
or been in any way immediately connected \\'ith these events. 

And here we naturally pause to inquire the site of this celebrated 
battle. That it was at no great distance from Chijjpenham, seems 
certain ; it being expressly stated that the Danes had their quarters 
at that place, both before and after the battle. Camden states, but 
gives no reasons for the opinion, that Edington near Westbury was 
the ancient Etliandun, where this battle was fought ; and, in this 
assertion, he finds a strenuous supporter in Sir R. C. Hoarc. Gough, 
the annotator of Camden, equally with Sir Richard Iloarc, main- 
tains that tlic fortified earth-work or camp, known as Rratton 
Castle, on the down immediately above Edington, is the fortress 
to which the Danes were pursued by Alfred.^ These views are 
now so generally received as to be incorporated, not only in 

> Camden, " Britannia," Ed. 1806, vol. 1, pp. 131. 146.— Sir K. C. Hoare, 
"Ancient WiitH," vol. I, p. m. 


74 On the Barroir at LanJdll near Chijjpenliam; 

popular histories, but also, very improperly, in most of the 
modern editions of the ancient chronicles. Let us, however, turn 
to the pages of, perhaps, the only strictly cotemporary authority, 
Asser ; whose narrative, stripped of matter irrelevant to our present 
inquiry, is as follows : " In the seventh week after Easter, Alfred 
leaving ^'Ethclingaeg, rode to Ecgbryht's stone, which is in the cast- 
em part of the wood called Selwood, but in the British 'Coitmaur.' 
Here he was met bj^ all the men of Somerset, "Wiltshire, and part 
of those of Hampshire, who rejoiced greatly when they saw him 
once more; and there they encamped one night." On this, the 
first day of his expedition, Alfred and those who accompanied him, 
being on horseback, of course, were able without difficulty to 
accomplish a longer journey than on the following days. On his 
arrival at Egbert's stone, the king, it is clear, mustered his forces, 
the principal part of whom woiild consist of foot soldiers. "When 
the following day dawned, the king moving his camp, came to a 
place called ^cglea, where he encamped for one night. The next 
morning, at daybreak, he moved his forces, and coming to a place 
called Ethandun, he engaged the entire host of the pagans, fighting 
for a long time in a close line of battle. The pagans were defeated 
with great slaughter, and pursued flying to tlieir fortress (' usque 
ad arcem.')^ Outside the fortress Alfred took much booty of horses 
and cattle, and made many prisoners, who were at once slain. 
Boldly encamping before the gates of the pagan fortress, with all 
his army, he remained there fourteen days, until the pagans, 
driven by famine, cold, fear, and last of all, by despair, sued for 
peace."^ This narrative of Asser is fuller than that of any other of 
the early authorities, which, however, so far as they go, entirely 
correspond; in fact, they were probably copied from Asser. 

1 "Ad firmitatem suum," says Henry of Huntingdon. 

2 The map here given will assist the reader in following the narrative, and in 
understanding the different views as to the line of Alfred's march and the sites 

of the battle and siege. The unbroken Line ( ) rejiresents the road taken 

by Alfred, according to the views held by Whitaker and adopted in this paper. 

The interrupted lines ( ) indicate the route in accordance with the dift'cring 

opinions of Camden and his auuotators, Iloare, Milner, Beke, and Jloffat. The 
names of places are, as far as practicable, given in the Anglo-Saxon of the times. 

c M 1 N C H I N > 
W MVl T U W 


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and on the Battles of Cynuit and Ethandun. 75 

There appears no difficulty in admitting with the learned 
Spelman^ and Sir R. C. Hoare, that Egbert's stone (the Ecgbryht's 
stane of the chronicle) is represented by Brixton DeverUl, a 
distance of about 35 mUes from Athelney. As to ^cglea, (Asser,) 
Iglea or ^glea, (Saxon Chronicle,) or Ecglea, (Florence,) the 
place where Alfred rested the second night, Gough and Sir R. C. 
Hoare place it at, or near Clay Hill or Buglcy; whilst Bishop Gibson 
thought it was Westbury Leigh. The former of these sites, 
however, is little more than five, and the latter less than nine, miles to 
the north of Brixton; distances which seem too short for a day's 
march, when the king is described as setting forth at dawn, and 
with the head quarters of the enemy at Chippenham, a distance of 
at least twenty-five miles. Supposing Edington to have been the 
site of the battle, the same objection would apply to the next day's 
march, the length of which would be only four miles from Westbury, 
or eight miles from Clay Hill or Bucley. Here the question arises, 
whether the battle was fought on the day of the arrival at Ethandun, 
or on the following.^ Though not so stated, the former would 
seem implied in Asser's narrative, and is stated expressly, in a passage 
from a life of St. Neot, in the apocryphal " Annals." On turning, 
however, to Simeon of Durham, whose statements ought, perhaps, 
to be received, when not in direct opposition to earlier authority, we 
are told that the battle was not fought until the third day after 
leaving Egbert's stone ; and, further, that the two armies spent the 
night previous to the battle opposed to each other at Ethandun. 
" After the third day " (post tertiam diem) says Simeon, in his 
somewhat inflated style, "Alfred came with a great army to a 
place which is called Edderandun, near which he found immense 
hosts of the pagans prepared for battle. After a brilliant sun-rise, 
the king and the chief of his followers, armed themselves for battle, 
not omitting the triple breast-plate of faith, hope, and the love 

1 " Vita JEIfrcdi," 1G78, p. 33. " Nobis hodie, ni follor, Brixtona." 

2 It is worth notice that Gaimar, whose authority, however, Is not decisive, 
makes Alfred reach Ethandun at noon on tlie thii'd day. 
" K lendcmain a hurc do none, 
"Done sunt venuz a Edenesdono." — Line 3189. 

L 2 

76 On the Barrow at Lanhill near Chippenham; 

of God. Advancing in warlike array, they boldly challenged 

their most renowned enemy to battle The two armies fought 

the greater part of the day, and their cries and the clashing of 
their arms were heard far and wide." 

It must also be objected that, from the promptitude of Alfred's 
movements, it is hardly probable that the Danes could have 
advanced so far to the south as Edingtou, foiu'teen or fifteen mUes 
from Chippenham, after obtaining intelligence of the king's 
approach. Little difficulty, it must be admitted, exists on the 
ground of orthography, in accepting Edington as the representative 
of Ethandun; Edington being clearly the Edenr/one of Domes- 
day, and being written Edyndon, at least as late as the time of 
Henry the Vlth, (1449.)^ An objection, on this ground, does exist 
against Heddington, near Calne, which is, the Edinfon of Domes- 
day, but which has been assigned most improbably, as the site of 
this battle by Milner.- The narrative of Asser seems, however, 
decidedly opposed to our assmning Edington and Bratton Castle as 
the sites of these important events. The description of the fortress, 
and the booty of horses and cattle found outside, appear to point, 
not to a stronghold hastily thrown up, or resorted to under the 
pressure of events, but clearly to a place of security where they had 
been some time encamped. That the Danes had advanced to meet 
Alfred and give him battle, seems evident, but it is not probable 
that they would have encumbered themselves with stores of horses 
and cattle. Even if Edington must be admitted as the site of the 
battle, we should still demur to accepting the camp at Bratton as 
the Danish fortress. Those who are familiar with the site of this 
earthwork, on the edge of the steep escarj^ment of the downs above 
Edington, will admit the difficulty of the Danes effecting a retreat 
thither ; and we think it must be further granted, that Alfred 
could scarcely have maintained a successful siege whilst remaining, 
as he must, in the vale below ;^ the Danes, meanwhile, possessing 
free egress to the south. The white horse, cut out in the chalk, directly 

1 " Modern WUts," by Sii- R. C. Hoare, " Hundred of Westbury," p. 15. 

2 "History of Winchester," 1798. 

3 There seems indeed much doubt whether the entrance to the north, with the 
road to Edington, are not altogether of modern origin. The principal entrance 

(Old on the Battles of Cynuit and Ethandun. 


below Bratton Castle, can have no reference (as is often thought) 
to these events, unless in the fancy of those who formed it, in quite 
recent times. ^ 

;To Edington. 

Beatton Cajip. 

Rather might it be supposed, with Dr. Pauli,'^ that at Chipi^cn- 
hara itself was the fortress to which the Danes retreated. That 
Chippenham was their head quarters, there can be no doubt. It 
was such in the previous winter, and continued to be so in that 
of the following year, when in accordance with their treaty, they 
departed for Cirencester. Chippenham was a villa regia, and as such, 
may have been defended, not only by the winding stream of the Avon, 

is clearly that on the south side, and it is by no means certain that originally 
any other existed. Earthworks of this kind, situated on the brows of hills, 
seem to have been so placed for the sake of the natiu'al advantages for defence, 
which such situations afibrd, and were not usually weakened by approaches on 
the side of the declivity. 

1 Figures of a horse, cut out in the side of the chalk hills, arc common in 
Wiltshire: no fewer than eight might readily be named. The only figure of this 
kind, with a genuine ancient aspect, seems to be that of the Vale of White 
Horse in Berkshire. Their supposed significance, as to events in the Anglo-Saxon 
history of this period, is at once set aside by the fj^ct that a dragon, not a horse, 
was borne on the standard of the West Saxons. The wliite horse is supposed 
to have been the standard of the Anglo-Sa.xon kingdom of Kent. 

2 "Life of King Alfred," 18j2, p. 180. 

78 On the Barrow at Lanhill near CMppcn/iam; 

but also by an earthen rampart and hedge, or palisade;^ but that 
it was sufficiently strong, either by nature or art, to resist a siege 
for fourteen days, seems hardly probable. 

On the whole, a third view, suggested by Mr. Whitaker, seems 
most probable; viz., that the battle was fought near Yatton, about five 
miles to the north west of Chippenham, in which place he finds 
"the fair representative of the Ethandun of the history." -^cglea, 
he places at Highlcy Common, near Mclksham, giving about 
eighteen miles for the second daj^'s march, and ten for that of the 
third. "But the battle," says Whitalcer, "was a little lower, on 
the Avon, even at Slaughterford ; the very name of which denotes, 
what the tradition of the inhabitants has handed down, concerning 
a great slaughter of the Danes in this place. So happily do the 
local circumstances accord with the historical representation. Yet 
where was the fortress to which the routed Danes fled ? It was 
undoubtedly that double entrenchment in Bury Wood, betwixt 
Colerne and North Wraxall."^ Aubrej', in writing of Yatton 
field, says "the country people have a tradition that here was a 
fight with the Danes, as also another at Slaughterford, about a 
mile and a half hence ; it is likely it took its denomination from the 
flight and slaughter. Hereabout groweth great plenty of a good 
vulnerary herb, called Dane's blood. They doe believe it sprang 
fi'om the blood of the Danes shed here in battle."^ 

Bury Wood camp, or North Wood camp, referred to by Whit- 
aker as the probable Danish fortress, is in the parish of Colerne, 

1 See under "Ham," Leo's "Local Nomenclatuje of the Anglo-Saxons," 
1852, p. 39. 

2 "Life of St. Neot," 1809, p. 269. In this passage, Mr. Whitaker adopts 
statements, as regards Slaughterford and Bury Wood, to be found in the 
additions to Camden, by Bishop Gibson, (vol I, p. 141,) which were clearly 
taken from Aubrey. See "Collections for North Wilts," Part 2, 1838, pp. 17. 
31. 33. 

3 Aubrey " Mon. Brit." This passage is erroneously attributed to Stow, by 
Sir R. C. Hoare.—" Ancient Wilts," vol. II, p. 100. See also Aubrey's 
"Natm-al History of Wiltshire," 1848, p. 50. The plant called Dane's Blood 
or Banewort, Sambucus Ehulus, is said, to occur in various sites where 
ti'aditions as to the Danes exist, particularly in Essex and Norfolk. — Camden, 
" Britannia," vol. II, pp. 125. 135. 197. This plant is stiU to be found about 

and on the Battles of Cynuit and Ethandiin. 


on the borders of Grloucestersliire, and within about half a mile of 
the Roman road, the Fosse. "It has," says Aubrey, "double- 
works [and is] therefore not Roman." It contains about twenty- 
five acres, and is situate on a promontory of Colerne Down, from 
which it is separated by a double, deep rectilinear rampart, having 
a single entrance in the centre facing the south-west. The other 
sides, says the same writer, are well secured by the precipice, at 
the bottom of which runs a stream. Within the area is a small 
subsidiary earthwork, about an acre in extent, and with an opening 
facins: the west.^ The name of DoKcombe Bottom, which attaches 
to the ravine below the camp, may possibly refer to the Danes. 

BuEY Wood Camp. 

Admitting the head quarters of the Danes to have been at Chippen- 
ham, there seems no improbability in the supposition that they had 
a jjlace of greater strength in the neighbourhood which they in 
part occupied, and to which they might in case of need retire. 

' See a good plan in Hoare's "Ancient Wilts," vol. II, p. 10.'{, from which 
our wood engraving has been reduced. See also "Roman Era," p. ]0.'5. For 
this cngi-aving, and for that of IJratton Camp, also reduced from a [ilatc in 
"Ancient Wilts," vol. I., p. 55, the Committee of the Society are indel)tcd to 
one of tho members, the llcv. E. Meyrick. 

80 On tho Barrow at LanhiU near Chippenham; 

"Whitaker suggests, with miicli probability, that the Danes had 
formed here a camp for the summer. For such a purpose the site of 
Bury Wood camp would appear well chosen, situated, as it probably 
was, within the kingdom of Mercia, and in immediate proximity to 
the Fosse road, by means of which they could readily keep up com- 
mim^ications with their confederate Danes, who at that time had pos- 
session of this Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Assuming then, that part of 
the Danish force was at Chippenham, and part at Bury Wood camp, 
a simple reference to the map will shew, that the neighbourhood 
of West Yatton, almost equidistant from the two places, was the 
probable spot for them to unite, on hearing of the advance of 
Alfred's army. The orthography of Yatton will not give us much 
difficult)^ ; as to the present day it is known by the name of Eaton 
as well as Yatton, and there is scarcely a doubt as to its identity 
with the Ettone of Domesday. On the west side of the parish there 
is sufficient hilly or down land, (not enclosed till the begining of the 
present century,) to explain the final syllable of the name of 
Ethandun.^ Such being the probable position of the Danes, it 
would only be natural for Alfred in advancing from the south, 
to leave Chippenham itself on the east, and to take the road by 
Corsham and Biddeston, which would bring him directly in 
front of the Danish force. The situation of Bury Wood camp 
is readily reconciled with the narrative of the historians, approached 
as it is from the south by a gradual ascent, and presenting a 
level surface on that side. Horses and cattle would here have 
found pasture, and Alfred could advantageously have besieged 
the Danes, who would not here, as at Bratton, command a ready 
egress in the opposite direction. 

In a question of this kind, demonstrative proof is not to be 
expected ; but, granting what has been advanced, all the rest 
follows clearly enough ; — the desperate battle at Ettonc-dun, — the 
flight and slaughter at the ford of the Avon, in the valley below, — 

1 The only other mention of Ethandun is, we believe, in the will of the great 
Allied. We may conjecture that he had purchased an estate on this spot, as a 
memorial of his signal victory ; for he bequeaths one of this name, along with 
other estates and manors, to his wife, the Queen Ealhsmth. 

and on the Battles of Cynuit and Ethandim. 81 

and the pursuit to the hill fortress of Bury Wood camp, where the 
booty was taken, and where, for fourteen days, the miserable and 
vanquished Danes were shut up and besieged by "England's 
darling," the victorious Alfred.^ 

Dismissing this great event, and returning to the minor question 
with which we were occupied, the place of Hubba's death and 
burial, it may be worth while to inquire how the notion of his 
having fallen, and being interred near Chippenham, arose. All the 
CO temporary and earliest writers are, as has been shewn, silent on 
this point ; but what they do state is not inconsistent with the assertion 
of some later authorities, as to his having met his death at Cynuit 
in Devonshire. The first author, who connects the death of Hubba 
with Chippenham, is one of late date, John Brompton, Abbot of 
Jervaulx in Yorkshire, whose chronicle, compiled at the end of the 
14th century, is of but little authority, though as the learned Dr. 
Lappenberg tells us, it is too often appealed to. Brompton places 
these events under the year 873, four or five years before their real 
date. He does not, however, connect them with the great battle 

I There are two other views, as to the site of the battle of Ethandun, which 
may be briefly referred to. First, that of Mr. J. M. Moilat,i who adopts Whit- 
aker's view as to the ^cglea of the chronicle being at Iley or Highley, near 
Melksham, and assigns the battle to a spot called "Woeful Danes Bottom," 
near Minchinhampton, in Gloucestershire, which town is enclosed by a large 
entrenched camp, popularly termed Danish. This, however, would give near 
thirty miles for the third day's march ; and the place is, also, too far from 
Chippenham, being twenty mUes to the north. Altogether this view seems 
untenable; though the spot having this peculiar name, is likely enoiigh to 
have been the scene of some bloody encounter with the Danes. There were 
various other battles and skirmishes, between them and the Saxons, in this part 
of England, as well late in the ninth, as early in the eleventh century ; and 
among the latter, the celebrated battle of Sccorstan, (Shirestones ?) between 
Canute and Edmund Ironside. "With this, possibly, some further combat near 
Minchinhampton may have been connected. 

Second, that of Mr. Lysons,2 who, on the authority of Dr. Beke, professor of 
Modem History at Oxford, places Ethandun at Eddington or Hcdington, ncai- 
Hungerford, in Berkshire, and ^cglea in the same neighbourhood. This would 
give forty miles as the distance from Egbryght's stane, across the whole of 
Wiltshire, for the second day's march. This view seems, of all suggested, the 
most improbable. 

1 Sco "Graphic niUBtrator," 1834, p. I'IC. 2 "Masrntt Britannia, Berkshire," 1813, p. 1C2. 


82 On the Barroto at Lanhill near Chippenham; 

of Ethandim, which he places under the year 877. He describes 
the Danes as going from Exeter to Chippenham, and being 
pursued by Alfred ; who, after slaying Hubba, Inguar, and Bruen 
Bocard, is at last defeated. "The Danes," says Brompton, "finding 
the body of Hubba among the slain, interred it with great 
lamentations, raising over it a mound which they called Hubbelow, 
which place is so called to this day, and is in Devonshire."^ The 
discrepancies of this narrative of Brompton, are sufficiently 
apparent, and he is commented on, by the learned Spelman, as 
being inconsistent with himself, and in opposition to other 
histoi'ians.- Caxton, in his chronicle, the earliest printed History 
of England, (1480,) has in this passage, copied Brompton, or 
Brompton's authority, almost verbatim f and Stow, writing a century 
later, follows him in the main circumstances ; though they both 
differ so far as to represent the Danes as reaching Chippenham, 
not from Exeter, but from Eeading ; and in describing the battle 
they place at Chippenham, as following immediately that of 
^scesdun, (a.d. 871.)* Caxton concludes his narrative with the 
statement of Brompton, that Hubbaslowe is in Devonshire ; whilst 

1 "Decern Scriptores," Twysden, 1652, p. 1809. 
2 "Vita iElfredi," 1678, p. 31. 

3 Caxton's Chronicle is said to have had for its basis the Chronicle of Douglas 
of Glastonbury, a writer like Brompton of the foui'teenth centiuy, but whose 
chronicle has not been printed. Douglas and Brompton, for the period before us, 
both seem to have formed thek chronicles on the basis of the iSTorman Gaimar, 
as the names disfigured like those in Gaimar, clearly shew the use of a Norman 
aiithority. See Lai^penberg, "Anglo-Saxons," Lit. Int., p. lix, Ixii; also 
"Mon. Hist. Brit." Gen. Int. p. 3, 

4 Dr. PauH, referring to this supposed battle at Chippenham, says, "no older 
historical work (than that of Brompton) contains the slightest aUusiou to such an 
event ; and Brompton's account, as is so often the case with him, is founded simply 
on a mistake of the dates, and the conseijuent confusion of facts." "Life of 
Alfred," 1852, p. 163. From Brompton, seems clearly to have been derived 
the narrative of these events to be found in Hardyng's "Metrical Chronicle," 
^vTitten about the middle of the fifteenth centiu-y, (see " Hardyng," by Sir H. 
Ellis, 1812, p. 201;) and also that in the "Soala Chronica," written probably 
in the same century, and printed in Leland's "Collectanea." "After they fought 
(at) Chipenham, and there was Hubba slayne, and a great Hepe of stones layed 
coppid up where he was buried. (Hubbeslaw.)" (See Lclaud, " CoUcctanoa," 
vol. I, part 2, pp. 509. 521.) 

and on the Battles of Cynuit and Ethandun. 83 

Stow omits this; perhaps from perceiving the improbability of the 
body of Hubba being carried from Chippenham to Devonshire for 
interment. Hence the reader of Stow's Chronicle might naturally 
conclude, with Aubrey and Sir Charles Snell, that the site of this 
barrow was at or near Chippenham. 

John Brompton was probably led into error, as to these events, 
by a careless reading of the Metrical Chronicle of Geoffrey Gaimar, 
written about the middle of the 12th century, in the Norman- 
French of that day, and designed for the use of the then lords of 
England. Brompton seems certainly to have had Gaimar before 
him, when he wrote the passage referred to, as the words of both 
writers are, to a great extent, identical. Gaimar, in recoimting the 
events of the year 878, speaks of the arrival of the Danes at 
Chippenham, and of their ravages in Wessex. He then goes on to 
describe the events at Cynuit, though he does not allude to that 
place by name, and does not clearly distinguish the Danish force 
under Guthrum, from that under Hynguar and Hubba. This may 
probably have led Brompton to confound both events and places.^ 
Gaimar's narrative is important from containing the earliest men- 
tion of Ilubba's death, as occurring in Devonshire, and naming 
the " wood of Pene " as the spot where he fell. 

" Un frere Iware e Haldene 
Eu fu oscis el bois de Pene ; 
Ubbe out a nun un mal fesant : 
Sur li fircnt hoge mult grant 
Li Daneis, quant I'ourent trove. 
Ubbelawe, I'unt apele 
La hoge est en Devcncschire : 

Conquis i fu le gumfanun 
Ubbe, kc Eaven out nun." ^ 

The exact site of Cynuit, where the Danes under the " brother 
of Hynguar" were defeated, and where Hubba doubtless fell, is not 

1 The learned Dr, Pauli himself seems to have mis-read Gaimar in this 
passage, when ho cites his narrative as authority for Hubba's fall before Chip- 
penham. Loc. Cit., p. 180. 

2 Gaimar, line 3147. 

M 2 

84 On the Barrow at Lanhill near CJiippenham; 

known. Camden, however, unhesitatingly places it on the north 
coast of Devon, near where the Taw and Torridge fall into the 
sea. " On this coast," says he, " there was a castle of that name, 
(Kinwith) where Hubba the Dane, who had so frequently ravaged 
England, died of his wounds. The place was ever since called 
by our historians Hubbestow."^ Risdon, a cotemporary of Camden, 
is still more precise in his statement respecting "the Castle of 
Kenwith, where," he says, " the Danes where so valiantly repulsed, 
that they lost 1200 men, with their captain, Hubba. After which 
their overthrow, they buried him on the shore; and, according to 
the manner of northern nations, piled on him a heape of copped 
stones, as a trophy to his memorial ; whereof the place took to 
name Hubbastone. And though the stones were long since swept 
away by the sea's incroaching, the name still remaineth on the 
strand near Appledore, as I conjecture; for more than the shadow, 
yea, even the very substance, with small alteration, being to this 
day known by the name of Whibblestone. This is in the parish 
of Northam." Risdon further conjectures that the Castle of 
Kenwith itself may have been an [earthen ?] fort, not far from 
Appledore, called Hennaborough. In the largest modern maps 
of Devon, including that of the ordnance survey, no such sites 
as "Whibblestone or Hennaborough are marked. 

Gaimar's statement that Hubba fell in the " wood of Pene," 
demands the attention of the topographers of Devonshire, in their 
search for CjTiuit. The fortress itself was almost certainly an 
earthwork; for Asser, who had seen it, says that it was "imfortified 
except that it had walls after our fashion, though the spot by 
nature was most secure on all sides except the east."*' Asser 
was a Briton, writing for the use of Britons, and his phrase 
" walls after our fashion," most probably refers to the earthen 
ramparts, such as the Britons of Wales at that period chiefly 
relied on, in their defensive works. Another statement of Asser, 
that there was no spring or water near the fortress, may assist 
topographers in their identification of the precise spot. 

1 "Britannia," (Ed. 1806,) vol. I, p. 38. 
2 " Arcem imparatam atqxie omnino inununitam, nisi quod moenia nostro more 
erecta solummodo haberet." 

and on the Battles of Cynuit and Ethandun. 85 

Since the above was written, we have seen a paper, by Mr. R. S. 
Yidal,^ who early in the present century examined, what appear to 
have been the sites indicated by Risdon two centuries before, 
though without acknowledging the source from whence he doubtless 
obtained this information. The site of Hennaborough, this writer 
says, is about a mile to the north west of Bideford, and consequently 
little more than two miles to the south of Appledore, and on the 
west bank of the Torridge. Here, he tells us, is a small hill rising 
with an abrupt acclivity on all sides except the east, where it is 
connected, by a sort of isthmus, with some neighbouring high 
ground. The hill, now covered with trees, is said to have traces of 
an earthwork on the north and west sides. Old people said that the 
name was formerly Henniborough or Henni castle ; that of a house 
close by, more recently called Hengist farm, seems only to be a 
fanciful corruption of the same designation. At the foot of the hill, 
are two streamlets which unite on the south-west side, but which 
it is conjectured may have had a different course and outlet; or may 
have formed a mere swamp, a thousand years ago, in the age of 
Alfred. On the high ground to the east of Henniborough, is a 
place called Silford Moor, where, Mr. Vidal says, are traces of an 
earthwork, apparently unfinished ; which he thinks may have 
been an entrenchment formed by the Danes, when they besieged 
the Saxons at this spot. As regards Whibblestone, he was, after 
much enquiry, brought to a place "on the beach, a small way above 
the town," where was, " a rough slab of rock, about four feet in 
length, by three wide, lying on the open shore, but sunk nearly on 
a level with the surface." About two-thirds of the distance 
between Henniborough and Whibblcston, is a spot still called 
" Bloody corner," where Mr, Vidal thinks the final and decisive 
struggle took place, and where, we may add, Hubba possibly was 

More than enough has perhaps been said, to shew that the 
Lanhill tumulus, was not the grave of Hubba ; and, it may be 
added, that it is not probable there ever was any real local tradition 

1 " Aichtuologia," vol. XV, p. 198. 

86 On the Barrow at Lanhill near Chippenham. 

to that effect ; though at first, on reading Aubrey's narrative, this 
might perhaps be thought. The fact appears to be, that Aubrey, 
and his friend Sir Charles Snell, and perhaps Anthony A'Wood, 
finding, in some very uncritical chroniclers and historians, the 
statement that Hubba fell near Chippenham, and was buried there 
under a heap of stones, looked roimd for some barrow in the neigh- 
bourhood, which might be assigned as his probable grave. The 
tumulus at Lanhill, now a defaced and irregular heap, was in 
Aubrey's days, (as proved by the sketch of it, in his Monumenta 
Britannica,) a conspicuous mound, and is situated not more than 
between two or three miles to the west of Slaughterford, where 
there was a genuine tradition of a great battle with the Danes. 
AVith no better grounds probably than these, Sir Charles Snell, 
who lived in the neighbourhood, seems to have pronounced this 
barrow to be Hubbaslowe. In such ways, do we find what may be 
called spui'ious traditions arising even in the present day ; which 
are much more difiicult to deal with, and contain generally less 
truth than the genuine traditions of the vulgar. Had Hubba even 
fallen near Chippenham, it is hardly probable, that after so com- 
plete a defeat, his countrymen would have raised anj^ great tumulus 
over him. We have, however, seen good reasons for concluding 
that this barrow is of much greater antiquity than the time of the 
Danes in England ; and that it must be attributed to some of the 
earliest inhabitants of our country, and to a tribe whose history is 
lost in remote antiquity.^ 

1 Since the foregoing pages were struck ofl', the writer has seen an anonymous 
essay, entitled "Cursory Notes as to the Defence of Wessex, a.d. 851-878," in 
which the events considered in the foregoing paper are discussed at considerable 
length and with much ability. The essay deserves attention, in a critical and 
topographical point of view, though in placing Ethandun, (after Milner) at 
Heddington, near Calne, the author has adopted, to say the least, one of the less 
probable conclusions. See "Niagara, Jephthah, Remarks upon the Defence of 
Wessex, by Alfred the Great," &c. Brewster and West, 1848. 



Hon. James Moxtagu, 3rd ;,un=5I.\^T, on! 
of Henrv, Farl of Manchester, of Lackha 
died 1665, a^ed 57. \ of Sii- Rot 

b. H, p. 
ged 24. 



jASfE-s of=DiANA, dau. of Anthony Geohge. Robert. Hhnky. Edward. 

dic-d 1676, 
aged 38, 
bulled at 

Ed w A no, 
ob. s. p., 

lEuugerfbrd, Esq., of Far- 
ley Castle, Co. Somerset, 
died Feb., 1735, tct. 87, 
buried at Lacock. 

James, bap. January,=ELizABETH, dau. of Sir John Eylea, Kt., 
1673, buried at Lacock, I of South Broom, b. March 1671, buried 
Augiist 4th, 1747. I at Lacock, December 3rd, 1741. 

Diana, bap. 
Au;,niHt 8th, 
1710, Imried 
at Lacock. 


bap. Nov. 
26th, 1712, 
buried at 
Lacock, Ap. 
2nd, 1717. 

James, bap.=ELKANOE, sister, 
at Lacock, 

Jan. 20th, 
1713, bm-. 
there May 
3rd, 1790. 

and in 1782 heir 
of Thomas Hed- 
ges, of AJderton, 
Co. Wilts, Esq., 
mar. at AJderton, 
1744, bu. at La- 
cock Sep. 6, 1786. 


George, h 
Mar. 4th, 1714, 
buried March, 
1716 at Lacock. 



.Tamks, of 




m. to Rev. 


Es'i,, diod 

W. IlifTKin- 

4S, d. 

s. p., Jul)' 



12, 179H, 


lut. 47. 

diod an 

Anna Maeh, 
bap. Aug. 16th, 
1747, married 
E. Puore, Esq., 
ob. 1S12, (he 
died 1795.1 

1814, m. 

bur. at 




dau. and heii- of Sir Robert Baynard, Kt., 
., (Sheriff of Wilts, 1629,) by Ursula, dau. 
rt Stapleton, Kt., died 1663, aged 63. 



Mabt, mar. to 
Thomas Ewer, 
of the Lee, Co. 


Charles. William. Katherine. Thomas. 

John, Rector 
of ITpton Scud- 
amore, buried 
there 160 1. 


i. in Ben- 

Robert, buried at 
St. Giles's Church, 
Co. Middlesex. 

:)ap. Edward, a John, Admiral in the Iloyal Navy, Elizabeth, Geohge, bap. 

6thy master in baptized — 1719, died — 1795, aged bap. April at Lacock, 

bur. Chancery, 76. Father of Admiral Sir George 24th, 1721, Aug. 4, 172.5, 

1st, bap.Feb. 21 Montagu, who married Charlotte, bu. Sep. 1st, bur. there 23 

1717, mar. coheir of G. Wroughton, from 1746. same month. 

and left is- whom Col. Montag;u (now Wrough- 

sue,d.l798. ton,) of Wilcote. 

iam, *George,:=Ann, eldest daw. Christiana, 
at (thcNat- I of W. Courtenay, bur. at La- 
ck, uralist, ) ' of London, Esq., cock, April 
3th, bo. 1755, j by Lady Jane 23rd, 1772. 
bur. ob. June i Stewart, ms wife, 
days 19,1815, j daug. of James, 
I EBt. 61, Earl of Bute, m. 
' bur. at 1773, ob. 1816. 

ob. 1811, m. 
Rev. Richard 

mar. 1 794 
Ralph Dor- 



baj). at La- 
cock, March 
21st, 1761, 
mar. July, 
Dan. Currie. 

George Conwat Courtenay Montagu,=Margaret Green, 
born June 24th, 1776. dau. of Richard 

Green Wilson,' of 
Lancaster, Esq., m. 
Dec. 29th, 1803. 

James, died a 
prisoner of war 
in France, s. p. 

'''eederic, a brigade-major 
■■ the Royal Welsh Fu- 
iliers, killed at the battle 
f Albuera, May 16th, 1811, 
)t. 26, s. p. 


John, of the 
Royal Navy, 
killed in ac- 

LotrisA Matilda, mar. 
to Matthew Crawford, 
of Middle Temple, and 
Southwood House, Mid- 
dlesex, Esq. 

Arms oi|', Montagv. 

Quarterly 1st and 4th Argent, three Lozenges conjoined in fess gules, witji'"? "■ ^"viure sable, for Montagu. 2nd and 3rd Or, an Eagle displayed Vert, 
beaked and membered gules, for Montbermer. A Mullet for difference of : ''"''^ ^°^' Crest. — On a Wreath a Griffin's head couped Or. wings indorsed 
Sable, gorged with a Collar argent, charged with three Lozenges Gules. T . * Miillet of the Arms placed also on Griffin's chest. 


■ Biemnir nf (Srnrge BloEtiigu, 

By Mr. William CjnssisGTOin, F.G.S. 

No apology can be necessary for bringing before the notice of 
the Wiltshire Natural History Society, the memoir of a native of 
the county, who was undoubtedly one of the first naturalists of his 
age. Very few comparatively among the many distinguished 
natives of Wiltshire, can be said to have obtained much celebrity 
in natural science. The late Lieutenant-Colonel George Montas-u, 
however, possessed talents of the highest order, and by his writings 
and researches, rendered most important and lasting service to 
English Natural History. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mrs. L. M. Crawford, his 
daughter, for many of the particulars contained in the following 
sketch of his life. 

George Montagu was born in the year 1755 at Lackham House, 
the ancient seat of his family in North Wiltshire. He was the son 
of James Montagu, Esq., of Lackham, and Elinor, sole surviving 
daughter of William Hedges, Esq., of Alderton ; and was descended 
from the Honorable James Montagu, third son of Henry first Earl 
of Manchester, who, in the reign of Charles I. by marriage with 
Mary, daughter and heir of Sir Robert Baynard of Lackham, 
obtained the estate. 

The old mansion at Lackham (now destroyed) from its antiquity 
and the number of curious relics it contained, deserves a passing 
notice. It exhibited specimens of the architecture of various 
periods from the Norman downwards, and presented the appearance 
of rude grandeur, rather than the beauty of regular architectural 
proportion. It stood completely embosomed in woods. The great 
hall was hung round with armour. The banqueting room was floor- 
ed with the native oak of the estate in the reign of Henry the 

88 Memoir of George Montagu. 

Eighth, on the occasion of that monarch's visit to Lackham, when 
he was entertained for several days, whilst paying his addresses to 
the Lady Jane Seymour of Wolf-hall near Great Bedwyn. There is 
still extant a curious old print, representing in various compartments, 
the preparations for the king's visit to Lackham, with the rats and 
mice running away from the housemaids, who, with mop and broom, 
are making all things clean and trim for the royal guest. 

So rich was this house in curiosities, that a long day might have 
been well employed in inspecting old chests filled with the costumes 
and jewelry of different centuries ; many such articles of each 
generation for some hundreds of years having been carefully 
stored up by the family. 

Among other curious property was a massive service of plate, 
including even silver saucepans, covers, and wash-hand basins. 
This was a gift from Queen Anne, and bore the Royal Arms. 
There was also a large collection, above a hundred in nimiber, of 
the MS. letters of the great Duke of Marlborough, written to a 
member of his family during his campaign; with some from Queen 
Anne in her own handwriting. All these memorials are now 

But to return to the subject of our memoir. At the age of 
sixteen, George Montagu entered the army as a Lieutenant in the 
15th regiment of foot, and when he had completed his eighteenth 
year, he married Anne, the eldest daughter of William Courtenay, 
Esq., and Lady Jane his wife, who was one of the sisters of the 
Earl of Bute, Prime Minister to George the Third. After a few 
months spent in visiting friends of the bride in Scotland and in 
Ireland, Lieutenant Montagu's regiment was ordered to embark for 
America, and the youthful pair had to experience the pain of a 
long separation. She was placed with his family in Wiltshire. 

In the stirring events of military life he never shrank from 
gallantly performing his part ; but the misery which often fell upon 
the unoffending inhabitants of scattered villages and lonely dwellings, 
from the brutality and Kcentiousness of the soldiery, was painful 
to him in the extreme ; and in narrating anecdotes of the war to 
his childi-en in after years, he was wont to allude to cii'cumstances 
of this nature with abhorrence. 

By Mr. Cunnington. 89 

"It -vras at this early period" saj's Mrs. Crawford, "that my 
father first began to turn his attention, whenever opportunity 
ofiered, to those pursuits of natural science for which he had so 
strong a predilection, and for which he was afterwards so much 
distinguished. He first commenced by shooting any of the more 
curious American birds, a few of which he preserved with his own 
hands, though with no further intention at the time than that of 
presenting them to my mother, should he live to return to her, as 
proofs of his regard, and memorials of his past adventures. 

" The interest which my father had felt from his boyhood in the 
works of nature, animate and inanimate, was much increased by 
the wild grandeur of the scenes which he traversed, and by the 
novelty of many of the feathered and four-footed tribes that 
inhabit them. He ultimately determined however, to limit his 
researches and his specimens to British Birds and British Zoology 
generally, thinking that every collection ought to be as complete 
as possible of its kind, and being desirous that his own should be 
the result of his practical studies in the wide field of nature. It 
was thus that he formed that very extensive and beautiful collection 
of birds for which he was celebrated, and which after his death 
was disposed of to the Trustees of the British Museum for I believe 

At the same time he was gradually collecting materials for two 
most valuable works, the " Ornithological Dictionary," 2 vols., 8vo., 
published in 1802, and the " Testacea Britannica," 4to., in 1803. 
These are still quoted as standard authorities in the departments 
of natural science to which they relate. 

Lieutenant Montagu was early promoted to a Captaincy, but he 
did not long remain in America, and in a few years quitted the 
army altogether. He shortly afterwards received a commission in 
the Militia of his native county, in which he subsequently rose to 
the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. He now had full leisure to devote 
himself to his favourite pursuits. His occasional removals with his 
regiment from one place to another, neither separated him from liis 
wife and children, nor obstructed his researches in Ornithology 
and Conchology, which, with the collecting of notes and materials 


90 Memoir of George IFontagu. 

for his works on those subjects, usually occupied a considerable 
portion of his time. Indeed, these removals rather faciKtated his 
object, by enabling him to collect more extensively and in greater 
variety, from the several localities where he was from time to time 

Although the family estates were large. Colonel Montagu being 
a younger son, had only the limited allowance and prospects which 
usually belong to that position. But the cares and anxieties 
naturally attendant upon an increasing family were greatly alleviated 
by the kindness of his maternal uncle, Thomas Hedges, Esq., of 
Alderton House, (now destroyed,) who, dying in 1782, left him by 
will a perpetual rent-charge of £200 per annum out of the Alderton 

Colonel Montag-u resided for some time at Easton Grey, near 
Malmesbury, where the last of his children was born. After the 
death of Mr. Hedges he removed with his family to Alderton 
House, where Mrs. Montagu's mother, Lady Jane Courtenay, joined 
their domestic circle. The estate of Alderton, with that of Surrendell 
in the parish of Hullavington, and some lands in Grittleton and 
elsewhere, had been for several centuries in the possession of the 
family of Gore, and came to that of Hedges in 1714, by the marriage 
of William Hedges, Esq., with Miss Elizabeth Gore, the sole heiress 
of that family. 

After Colonel Montagu had resided for some time with his family 
at Alderton House, he was induced by the additional income which 
he derived from the death of his brother James (who died unmarried,) 
to resign his commission in the Wiltshire Militia, that he might 
be enabled to devote himself entirely to his favourite pursuits. He 
then took up his abode at Knowle, near Kingsbridge, in the county 
of Devon, which being at no great distance from the sea, gave him 
ample opportunities for following out his researches in the natural 
history of the marine Molluscs. Here he continued to reside (with 
occasional visits to the family seat at Lackham) up to the time of 
his death. 

Seldom has there been known a more remarkable instance of the 
mutability of fortune than in the family of the Montagus at 

By Mr. Cunnington. 91 

Lackham. The will of Mr. James Montagu disappointed the 
expectations of his brother the Colonel, who had been led to suppose 
that the family estates would have been left to himself, at least for 
his life; instead of this he had only a rent-charge of £800 per 
annum, subject to which the estates were devised to his eldest son 
George, for life, with remainder to the children of the latter in tail. 

The Testator had borrowed, sometime before his death, a sum 
of £25,000 on bond, from the late Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough, 
to enable him to complete the purchase of Pewsham Forest, con- 
tiguous to his estate at Lackham, a provision was made in the 
will for the gradual liquidation of this debt, and out of this 
document there afterwards arose a long course of most expensive 
litigation, in which unfortunately the son was arrayed against the 
father, (an unseemly contest to say the least of it !) : this, and the 
son's extravagant habits, ultimately deprived the family of the 
whole of their estates. The affairs were thrown into Chancery. 
The costly and dilatory proceedings of this court, carried on as they 
were by his own son, tended very much to harass and embitter the 
latter years of Colonel Montagu's life. He had the mortification 
to see the fine old timber upon the estates, which had been estimated 
at £70,000 cut down, and the valuable library of books, and 
collections of relics and curiosities, the gradual accumulations of 
two ancient families, sold and dispersed under a decree of the court. 
Even the pictures were included in the general devastation, though 
the chief of these were subsequently bought in. 

In the year 1811 Colonel Montagu experienced a most severe 
trial in the death of the younger of his two surviving sons, Frederick 
Montagu, of the 23rd Royal Welsh Fusileers, who was then serving 
in Portugal as Brigade-Major under the late Lord Beresford. 
This promising young Officer fell at the early age of twenty-six 
at the battle of Albuera, where, as on many previous occasions, he 
had greatly distinguished himself. Colonel Montagu's grief was 
extreme for the loss which thus suddenly befel him, as the comfort 
and satisfaction which he had always derived from the dutiful 
conduct of this his favourite son, had proved some compensation 
for the disappointment occasioned by tlie other. He erected a 

N 2 

92 Memoir of George Montagu. 

tablet in the parisli ohurcli of Lacock, and inscribed it with a 
touching epitaph, written by himself, in commemoration of the 
son's worth and the father's regret. The untimely loss of this 
much-loved son threw a shade over the brief remaining period of 
his Ufe. 

In June, 1815, the Colonel had the misfortune to tread upon a 
rusty nan, which pierced his foot and produced a wound ; lock-jaw 
was the result, and this terminated his life at Knowle, on the 20th 
of the same month, in .the sixty-first year of his age. He bore his 
suflferings, which, though of short duration were extremely severe, 
not only with the equanimity of a Pliilosopher, but with the 
fortitude and resignation of a real Christian. 

His old and attached friend, the Rev. E.. Yaughan of Modbury, 
who was at his bedside during his last illness, having asked him 
where he would wish to be buried, his characteristic reply was 
"where the tree falls there let it lie." He had always a great 
aversion to^any thing like pomp and parade in the ordinary routine 
of life, and especially in the performance of the last solemn rites. 
His remains were therefore interred in an unostentatious manner, 
agreeably to his own request, in the churchyard of the parish in 
which he breathed his last. 

Although of ancient and honourable descent. Colonel Montagu 
was entirely free from all family pride, and utterly disregarded 
the pretensions of those who founded their title to respect, less upon 
their own individual claims, than upon the merits of ancestors long 
departed. To his favourite pursuits he never adverted in conver- 
sation, unless the subject was introduced by others. In general 
society, his topics were as diversified as the company, and it was 
remarked by those who knew him well, that it was impossible to 
gather from his ordinary discourse (in a high degree both instructive 
and entertaining) on what subject he excelled the most. He was 
remarkably punctual in his engagements, and just and upright in 
all the transactions of life. When he had once made a promise he 
did not allow himself to rest imtil he had duly performed it. His 
loss was greatly lamented in tlie neighbourhood where he lived 
and died, and by all who had the pleasure of his acquaintance. 

By Mr. Cunnington. 93 

He was an early member of the Linnean Society of London, 
and some of his most important papers were published in its 

The following are his principal works : — 

"The Sportsman's Dictionary; or a Treatise on Gunpowder and 
Fire Arms, &c." London, 1792, re-printed in 1803, 8vo. "An 
Ornithological Dictionary; or Alphabetical Synopsis of British 
Birds," 1 vol., Bvo., 1802. "Testacea Britannica ; or Natural 
History of British Shells, Marine, Land, and Freshwater, including 
the most minute, systematically arranged and embellished with 
figures," 4to., London, 1803. Supplement to the preceeding, 1809, 
with plates and descriptions of new species. In the Transactions 
of the Linnean Society he published the following papers : — 
"Description of three rare species of British Birds," vol. IV, 1796. 
"Description of several Marine Animals found on the coast of 
Devonshire," vol. VII, 1802. " On some species of British Quad- 
rupeds, Birds, and Fishes," vol. VII, 1803. " On the larger and 
lesser species of horse-shoe Bats, proving them to be distinct, with 
a description of Vespertilio barbastellus taken in the south of 
Devonshire," vol. IX, 1805. "On the Natural History of the Falco 
Cyaneus and Pygargus, vol. IX, 1807." " Of several new or rare 
Animals, principally Marine, discovered on the south coast of 
Devonshire," vol. XI, 1809. " Of some new and rare British 
Marine Shells and Animals," ib. 

He also furnished six papers to the Wernerian Natural History 
Society, which were published between March, 1809, and March, 

The works of Yarrell, Rennie, Fleming, Selby, and others, 
might be quoted in testimony of the high position which Montagu 
holds in the estimation of British Zoologists; but no one perhaps 
was so capable of appreciating his genius and attainments as the 
late Professor Edward Forbes, of the University of Edinbui-gh. 
The following remarks contained in a letter which I received from 
this gentleman a few months previous to his decease, will appro- 
priately close the present memoir. 

" Montagu's eminence as a Naturalist depended upon his acute 
powers of observation, and the perspicuous manner in which ho 

&4 On Pilgrims' Signs found in Salishitry. 

recorded the facts that came under his notice. He excels as a 
describer, and all his accounts of the animals which he noted, ore 
clearly and truthfully drawn up. He avoided wordiness, yet his 
descriptions are never so brief as to be obscure. 

" I have had occasion chiefly to test the observations of Montagu 
in cases where Marine Animals were concerned, and have been 
astonished at the extent, variety, and minuteness of his researches. 
He laboured, morever, at a time when there were few persons who 
took an interest in Marine Zoology, or who cared to investigate the 
structure and habits of Sub-marine Animals in their native haunts, 
Montagu, however, did not shrink from his work because he met 
few companions, or found little sympathy. He steadily pursued 
his chosen task, and laid the foundation of that thorough investi- 
gation of the Natural History of the British seas, which now forms 
so distinctive and appropriate a feature of the science of our 

" For my own part, I have derived the greatest benefit from the 
works and essays of Montagu, and am now happy to be able to 
record my acknowledgments to one of the most eminent practical 
Naturalists of his age." 

By J. Y. Akeeman, F.S.A. 

The objects engraved in the accompanying plate belong to the 
extensive collection of mediaeval relics formed by Mr. E. W. Brodie, 
during the recent excavations for sewerage in the City of Salisbury. 

Pilgrims' signs appear to have met with undeserved neglect, 
until they were brought under the notice of the Antiquary by 
Mr. Roach Smith, who, in his Collectanea Aniiqua,^ has engraved 
and described several varieties. The poverty of the material of 
which they are composed, may, in some measure, account for this, 
although their devices might have invited research and enquiry. 

1 Vol. I, p. 81, and vol. II, p. 43. 





I— t 











By J. Y. Akerman, F.S.A. 95 

A pilgrimage in the middle ages, even from one part of England 

to the other, was a performance attended by much personal labour, 

fatigue and peril. The better sort went in cavalcade, as described 

in the well known lines of Chaucer : — 

" Well nine and twenty in a companye 
Of sundry folk, by aventure i-falle 
In felaschype, and pilgrims were they all 
That toward Canterhiuy wolden ryde." 

but the poor trudged on foot, like the Pilgrim in Piers Ploughman's 

Vision, who says: — 

" Ye may see by my signs 
That sitten on myn hatte, 
Tliat I have walked full wide 
In weet and in drye, 
And soiight good scintes 
For my soules helthe." 

Another passage in the same remarkable poem, has: — 

"A boUe and a bagge 
He bar by his syde, 
And a hundred of ampulles 
On his hat seten." 

An example of the ampul is in Mr. Brodie's Collection, and is 

remarkable from its bearing the arms of Mortimer. 

These signs served at once for ornament and memorial. Chaucer's 

Yeoman bore 

"A Chiistopher on his breast of silver shene." 

and the Miller 

" had ypiked 

His bosom full of signys of Canterbury broches." 

The Pardoner, according to the same poet, had a Vernicle, or 

portrait of the Saviour 

" Sown upon his cap, 

His "Wallet before him on his lappe 

Bret-fuU of pardon come from Rome all bote." 

The truculent and superstitious despot, Louis the Eleventh, always 
had hLs hat well garnished with figures of this description, but in 
England they wore the signs that the wearer had performed a pil- 
grimage. Thus Giraldus Cambrensis, on his return from abroad, 
passed through Canterbury, and, of course, visited the shrine of 
Saint Thomas. The Bishop of Winchester discovered this when he 

96 On Pilgrims' Signs found in Salishury. 

beheld Giraldus and his friends with the signs of the saint hunar 
about their necks.^ 

In the Bernal Sale (lot 901) last year, a picture of the school of 
Mabuse, attracted the especial attention of Antiquaries. It re- 
presented Louis the Twelfth distributing alms to a beggar woman 
and a Pilgrim, whose tattered habiliments were decorated with these 

The signs here engraved are so accurately represented, that they 
need no description, but they present very singular devices which 
require interpretation. This, however, I am by no means confident 
I can supply. 

The first may possibly be symbolical of Saint John the Baptist.^ 
The same device occurs on the Irish Coins of John, and the English 
money of Henry the Third, but these signs are of a much later date 
than the reigns of those monarchs. The crescent and star were 
used as the livery of John's household,^ and there are several 
passages in Matthew Paris which show that the King had a peculiar 
veneration for the saint his namesake.* 

No. 2. probably represents Saint Michael the Archangel, or Saint 
George. The figure appears to be clad in a coat of mail, but the 
hands, instead of grasping a spear, are open, and the arms extended. 

No. 3. invites explanation from some of our Antiquaries who 
have made the symbolism of the middle ages their study. The 
device is surrounded with a legend, which accords in barbarism 
with the characters in which it is expressed, 


1 Episeopus aiitem videns ipsum intrantem, cujus notitiam satis habuerat, et 
socios suos ctmi signaculis B. Thonice d collo susjjensis. "Giraldus Cambrensis 
de Rebus a se Gestis," Pars 2, Aug. Sacra, Tom. II, p. 481, Edition 1691. 

2 The moon as well as the morning star, were emblems of this saint. As the 
moon in the absence of the sun, reflects his light, and testifies of his existence, so 
it was said of John that " he was sent to bear witness of that light." So likewise 
the Baptist was represented as the morning star, the forerunner of the " Sun of 
Righteousness." See the "Numismatic Chronicle," vol. II, p. 188. 

3 "Numismatic Journal," vol. II, p. 254. 

* Vide inter alia, Matthew Paris, sub anno, 1200. 

Coffin Plates recently discovered at East Coulston, Wilts. 97 

Althougli they but faintly reflect the manners of an age whicli 
has passed away, these memorials are yet both interesting and 
instructive, and the Antiquary is thankful for the gleam of light 
which they shed upon the habits and superstitions of those who 
have preceded him. 


London, 2\st January, 1856. 

Coffin IMiitrn menfli] bfernnereh at (East 
Caiiblun, llulte. 

By the Rev. Edwaud "Wilton. 

A few months since, in making a new brick grave near the 
original south door of East Coulston Church, in this county, a 
vault was discovered, under what had once been a seat opening into 
the church, and forming a sort of south transept, prior to the late 
alterations and repairs. This seat had been built by the Godolphin 
Family, formerly resident in the house now called Baynton House ; 
and in the vault there appear to have been four or five adults, and 
two or three children interred. The following cofiin plates were 
discovered and deciphered ; they have since been cleaned, and ai'e 
affixed to the south wall of the nave, near the spot where the bodies 
lie, which is now outside the church wall. 

As the Coulston registers, which commence in 1714, contain a 
reference only to one of these several interments, viz., William 
Godolphin, Esq., buried in 1781, and as the coffin plates give val- 
uable genealogical information, I enclose copies, which may interest 
sucli of your readers as consider this to be a legitimate dejiartment 
of county topography, adding a few particulars which will heliD to 
illustrate these memorials of two families, now presumed to be 
extinct in the male line. 

No. 1. 




98 Coffin Plated recently discovered at Ead Coulston, Wilts. 





No. 2. 

This plate was taken from the fragments of the exterior coffin ; 
another copy of the plate was soldered on the lead coffin, and still 
remains in the vault. 

Here Lie the Remains of Thom^ 

Lambe of Coulston in ye County of 

"WILTS Esq. who departed this Life 

31st MAR 1741 in ye 23d Year of his ago. 

He was A great Grandson of S^ John 

Lambe of Coulston afoi'esaid & deposited here 

at his Own Request by his affectionate Friend 

and Relation Wil™ Godolphin of Coulston aforesaid 

Esq. whose great Grandfather Sir Wil™ Godolphin 

of SPARGOR in y^ County of CORNWALL 

married Ruth Lambe Daughter of Sir John 

Lambe aforesaid. Sir Wil™ Godolphin of 

SPARGOR was Son of John Godolphin 

Governour of the ISLANDS of SCILLY 

which John was Brother of Sir Wil"i Godoli^hin 

of GODOLPHIN in CORNWALL aforesaid. 

No. 3. 

Wm Godolphin Esq.^ 
died Septi- 4. 1781 
Aged 88 Y?s." 
This plate was not engraved, and is replaced in the vault. 

The following Pedigree of Godolphin, extracted from an authentic 
document, and certified a.d. 1704, by Elizabeth Godolphin, probably 
the Aunt of William Godolphin, who died 1781, will still further 
explain the descent of the Coulston branch of the Godolphin fa- 
mily. It is probable that the Pedigree was recorded to shew the 

1 He is described in the " Gentlcmau's Magazine," 1781, as formerly Major 
in the Royal Horse Guards. 

By the Rev. E. Wilton. 


representatives of the founders of the Godolphin Charity, now 
existing at Salisbury, for the education of poor gentlewomen, as 
in them the administration of that charity is vested, and is still 
exercised by them. 

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Thus far the certified Pedigree; the following notes arc added 

by the contributor of this paper. 

o 2 

100 Coffin Plates recently discovered at East Couhton, Wilts. 

(a) Tliis no doubt is the Rutli whose name appears in the Lambe Pedigree 
page 104, as an unmarried daughter of Sir John Lambe, in the year 1623. 

(b) See Coffin Pkte, No. 1. The common Pedigrees of Godolphin omit the 
frst wife of Francis Godolphin, and erroneously give the issue as fi-om tlie 


(c) Elizabeth Godolphin survived her husband Charles Godolphin, and died 
in 1726. He, with their two children, is buried in the Cloisters of Westminster 
Abbey, M-here, it is presumed, she also is interred. Her Hatchment, and that 
of her husband, (hers as a -nddow,) were, till within a few years, in the church 
at Coulston. She carried out the intentions of her grandfather. Sir William 
Godolphin, in founding the Godolphin Charity in this county. By her will, 
dated 1724, she gave £200 to be laid out in beautifying the chancel of Coulston, 
in such manner as her nephew, WiUiam Godolphin, and her Executrix, should 
think fit: also to William Godolphin £80, to purchase an annuity of £4, to be 
paid yearly, to such poor women of Coulston or Edington, as her nephew 
might appoint for keeping the said chancel clean. In 1731, Francis Greene, 
Eector of Coulston, acknowledges " to have received from Mrs. Hall, Executrix 
of the late Mrs. Godolphin, of Coulston, a velvet Carpet for the Communion 
Table;" and in 1732, " a piece of Plate with Mrs. Godolphiu's Arms upon it, 
for the use of the Communion Table:" the Ai-ms, Godolphin impaling Godolphin 
on a Lozenge. 

In the Visitation of Middlesex, (1623), there is a Pedigree of 
Gayer. The Arms as there given are, ermine, a fleur-de-lis, and a 
chief sable. Sir John Gaj^er, (spelt Gayre), of the Fishmongers' 
Company, was Lord Mayor in 1647, 23 Charles I.; son of John 

Gayre of Plymouth, Co. Devon, son of Guyre of , in 

Cornwall. He was committed to the Tower with Adams, Langhara, 
and Bunce, Aldermen, September 25th, 1647. He and his brother 
Eobert Gayer, were benefactors to the Fishmongers' Company 
Charities. There is a portrait of Sir John Gayer, by Sir Peter Lely, 
at Stockton House, Wilts, the seat of Harry Biggs, Esq., having 
the same arms as described above, with a mullet for difference: 
also one of Sir William Godolphin ; and the annexed Pedigree of 
Godolphin, will shew the descent of Mrs. Biggs from Elizabeth, 
eldest sister and co-heir of William Godolphin, of Coulston, who 
died in 1781, and so from Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Gayer. 

A curious story has appeared in print, relative to this Sir John 
Gayer, which may be introduced as a relief to dry genealogical 
details, but I am not aware of the source whence it was first ob- 

By the Bev. E. Wilton. 





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102 Coffin Plates recently discovered at East Coiilston, Wilts. 

In the reign of James tlie First, and Charles the First, lived Sir 
John Gayer, a wealthy citizen and eminent merchant in the Ward 
of Aldgate, London. He was a liberal benefactor to the church 
and poor of St. Catharine Cree Parish, in which he resided. He 
owed his rank and opulence to his spirit of commercial adventure. 
It seems he had planned a mercantile speculation, the success of 
which depended upon his own personal superintendance. With 
this view he embarked on board a richly freighted vessel, and 
sailed for the coasts of Asia. His adventures by sea are unknown, 
but having occasion to cross the deserts of Arabia with a caravan 
of merchants, he was by some accident separated from his company, 
and night overtook him before he was sensible of his danger. No 
refuge was at hand, and he seemed destined to become the prey of 
savage beasts who were roaring at no great distance from him. 
In this awful situation neither his courage, presence of mind, nor 
trust in God forsook him. He knew that his own exertions were 
vain. Only One could help him, but He was mighty to save. He 
therefore fell upon his knees and praj^ed, devoutly promising that 
should it please God to rescue him from his present danger, the 
whole of the rich produce of the adventure he was engaged in, 
should be devoted to charitable purposes, when he returned to his 
own land. 

At this moment a lion of tremendous size approached him, and 
a horrible death seemed inevitable; but the noble beast, after 
prowling round him for a time, and eyeing him fiercely, suddenly 
stopt short, turned from the kneeling knight, and walked quietly 
away. Sir John remained in prayer till the morning dawned, 
when he proceeded on his way, and happily overtook his friends, 
who had given him up for lost. The remainder of his journey was 
prosperous, and he returned to England with the rich profits of 
his adventurous undertaking. He did not on his return forget the 
vow he had made in the desert, but at once devoted to charitable 
purposes the wealth he had brought home. He was, as already 
stated, an especial benefactor to his own parish, and amongst other 
donations, left £200 to the church of St. Catharine Cree, to be laid 
out iu land, the profits to be given to the poor, on condition that 

By the Rev. E. Wilton. 103 

a sermon should occasionally be preached in the church, to com- 
memorate his deliverance from the jaws of the lion. This was 
called " The Lion Sermon," and it was preached on one occasion 
by the Rector of St. Catharine's from this text, "Be sober, be 
vigilant, because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion goeth 
about, seeking whom he may devour." In the conclusion of his 
discourse on this text, the preacher alluded to the charity, piety, 
and devout confidence of Sir John Gayer, as an example worthy of 

It is singular, however, that neither the will of Sir John, nor 
his funeral sermon, has any mention of this wonderful escape, more 
especially as the former is of a religious character, and the latter 
refers to some passages in the life of the worthy knight, which 
caused the preacher to comment on the fact that " he died in his 
owne house not in a prison ; after all his sufferings quietl}^ breathing 
forth his last in his owne bed." His will is dated 19th December, 
1648, and names his sons John and Robert, who did not attain 
their majority tiU 1657; Katharine, wife of Robert Abdy, Mer- 
chant ; Mary Gayer, Sarah Gayer, and Elizabeth Gayer, (the wife 
afterwards of Francis Godolphin). At the time of his death, he 
was President of Christ's Hospital, to which, and to other city 
charities, he left benefactions; as also to the Fishmongers' Company. 
£200 to endow Catharine Cree Sermon on \&th October; charitable 
bequests to the town of Plymouth where he was born, cloth "to be 
dyed of a sad haire coloar," and made into clothing to be distributed 
at Plymouth, on the IQth October, yearly, "if not the Saboth day:" 
he leaves money to glaze the windows of Poplar Chapel, and 
Plymouth New Church, his Amies to be set in the east window of 
the same : the residue of his estate, which appears to have been 
considerable, to his sons, and if they chance to die, £5000 to his 
nepliew John, the son of Humphrey Gayer. 

It is also remarkable that the Catharine Cree Scniion, and dis- 
tribution of clotliing, both take place on the same day, a sort of 
perpetual thank offering, supposing it to be the anniversary of his 
e8caj)e from the lion; but the absence of any allusion to that cir- 
cumstance in the funeral sermon, seems to make tlic alleged origin 
of the cliarity questionable. 

104 Cq^n Plates recently dkcovered at East Coukton, Wilts. 

Administration of the EiFects of Thomas Lambe, of Trowbridge, 
Bachelor, (Coffin Plate, No. 2.), was granted to William Godolphin, 
Esq., the guardian of Meliora Lambe, sister and heir of Thomas 

Roger Lambe, buried at Trowbridge, 1720, is the only person 
of the name recorded in the Registers there, and there is, at present, 
no evidence of his being related to the above-mentioned Thomas 

The earliest part of tlic annexed Pedigree of Lambe, of Coiilston, 
appears in the Visitation of the county of Wilts, 1623, as printed 
by Sir Thomas Phillipps; and supplementary information is now 
solicited from genealogists, to establish the fact stated on the Coffin 
Plate, No. 2., that Thomas Lambe who died 1741, was great grand- 
son of Sir John Lambe of Coulston. 

The Arms of Lambe, (as depicted on the Hatchment of Richard 
Long, Esq., in Steeple Ashton Church, (the second husband of 
Meliora Lambe), are as follows : — 

Sable, on a fess or, between three Cinquefoils argent, two 
mullets of the field. 

Aubrey, (" Collections for Wilts," II, 18,) in describing tlie 
Shields on the Tomb of Sir William Button, at Alton Priors, gives 
the name of Lambe to the Coat of Burrard. Both families had 
intermarried with the Buttons, and hence probably arose the mis- 
take. It is a matter of regret, that successive coats of whitewash, 
have now quite concealed the several Shields setting forth the 
alliances of the Buttons, as given by Aubrey in the above-men- 
tioned book. 

In Wilts Visitation, 1565— 

Adam Lambe, of Coulston, had in Goods £60. 

From the Manuscript Family History, compiled by Thomas 
Gore, of Alderton, now in the possession of Mr. Poulett Scrope, 
it appears that in 

1602. Edward Gore, of Surrendell, releases to John Lambe, of 
Coulston, all his Estate in certain lands at Steeple Ashton, 
Semington, Henton, and Littleton. 

1623. Sir John Lambe, Knight, was High Sheriff of Wilts. 


Rtjth, inanic'd to Sir 
Wm. Goilolphin. (See 
Coffin Plate No. 2, and 
also the Pedigree of 

BENTiN V, daughter of 

onrchierWrey, Bart. 

cd at Steeple Ashton 

IT Anne, 2nd dan. 
le Rt. Hon. Archibald 
uhoun, Lord Kegister 


As printed in the before-named Visitation of 1623. 

Aldham, (or Adhelm) Lambe. (Adam, 1567; see Harvey's Res. Gentry. )== 
In 1557, Anselm Lambe purchased Beynton from the Crown; eight 
years after Lord Sudley's attainder. Harleian MSS. 607. 59. 

. daxishtor of Button. 

JoHX Lambe, of Coulston,= daughter of Browne, of 

in 1587. (Subsidy Roll.) I Northamptonshire. 

pRAXEDA— Tohn Long, Sen. 

Sir John Lambe, of Coulston, Kt., 1623 ; called Great Grandfather=AwNE, fourth daughter 

of Thomas, and therefore of MeUora Lambe, on Coffin Plate No. 2. 
He is described as Sir John Lambe of Stratford- under- Sarum, late of 
Coulston, in Letters of Administration dated February 22nd, 1659, 
granted to his Son and HEIR, William Lambe. 

John, aged 12, William, no doubt the same called=:. 

1623. Son and HEIR in the Letters of Ad- 

ministration granted as above. 

of Edward Lambert, nf 
Boyton, Wilts, Esq. 



Ruth, married to Sir 
Wm. Goilulphiu. (Set" 
Coffin Plate No. 2, and 
also the Pedigree «l' 

Thomas Lambe, of Trowbridge, Great 
Grandson to Sir John Lambe, ob. 1741, 
aged 23; (Coffin Plate No. 2;) Admin- 
istration granted to Wm. Godolphin, 
Esq., of Coulston, Guardian of Meliora 
Lambe, Sister and Heir of Thomas 

I. Thomas PoLDEN, of:=:MELioHA Lambe,=:II. Richard Lono, 

Imber, Esq., Son of 
Job Polden, Esq., mar. 
at Coulston, 1750. He 
died 1753, aged 33. 

Meliora Polden, 
died unmarried. 

Ann Polden.=Rcv. John Langhaene. 


Sister of Thomas ' 
Lambe, inherited, 
as his sole Heir, 
lands at Coulston ; i 
sold by her ; or at ! 
her decease. i 

of Rood Ashton, 
Esq., married to 
Mrs. Polden at 
West Lavington 
Wilts, 1760. 

Richard Godolphin Long, Esq.,=FLORENTiNA, daughter of 

late M.P. for Wilts, baptized at 
West Lavington 1761, buried at 
Steeple Ashton 1835. 

Walter Long, Esq., M.P. for the= 
Northern Division of the County 
of Wilts. 

Sir BoiirchierWrey, Bart, 
bui'ied at Steeple Ashton 

=MAitT Anne, 2nd dau. 
of the Rt. Hon. Archibald 
Colquhimn, Lord Register 
of Scotland. 


By the Rev. E. Wilton. 105 

1645. The day book of the Commissioners sitting at Falstone, 
contains the following entry: — 

WilKam Lamb, in the behalf of Andrew Bowerman, of 
Stratford, Clerk, hath compounded for his Stock and 
personal Estate, for £80; paid in separate sums; dated 
2l8t November, 1645. The wheat now sown upon the 
ground, being 44 acres, is included in this composition. 
Lamb further paid for one year's rent of Mr. Bowerman'a 
Farm, Parsonage, and Mill, £40. 
1660, In a List of Wilts Gentry, (a short time after the death 
a little ^^ ^^^ John Lambe), the name occurs but once; viz., 
later. William Lambe, of Coulston, Gent.; this would lead to 
the conclusion that John, the eldest son of Sir John, died 
young, and before his father; that William then became, 
as he is called in the above-quoted Letters of Administra- 
tion, Heir, and succeeded his father at Coulston, when 
Sir John removed to Stratford- sub- Sarum; consequently, 
that this WilHam, was the grandfather of Thomas and 
Meliora Lambe. Their father yet remains to be discov- 
1701. A fine passed between Henry Lambe, Quaerent, and John 

Lambe and his wife, Deforciant ; for Lands in 

Coulston : possibly one of these may have been the father 
of Thomas and Meliora Lambe. 
I shall feel much obliged by any additions or corrections, which 
will enable me to give as perfect a descent of Thomas and Meliora 
Lambe, from their known great grandfather, Sir John Lambe, as 
I have done in the case of Meliora Lambe's guardian, WUliam 
Godolphin, (ob. 1781), from Ruth, Sir John's second daughter, 
which match may have led to the settlement of the Godolphin 
Family at Coulston. The dwelling of the Lambes stood in a pad- 
dock, at the west end of the churchyard, called to this day Lambe's 
lawn ; and there are other portions of land in the parish, with which 
their name is still associated. 

Sir John Lambe's third daughter, Anno, is called wife of Dr. 
John Bourman, of Stratford, Wilts, in some genealogical notices 


106 The Old Market House, and Great Mre at Marlborough. 

of the Lambes with which Sir Thomas Phillipps has kindly favored 

me; this may account for the old knight's removal to Stratford; 

there are no memorials of the Lambe Family there, nor do they 

appear to have ever held the estate of the Dean and Chapter at 

Stratford ; the Letters of Administration alluded to, seem, however, 

to decide the question as to which of Sir John's sons continued 

the elder line of the family, and was the grandfather of Thomas 

and Meliora Lambe. 

Edward Wilton. 
West Lavington, March 15t?i, 1856. 

€'tit M 3finrkrt l^nitst, nni (l?rrnl fm 

By F. A. Caeeington, Esq. 

There have been, within the last three hundred years, four 
successive Market Houses in the town of Marlborough, of which 
our illustration represents the fhi7-d, built in 1653, and taken down 
in 1793.1 

The earliest notice of these buildings, that the writer of the 
present article has met with, is to be foimd in the Chamberlains' 
accounts of the town for the year 1575, (18th Elizabeth), which 
contain an item of extensive repairs done to the " Guildhall " in 
that year. 

This Elizabethan building appears to have been removed about 
the year 1630. There is in the Corporation books, under the date 
of April 5th, 1631, "An Order- for erecting and building a new 
Market-house ;" and in the Chamberlains' account for that year 

is an entry — 

£ s. d, 
" Paid for building the Market House 350 " 

and in the following year, there is an entry of a payment of 

1 For the loan of the copper-plate, from which the Illustration is taken, the 
Society is indebted to the kindness of Mr.William C. Merriman, of Marlborough. 
2 Printed in "Waylen's "History of Marlborough," p. 125. 

MUs Jlrchoeol-.Mctg. 18S6. 

Old market House at 

BimiijT 16 J5 : Takejvdiown 17^3. 


SI. Edw m. 

Ancient Seals op the 
Borough ofMvrlborougho 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. 107 

£47 Os. Od. more, for the same purpose. Also for Swindon stone, 
used in the building, and to the free-masons for " clyminge crests 
and bottle crests." 

The building erected in 1630, which sometimes went by the 
name of "St. Marie's Market House," from its vicinity to that 
church, had a brief existence of only twenty- two years, being de- 
stroyed in the Great Fire at Marlborough, 28th AprU, 1653. Of 
that catastrophe, a good account is preserved in a printed work, 
a copy of which is in the library of the Rev. Edward Duke, of 
Lake House, a MS. copy of which is in the possession of Mr. T. 
Baverstock Merriman, of Marlborough. 
The title-page of this work is as follows: — 

" Take heed in time, 


A briefe Relation of many 

Harmes which have of late 

been done by iire in 


and in other places." 

This Copy was drawne up and printed, on purpose for the world to take 

notice of, and be careful to prevent, the 

Danger of Fire. 

Written by L. P. 

London: Printed for F. Grom, and are to be sold at his shop in Snowhill, 1653. 

The work commences — 

"A briefe description of the 

Towne of 


and of the Harmes that were there done, upon Thursday, the 28th of April, 

this present 

Year 16.53." 

It then proceeds as follows : — 

" The famous and flourishing Town of Marlborough in Wiltshire, had of late 
two faire Parish Churches, one called by the name of St. Peter's, and the other 
Church called by the name of St. Marie's. There was likcAvise many faire 
Btreets and stately Buildings, especially one gallant street called the High 
Street, in which they kept their Markets, which Markets consisted of all kinds 
of necessarie Provisions, which was brought in far and near by the country 
people, and indeed it was a gallant place for Corn, Butter, Cheese, and such 
like Provisions, as any was in all the country. The street wherein the Market 
wa« kept, is supposed to be in length and breadth full as large as Choapside, 
and on both sides had many goodly shops, well tilled with rich and costly com- 
modities. Silks, and Tafoty Cloaths, and Lace, Linen and Woollen, Gold and 

p 2 

108 The Old Market House, and Great Fire at Marlborough. 

Silver, no braver wares can be had or bought in London, then was to be had 
in the famous Towne of Marlborough. 

"At the upper end of the Market-place, was a gallant building called the 
Town Hall, wherein the Magistrates sat and held the Sessions of the Peace, at 
appointed times ; there were many faii-e Inns, Taverns, and Victualing Houses, 
to entertain Cai-riers and Travellers, and such which had occasion to make use 
of them, for it stood upon the road between London and BristoU, and to be 
Briefe, it was a Towne of very good orders and Government. 

" And thus, ha^-ing told you the situation and substance of the Town, I shall, 
with God's leave, though with a grieved Heart, declare unto you the manner of 
the ruine and destruction of the same. 

" Here followeth a brief and true relation, as near as can be gathered, 
of the Harmes that were done by the fire in the Town of Marlborough, 
in Wiltshii-e, April 28th, 1653. 

" On Thursday, the 28th of April, m the House of one Mr. Freeman a Tanner, 
as some of his servants were imployed with drying of Barke, the Barke took 
Fire so suddenly that it quickly did much harme. The house standing on the 
Soiith side of the street, towards the West end of the Towne, near unto St. 
Peter's Church, the Fire prevailed so much, that it took hold of the dwelling 
House, and so running a crosse the street from one side to the other, it came to 
be of such force and vehemency, that the like was never scene in England 
before, by the report of some of them that were Eye-witnesses of that sad object. 

"It burned iu both sides of the Street aU the Inns, Tavernes, Gentlemen's 
Houses, Shopkeepers' Houses ; Grosers, Mercers, Habberdashers ; all manner of 
Tradesmen that were Inhabitants of that Street, lost both Houses and Goods 
by that consuming Fire. Yet that was not aU, it burned downe the Market 
House, and run into St. Marie's Parish, and burned the church and many 
dwelling Houses in that Parish, so that in St. Peter's Parish and St. Marie's 
Parish, it is verified that at least three hundred families were dispossessed of 
their habitations, all which was done in the space of three or foure houres. 

" For when the Fire had fastened on one of the Houses where were piles of 
wood and fagots in their backsides, it flamed and burned so strongly, that all 
that ever could be done could not quench the fire, until it had devoured and 
burnt to ashes, all these places which I have here named. 

"Yet that is not all, for it was not the Houses that were burned alone, but 
also the goods that were in them; there was brasse and pewter. Gold and Silver, 
melted, the value whereof cannot be made knowne ; there was SUks and Taffety, 
"Woollen and Linnen Cloths, and many other rich commodities, consumed to 

"There was foure or five Tun of Cheese, which was laid in store in the 
Market House consumed to nothing. 

" And thus was the stately flourishing Town of Marlborough consumed with 
fixe on a sudden. 

" It would make a heart drop tears of blood, that had but heard the doleful 
cryes and heavy moanes that passed between men and their wives, parents and 
children, the Wife crying out to the Husband, ' Oh dear Husband, what will 
become of us and our children?' the Husband answering the Wife 'We are 
all undone, I know not what to doe.' 

By F. A. Carringfon, Esq. 109 

" The Children crying for bread, the parents had none to give them, nor so 
much as a House to put their heads in, nor a bed to lay theii' weary limbs upon, 

" And thus were the poore made poorer, and some of the richest became as 
poore as the poorest. 

" And now are they all in a sad condition, the Lord in his mercy send them 
comfort; Little did they that had plenty in the morning tliinke that they should 
be made destitute and desolate before night. 

"One thing concerning Marlborough we have great cause to give the Lord 
praise for, and that is this, although there were so many Houses biu-nt, and so 
much goods and treasure consumed with scorching Fire, yet there were not 
many people destroyed, only those which shall be hereafter spoken of. 

"There were foure Dutchmen which laboiired and took pains and did their 
best endeavours to quench the Fire, of which two of them were killed outright, 
and the other two are since dead of theii' wounds. Of others, there were none 
save a Post Boy that lost his life, and a Taylor's wife burned to death in her 
owne House ; and as for Francis Freeman the Tanner, at whose House at first 
the Fire began, it is said that he profest himselfe to be Christ, I pray God that 
hee may take heed in time." 

Mr. T. Baverstock Merriman has a list of the names of the 
sufferers from this fire, and the amount of the loss of each. 

The number of sufferers is four hundred and seven, and the total 
amount of the losses is sixty three thousand six hundred and 
eighteen pounds, including one thousand pounds for the Market 
House, and one thousand six hundred pounds for damage done to 
St. Mary's Church. 

When the town was restored after the fire, the Market House 
shown in the plate was erected. The clearing out of the area 
seems to have commenced soon after the fire, and no doubt the 
new building was rising before the end of the year. The columns 
supporting it belonged to its predecessor, (the one built in 1631), 
and possibly to the one before that, the Elizabethan ; as their cha- 
racter is not quite distinct. 

The engraving of the one here shown, first appeared in the 
European Magazine for May, 1793, p. 368 ; with a short notice 
calling attention to the singularity of its construction, in having 
two stories in the roof. 

By the year 1793, this building had become very much out of 
repair. The County Magistrates also complained of it as very in- 
convenient; and the Corporation of Marlborough, fearing that the 
Michselinus County Quarter Sessions would be removed from the 

110 The Old Market House, and Great Fire at Marlborough. 

town, unless better accommodation were provided, took it down, 
and built the one now standing. 

The pinnacles of St. Mary's Church Tower, seen in our illustra- 
tion, were taken down about the year 1800, as being dangerous in 
high winds to the houses immediately adjoining, upon which one 
of them had recently fallen. 

The following entries in the Chamberlains' books, refer to the 
Market House seen in our plate. 

1653. Reed, of Francis Eawlyns for the burnt timber of the Market Hoiise 
IQs- Paid to 5 dntchmen for watching the tier 2^- Q'^- For baskets and 
shoules to ridd the Market House. To Mr. Swindon for can'yiug the 
chest out of the Market House. Labourers for ridding the Market 

1654. Md. There is owing by the Chamber of the money collected for losse 
by tier, 318li- 19**- 4<l- wch was borrowed of Mr. Blissett, tresurer of 
that money, and is over and besides the 300'i- allowed^ towards the 
building of the Market House, and is to be repaid by the Chamber 

when it is called for by the as to that money. — Also borrowed 

more of Mr. Blissett, towards the building of the Market House and 
Shambles, 549"- ll^- 5d- 

1655. Received for the Town pewter and brass which was melted at the fier, 
2U. 15s. Cai-riage of the Measures from Winchester. Casting the 
weights and carriage from London. A great deal of work done to the 
Market House. A case for the Sundial. 

Md. That 400ii- was bon-owed of Mr. Roger Blagden, of Market 
Lavington, mercer, in Dec""- 1655, for wch is secured 40li- pr. ann. 
dui'ing the lives of the said Mr. Lavington, (sic), & Elizt'i his now wife, 
by a Deed of Mortgage of the Market House & Toll, as by the abstract or 
sui-vey of the Indenture to that purpose hereunder mentioned appear- 
eth: and that 318li- 19s- 4d- parcel of the said 400"- was disbursed 
towards the rebuilding of the said Market House after y^ fier, which 
cost in all 618li- 19s- 4d.^ as appeareth by the account of Mr. Himt, 
bound up in a roll & put in the Town chest : The other SOQii- was 
allowed by the Committee appointed to manage the Collection for the 
loss by the said Fire : & the residue of the said 4001^- so borrowed was 
disposed of towards the rebuilding of the Shambles. 
Moreover there was given towards the rebuilding of the said Market 
Hoiise by the Lord Marques of Hertford, 100 tunn of timber, and by 
S' John Danvers 20 tunn of Timber, every tunn worth SO*-, in all 
1801'-, besides the carriage paid for in Mr. Hunt's said account : and 
all the expenses of the two last years concerning the said Market 
House, upon the account of Mr. Barnes & Mr. Nathaniel Bayly, are 
over and above the said G18li- 19^- 4ti- & timber. 
The Mayor & Burgesses by Indenture, dated the 20th of Decemr 1655, 

1 Allowed by the Fire Committee. 

By F. A. Carrington, Esq. Ill 

in eons of 400ii' demised to Roger Blagden & Elizabeth his wife above 
named, the Market House standing in the High Street of the said 
Town, with the Toll of cheese, wooU, and other comodities, usually 
sold & to be sold on the Fairs and Markets to be there holden, and all 
benefits and advantages of the said house, to hold for 60 years, &c. 
Keverthelcss, the said Market House shall, or may be used and ym- 
ployed for the keeping of the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace, 
and other Couiis and Sessions as usually have been there kept and 
holden in former times. 
1657. Paid Anthony Barges for work about the pillars of the Market House, 

4s. 6d. 

1664. Paid for the Aimes in the Town Hall, 12li- e^- 6^- 
Paid Bartlett his bill for Pewter, 21^ 6d. 

1665. Paid for a cheste for ye Pewter, 18s- 
1671. Paid for brass measures, 15li- lis- 4<i- 

1673. Reed, for the Market House, (first time since the fire), 40li- Paid for 

two loads of sarazen stones, S*'- 
1678. Paid for work done at the Market House, 41ii- 16s- 6<i- 
1683. Received one whole year's rent for the Hall, llQii- Toll and Sheep 

coobs, 48li- lO'*- Shambles, oSi^- 

The Chamberlains' Books compreliend the period between the 
years 1571 and 1771. 

The Corporation chest contains some earlier documents, viz., 
A Precept, dated 20th June, 11 Henry VII., which, after setting 
forth various privileges and exemptions granted to the Queen 
Consort (Elizabeth), within her Castles, Lordships, Manors, Towns, 
Townships, &c., within the Borough of Marlborough, commands 
that aU and singular the liberties and privileges therein enume- 
rated, should be allowed to the Queen in her Town and Lordship 
of Marlborough. 

A similar document, dated 18th March, 3 Henry VIII. Some 
feoffments of Lands in the Borough, to and from different indivi- 
duals, dated aa.d. 1379. 1389. 1417. 1429. 1506. 

The books of the Corporation, containing proceedings at the 
different courts held in the Borough, viz., the Courts of Pie Poudre, 
of View of Frankpledge, the Mayor's Court, and the Court of 
Morning Speech, the latter commencing in a.d. 1502, and having 
an hiatus from 1555 to 1014. 

The Charter of 10th May, 18 Elizabeth, setting forth the Charters 
of 6 John, 13 and 20 Henry III., 9 Henry IV., and the successive 

112 The Old Market House, and Great Fire at Marlborough. 

confirmations of them, and then proceeding, &c. Tested at West- 
minster. See AVaylen, p. 114. 

A roll of bye Laws for the government of the town, commencing 
18 Elizabeth. 

A book called the Armoury Book, 1573, containing names of 
the inhabitants taxed for the supply of armour and weapons, for 
the service of the Queen's Majesty, &c. 

A few other extracts from the Chamberlains' Books. 

1572. £21 4s. 4d. spent upon building the " highe Crosse, "i (which appears 
to have been of timber tyled and rough cast with windows). — Also for 
repairing the "Corn Cross. "2 — A pillory made. — Towne bull cost 
33s. 8d. — Money laid ovit about the Charter 55s. 6d. 

1573. Two sugar loaves given to Lord Hartford, weigliing 26lb. 4oz., at 
xiiijd- the pound. 31s. (a very frequent item.) 

1576. The Queen's beame of weights in the high crosse. 

1577. Wyne & trowte carryed to Clatford Hill to Lord Pembroke. 
To the Goldsmith for ti-imming the mace. 

1583. For tenne trees & setting them about the hoyles. 

1584. St. Ellen's cross. 

1592. Carriage of Crepels (cripples), and other things. — Plague. 

1593. Plague. 

1601. To buy a Towne BuU, 40s. — For the Clk of the Market coming about 
the Progress intended 22 August, 20s. — A pair of newe maces with 
the charges of carriage and other expenses about the same, £16 14s. 
Grene Cloth to clothe 3 of the Magistrates' seats, & 3 of their wyves' 
seats, nails, lace, &c., at St. Marie's £4 7s. 2d. The like for 4 seats 
at St. Peter's. 

1603. The Plague again. £ s. d. 

1604. Money collected for the Plague 17 8 6 

Geven by Lady Wroughton for Do 6 

From the County 20 

1607. Geven to Bedwyn men, upon a Collection which they made to redeem 
two of their neighboiu's out of prison. 

1608. Sickness & plague. Sugar, vinegar, & nutmeg bought for the sick. 

1609. After Jan. 1, the charges for the sick of the plague are kept separately. 
It seems to have ended about April. — "Paid the charge of John Awstin, 
Nicholas Tree, John Spencer, and Sir Anthony, ^ being kept in uppon 
suspicion of the Plague, £10 5s. 7d. 

1615. Bought one peece of Plate, weighing xlijoz. & di., at iiv^- ij<i. [sic) 
the oz., presented to Queene Anne, xv^^- xviij^- iv^- 
Paid for ccccxxvijii- of pewter, at x<i- ob. the pound, contayning in the 
whole XV dozen and a half of pewter, xx^i- xv^- vijd- 

1 This probably stood on, or near the site of the present Market House. 

2 This was, perhaps, at or near the present Market r.iils, where the Corn Market is still held. 

3 Query, Sir Anthony Hungerford. 

Bij F. A. Carrington, Esq. 113 

Then follow the Items, — saucers, dishes, pottingers, &c. 

1616. Paid for setting up St. Ellen's Crosse. 

1617. Received of Mr. Walter Baylie, the money which was collected in the 
towne towards the building of the newe crosse, xvij^- iij<l- 

Paid for the vane of St. Denny's crosse, 5s. lOd. 
1623. Geven to the Herrold of Armes, xls- (Camden.) 
1625. Tottenham first mentioned. 
1644. To Mr. Mayor to present to his Majesty, £20. 
1649. Paid to Mr. Mayor for a silver seale, £2 6s. 
1652. Paid for new making the mases, xlv^^- viij*-, which were brought from 

London. (These are the present maces with the arms, badges, and 

mottos of the Commonwealth upon them; — somewhat altered in 1660.) 
1656. It appears that if a man be admitted a Burgess, whose father was a 

Burgess before he was born, the fee for admission was only 2s. 6d., in 

other cases 10s. 
1656. Paid for 3 men to go with Nay lor. (This was the Quaker of whom 

there is a portrait at Tottenham Park.) 

1660. Paid for wine, sack, ringers, and trumpets, at proclaiming the King, 
£12 Is. 4d. 

Paid Mr. Barnes laid out by him for the mases, £7 14s. (There has 
probably been no alteration of the maces since this time, when a Crown 
and Orb, and the Coat of Charles II. were added to them, surmounting 
the Commonwealth insignia. The crown is of the full size of the head 
of the mace, set above it and screwed to it. "When the crown is re- 
moved, the head forms a large drinking cup, and has been occasionally 
used for that puqjose within memory. Round this head the Coat 
granted to the Borough in 1565 is twice repeated, alternating with the 
States' Arms. There are three inscriptions, viz., "Made by Tobias 
Coleman, of London, goldsmith." " This mace was made for the 
Corporation of Marlebrough, Mr. Robert Clements then mayor, 1652;" 
and "The freedom of England by God's blessing restored, 1660." The 
maces are of silver gilt and very handsome. 

1661. Paid for horses to carry Starr, a Quaker, to Geayle. 

1663. Presented to the King and Queen's Matifs £88. Given to the King's 

servants £2 19s. Paid for washing the King's carriages 8s. 

1665. Paid the King's Officers by Mr. Mayor's order £36. 

1667. Paid Mr. Mayor conceruiiig the Charter £42. 

1669. Paid for several parcels of farthings. 

1670. Received in farthings £19 18s. lOd. More in farthings £20 3s. 9d. ob. 
1670. Received in farthings £39 5s. 1671. Sugar presented to the D. of 

1673. Paid t<^) my Lord IJuke's servants £17 10s. 
1679. tor horse hire to meet my Lord Aylesbury. 
1679. Hughes and cryes. 

1681. Paid for trophycs and arms £4 10s. 

1682. Geveu by my Lord Bruce to the poor £20. 

1688. Presented to her Mat'p 20 broad pieces £23 10s. Paid for a gould 
purso 12s. — Cleaning the street. — Rushes and boughs when the Queen 

114 Ancient Seals of the Borough of Marlborough. 

came £1 17s. — The Queen's servants £2 15s. — Cleaning the street at 

the Queen's return £1 6s. 
1692. Paid for whipping Coleman's boy Is. — for prenticing Coleman's boy 

1715. Paid " Have a care" as by order Is. 
1717. Paid for a gown and petticoat for " Have a care." 
1717. Mar. 16, Mr. Baylye carried the Charter to London about the popular 


%mi\A Inils nf tjie Snrniiglj nf jHarlhnrnitgjj. 

Two impressions of this seal still remain in the Record office of 
the Tower of London. ^ 

The one is attached to a feoffment, dated on Monday next after 
the feast of the Circumcision, 27 Edward III., by which Roger 
Ryndesle grants to Nicholas Kenyngton, his heirs and assigns, a 
tenement which formerly was of John Cotepit in the Town of 
Marlebergh, situate between the tenement of William Reed on the 
east side, and Robert le Tanere on the west side. To hold to the 
said Nicholas, his heirs and assigns, they rendering annually 
thirteen pence of silver, for an obit in the church of St. Mary, in 
Marlebergh, for the souls of William Molyn, Joan his wife, and 
William their son, for ever ; and for greater security, the seal of the 
Borough is affixed to this grant. 

The other is attached to a feoffinent dated on Monday next 
before the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
51 Edward III., by which John Colyngbourn, son of Thomas 
Colyngbourn, grants to John Wynde, junior, of Marleberg, and 
Cristina his wife, and their heirs, the flesh stall and edifice in the 
High Street, on the north side of the Market of Marleberg, situate 
between the King's Highway on the east part, and the flesh stall 
of Adam Lynham on the west part, and also the fish stall standing 
in the Town aforesaid, on the north of the market, between the 
stall of Hubert Woksey on the one part, and the stall of John 
Polton on the other part : to hold to the said John Wynde and 

1 Box No. 735. A flattened impression of this seal is attached to a deed da- 
ted 7th October, 24 Henry VIII., in British Museum, (add. Chart. No. 5696.) 
The legend, which is there perfect, is SIGILL COMMVNE DE MARLEBERGE. 

Christopher Wren, of East Kmyle, D.D. 115 

his heirs; and for greater security the seal of the Borough is affixed 
to this grant. 

The seals of the respective grantors have evidently been affixed 
to both these feoffinents, but are now lost. 

The Corporation seal of Marlborough used now, has on it the 

Town Arms as given in the title page of Mr. Waylen's " History 

of Marlborough." 

F. A. Carrington. 

Cjiristaplier Wn\i af fet %\m\\t, D.D. 

By Mr. J. "Watlen. 

Among the many distinguished names which gave prominence 
and lustre to the County of Wilts during the 17th century, not 
the least was that of the first English architect of his day, Sir 
Christopher Wren, born in 1631 at East Knoyle, at the parsonage 
house of his father, Dr. Christopher Wren, the Dean of Windsor. 
As the following incidents, occurring during the childhood of Sir 
Christopher, will not be found in the Parentcdia, published by his 
descendant Dr. Stephen Wren, their appearance in the Wiltshire 
Magazine, may, it is hoped, provoke further elucidation and illus- 
tration from other local contributors. 

When the civil wars broke out between Charles I. and his 
Parliament, Knoyle was the centre of a group of royalist families, 
such as Stourton, Bennett, Cottington, Digby, Green of Mere, 
Willoughby, and Hyde. The Doctor's advanced age, moreover, 
made him averse to any movement of a revolutionary kind. His 
adherence to the King's party was therefore from the first pro 
nounccd in a decided manner. This, in fact, was aU that could be 
alleged against him, to prove what was termed " Delinquency," 
for he had served his cure with credit for nearly thirty years. 
Still, delinquency, though in the form only of adherence to the 
king, was a crime to be punished, and even on this point the evi- 
dence was very contradictory. There was also another charge, 
relating to pictures which he erected in the chancel, but it was 

a 2 

116 Ckrisfopher Wren, of East Knoyle, D.D. 

not shewn that they were " superstitious." "Without further 
comment, we proceed to the facts alleged. 

Soon after the commencement of hostilities, Dr. Wren retired to 
Windsor. Sir Edward Ilungerford, the Parliamentary general, 
sweeping throiigh the south of Wilts, compelled Christopher 
Williams and Henry Mai-shman to surrender £25, due to the Doctor 
as rent of part of the parsonage of East Knoyle. In a few months 
after, LudloAv was shut up in Wardour Castle, and Colonel Barnes, 
who lay before it, had the command of the country adjacent. Down 
comes the Dean from Windsor, armed with a warrant from Sir 
Ralph Hopton, empowering Colonel Barnes to send a troop of 
horse to his aid, by which means he speedily collects all rents due 
to him, and compels Williams and MarshniaU'to pay their £25 
over again. This was in the autmnu of 1644, and from this time 
he seems to have considered Knoyle a safer place than Windsor. 

The spring of the next year was signalised hj Cromwell's capture 
of Sir James Long's troop near Devizes ; and about Lady-day, 
Cromwell and Waller were lying near Shaftesbury, laying their 
plans for the relief of Taunton. Keeping these two facts in mind, 
we seem to trace in the following fragment of the evidence in Dr. 
Wren's case, the movements of the scattered remnants of Long's 
troop, who, being chased, (as is known), through Steeple Ashton, 
and seeking safety by flying southward, and distributing themselves 
among their associates in South Wilts, must have heard with 
great consternation that the enemy was so close upon their traces. 

"On the morrow after Lady Day, 1645," deposed George Styles 
of Knoyle, "at about 10 o'clock at night, there came to his house 
a large company of Royalist soldiers, accompanied by Dr. Wren, 
who saluted this informant with the name of ' Landlord.' Mistress 
Styles provided for the Doctor and one of the Commanders a bed, 
in which they lodged together : and in the morning as they lay in 
bed, the Doctor spake these words to his friend, ' Sir, all is well, 
there is no danger, for I left word with my wife that if there were, 
she should send word over the grounds.' " [Across the fields.] 

The next thing we hear of Dr. Wren is his advocacy of the 
Club- rising in the autumn of the same year, 1645. (This was a 

By Mr. J. Waylen. 117 

union of the gentry and agriculturists of South Wilts and Dorset, 
to protect their property from both the conflicting parties.) Andrew 
Marshman swore that >Dr. Wren not only encouraged his parish- 
ioners to assist, but when Mr. Thomas Bennett, of Pythouse, came 
to Knoyle to invite their co-operation, Dr. Wren seconded Mr. 
Bennett's remarks, and even went forth himself with Mr. Bennett, 
carrying a caliver upon his shoulder. (The Doctor was probably 
shooting pheasants.) 

Against this and other testimonj' to the same import, Randall 
Dominick declared that Dr. Wren had expressed so decided an 
opposition to the " Club-business," that the parish of Knoyle did 
not list themselves. 

AYe next come to the story of the pictures in the church. These 
were loosely reported at first as " superstitious," but the only evi- 
dence worth reciting in this place, will be that of the workman 
who executed them under the Doctor's supervision ; and the whole 
affair shows that the love of pictorial embellishment as an accessory 
to architecture, which his distinguished son afterwards gratified 
in the Dome of St. Paul's, was a taste derived from the father. 
Little Christopher was perhaps too young to have watched the 
progress of the frescoes at Knoyle, being then only eight years of 
age, but he was fifteen or sixteen before he left Wiltshire. 

Robert Brockwaj', of Quinten, in Dorset, plasterer, being sworn, 
saith, — "That about July, eight years ago, or thereabouts. Dr. Wren 
sent for him, and agreed with him to make and set up in the chan- 
cel at Knoyle, in fret-work, the picture of the four Evangelists and 
such other things as the Doctor should invent. And, accordingly, 
he did invent and make a model or draught thereof in paper, which 
he gave to this examinant and caused him to make it, viz., the 
picture of the Ascension, with the twelve Apostles, and Christ as- 
cending in the clouds, his feet and lower part of his garment being 
seen below the clouds. This stood at the lower end of the chancel 
next towards the church. He also gave this examinant a draught 
of ' The Trinity,' formed by three rounds linked in each other, 
an emblem in the midst, with glory around it ; and above that, 
cloudu on the roof. This was over the communion table. Further, 

118 Christopher Wren, of East Knoylc, D.J). 

on each side of the east window there was set up the picture of 
Jacob's dream and his sacrifice ; clouds above : Jacob sleeping 
below, and a ladder let down to the earth. On the one side of the 
window, angels holding crowns of laurel in their hands, ascended, 
and on the other side of the window they descended; and under- 
neath were these words written, ' Let prayers ascend that grace 
may descend.' " He further saith that " Dr. Wren did himself pay 
for the work, and used to come every day to overlook it, and give 
directions therein." Testified before the Committee sitting at 
Longford Castle, 8th May, 1647. [Abbreviated.] 

Fret-work, Mr. "Wilton tells me, is the same as pargetting, a 
sort of Arabesque ornament found in the ceilings of mansions of 
that date, and also in some country churches. In the latter case, 
when the church and roof happen to be contemporaneous, this par- 
getting is found worked into Gothic forms. The pargetting at 
Knoyle is commended by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. 

That Dr. Wren had not designed to raise any scandal by his 
fret- work, is proved by the fact that while resident at Windsor, 
he wrote to Randall Dominick, (probably his church- warden), 
giving him full authority to remove the whole series of paintings, 
if any ofience seemed likely to be taken against them. The Par- 
liament also seems to have taken a view of his case creditable to 
him in every respect, as shewn in the following " Letter from the 
Committee of Lords and Commons for sequestrations, to the Wilts 
Committee touching Dr. Wren ;" without date, but apparently 
written about February, 1647. 

" Gentlemen. — There are come to our sight several Orders of 
Parliament, and other public certificates, some of them attested by 
our Committee, whereby it appears that Dr. Christopher Wren 
hath been much employed by the Parliament, and hath suffered 
many violences and plunderings in the performance of those em- 
ployments : And likewise that he hath contributed very large sums 
to the service of the State, and been a painful labourer in the work 
of the ministry almost these thirty years : — All which do fully in- 
duce us to believe that he is a Parson far from meriting the doom 
of sequestration, (the punishment of most malignant ministers.) 

Images destroyed in Salisbury Cathedral. 119 

Wherefore we desire you to take his cause into your serious con- 
sideration, and narrowly to weigh the number and quality of the 
witnesses and informers, looking upon him with such favourable 
inclinations as the due consideration of these premises do warrant. 
And what tenderness you please to afford him, shall be esteemed 
as an obligation upon, Your very assured friends, 

John Danvers, James Herbert, 

William Stephens, John Evelyn, 

William Lister. 
Such are the main facts connected with Dr. Wren's share in the 
civil war, which might have been much extended by reciting in 
full all the evidence tendered. At the time when the last quoted 
document is supposed to have been written, his son Christopher 
was executing his treatise of spherical Trigonometry, having left 
Wiltshire forWadham College, Oxford, in the previous year, 1646. 
(Wiltshire during the Civil Wars.) 

Wjjn {itHtroijrii tijr SmngfH nt tljr mn\ m\ nf 
^afoliiirij Ciitjjrtrnl? 

It is so common a practice to attribute to Oliver Cromwell every 
spoliation of which the traces remain in the ecclesiastical buildings 
of England, that any attempt to represent such a view as the off- 
spring of ignorant prejudice, may seem almost Quixotic. But, 
independently of the fact that the desecrations of this sort, which 
can with certainty be dated from the civil war, took place in the 
eaily part of that struggle, and before Oliver guided the counsels 
of the nation ; it should be borne in mind, that the object even of 
the fanatical, was not so much to destroy existing institutions, as 
to usurp their revenues. In the Order, therefore, for abolishing 
superstitious relics, which may be seen in outline in the Lords' 
Journah, IV, 392, the specific objects alluded to are very limited 
indeed. The design of the Act was nothing more than just to 

120 Imayen destroyed in Sa/isbiiri/ Cathedral. 

undo the recent cliurcli reforms of Archbisliop Laud, and would 
never have authorised such wholesale defacmg of the fabrics as the 
" Reformation" of the previous century had witnessed. The image 
of the Virgin Marj' was, it is true, to be removed, if set up within 
the previous twenty years ; as also paintings of any Person in the 
Trinity, of what date soever. The communion table was to be 
shifted from the east end of the chancel, lest it should appear as 
an altar; rails to be removed and candlesticks abolished: and these, 
with a few similar items, comprise the entire leform sanctioned by 
law. In other respects, of course the usual care was to be taken of 
the building, and, moreover, great caution was enjoined in repairing 
parts injured by such removals. Thus we find, that when, in the 
summer of 1644, Middleton, one of Waller's ofiicers, sent up to the 
Parliament certain plate, pulpit cloth, copes, tippets, hangings, and 
a picture of the Virgin, which he had found in Salisbury Cathedral, 
he was considered to have overstepped his commission. The plate 
and pidpit cloth were ordered back to Salisbury, and only the tip- 
pets and other suspicious garments handed over to the soldiery. 
The fate of the picture is not stated ; no doubt it was destroyed. 

But then the answer is usually ready, that, prompted by the 
lawlessness of the times, the rabble would instinctively destroy the 
accessories and emblems of a religion which their leaders had 
taught them to despise ; and the instance of Canterbury Cathedral 
is quoted, where much of the stained glass was smashed by a 
thoughtless mob ; (evidently an outbreak of popular indignation 
against Archbishop Laud in particular.) This of Canterbury is in 
fact the principal case made out for Cathedral spoliation, and I 
lay it down as a fair challenge, that, as to the fabric of Salisbury 
Cathedral, no manner of proof exists that it was ever wilfully in- 
jured, from the period of the Eeformatio]i in the reign of Edward 
VI., till the time of Bishop Barrington's alterations in 1789. 

It is a very unfair and absurd picture of the civil war times, to 
represent the city of Salisbury as in a state of positive anarchy, 
with the populace running wild, and amusing themselves by tearing 
down statues, some of which were at least eighty feet above their 
reach. Much smaller events than these are chronicled with all 

By Mr. J. Waylen. 121 

due precision in the borough records, fully proving how little the 
course of every-day life was really disturbed, by the tide of desul- 
tory warfare which ever and anon swept through the place. And 
assuredly the Civic authorities would have no hand in such a thank- 
less office. In the first place, it was out of their jurisdiction, and, 
though they have occasionally lost sight of this fact, they were too 
proud of the Cathedral to think of defacing it. Their fault has 
always been an illegal anxiety to enjoy an undue share of its 
privileges. The citizens often invaded the Bishop's feudal rights, 
but they have never sought to dim the sunshine in which his pre- 
ference allowed them to bask. 

But might not parties from a distance have entertained, and 
gratified a grudge against so aspiring a Basilica ? Did not Edmund 
Ludlow garrison the adjoining belfry and close, and may not his 
troopers have quenched their ardour and consumed their superflu- 
ous ammunition, by shooting at the figures of the Apostles ? Alas 
for Ludlow ; — he and his men met with nothing but reverses in his 
native county, and his stay in the belfry was as brief and troubled 
as all his other resting-places. Had he thought such a pastime 
right, who can doubt but he would have detailed the adventure 
with all the punctiKousness attending his description of the half 
dozen pasties made of his father's venison, which he rescued from 
the enemy ? He was not a man to omit the record of such a signal 
invasion of the realm of darkness. Apparently he did not deem it 
Papal territory. And if Ludlow did not, most certainly Cromwell 
would not. 

Having now dealt so largely in negative evidence, it is time to 
turn to positive. Fortunately this is of a very direct character, 
and comes from an unequivocal source, being no other than the 
testimony of Dr. Walter Pope, the biographer of Bishop Seth Ward. 
After describing his lordship's triumphal reception at Salisbury in 
1GG7, he goes on to observe, "His first care was to beautify and 
repair the Cathedral, though it did not want much reparation ; 
for, to the eternal honour of the loyal gentry of that diocese, whose 
names I wish I knew, that I might, as much as in me lies, conse- 
crate them to posterity: during the whole time of the civil wars, 


122 Images destroyed in Salisbury Cathedral. 

when there was neither Bishop nor Dean to take care of it, they 
employed workmen to keep that sacred and magnificent pile in re- 
pair.^ I have been told by some who then lived at Sarum, that 
they have several times seen men at work, sometimes on the inside 
of the Church, and at other times on the outside ; and on asking 
them by whom they were set on work, received this answer, 'They 
who employ us will pay us : trouble not yourselves to enquire who 
they are : whoever they may be they desire not to have their names 
known.' There being therefore not much to be done as to the 
reparation, the Bishop employed himself in the decoration of the 

As Dr. Pope takes care to inform us of the amount of damage 
which the episcopal premises had really vmdergone, consisting in 
short of the sale of the palace to Van Ling, a Dutch tailor, who 
pulled down the hall, converted part of the house into an inn, let 
the rest in tenements, and made a carriage-way through the garden 
wall facing Harnham bridge : it is clear that we have in this A^ery 
interesting version, the whole case stated. It bears an aspect of 
completeness, quite inconsistent with the idea of any extensive di- 
lapidations having been recently perpetrated on the Cathedral itself, 
an establishment so vast, that the mere presence of workmen, such 
as those alluded to, must be a requirement of unceasing duration. 

But the west end and chapter house were defaced by some party, 
and what more natural than to refer the event to the era of Henry 
the Eighth's Reformation, when more than one class of the com- 
munity were let loose against the monastic orders ? when the com- 
mon people were indulged in the lust of destruction, as a sort of 
cover for the court minions, who gratified the lust of usurped 
possession? These events, combined with other reforms sanctioned 
by the raonarchs, are quite sufficient to explain any church dese- 
cration that can be pointed out at Salisbury or elsewhere. Here 
let us again call in Mr. Hatcher's aid. In his history of Salisbury 
he gives us the results of a Visitation, (under Edward VI.), to 
remove images and painted windows; and after lamenting over the 
ruthless destruction of so much that was beautiful, illustrates the 

1 Mr. Hatcher says that these benefactors were members of the Hyde family. 

By 3Ir. J. Waykn. 123 

proceedings of the authorised agents, by corroborative entries in 
the churchwardens' accounts of St. Thomas', and says, " It seems 
probable that under the authority of these visitors, the images 
which had been objects of worship, and possibly some of the figures 
in the stained glass of the windows, were removed from our Cathe- 
dral and parish churches," 2)agc 257. Very probable indeed, and 
not only probable but quite certain. 

And here the question might seem to be settled, and the respect- 
able authority of the historian of SaKsbury be cited as a sufficient 
set-off against the proverbial ignorance of local Cicerones, were it 
not that Mr. Hatcher, on arriving at the era of the civil wars, 
himself re-opens the controversy. Under date 1643, he states, 
" that ravages were committed in the different Cathedrals and among 
them in that of Salisbury. To this period," he adds, " we may 
assign the destruction of the stained glass, the numerous images 
adorning the west front, and those exquisite specimens of ancient 
sculpture which graced the chapter house." Page 405. 

Mr. Hatcher conceives that his second statement is ratified by 
the fact that Hollar's etching of the church contains statues in the 
niches. But who would repose trust in the rude engravings of 
that day? Some of the niches retain entire statues even now; and 
it is only the exactness of modern draughtsmen that would stop 
to depict which of them had whole figures, which headless, and 
which nothing but the feet. No one acquainted with the history 
of topographical engravers or engravings, would accept this as 
evidence of any weight. 

Something also may be said about Van Ling, the occupier of the 
palace. Is it quite certain that he was the destroyer described by 
Dr. Pope Y Is there no room for the suspicion, that, when the 
gentry of the county took the place of Dean Bayly as guardians of 
the Cathedral, they acted in concert with the Dutchman, and pro- 
cured his services as decorator and restorer of the fabric ? The 
family of the Van Lings were, it is well known, in high repute as 
the best glass staincrs in England, and that the Salisbury member 
of the family was a tailor, is given by Dr. Pope, we should bear iu 
mind, on hearsay evidence only. 

H 2 


Images destroyed in Salisbanj Cathedral. 

After all, nothing has been here said to prove that Cromwell in 
particular has been libelled by Mr. Hatcher ; but this is a case of 
implication, since those who have not the erudition of Mr. Hatcher, 
never hesitate to lay every enormity of that period on the Protec- 
tor's shovJders. To the mass of mankind, his is the only big figure 
looming out of the thick darkness. This unsought pro-eminence 
has naturally drawn around it a popular superstition, attributing 
to him the accumulated desolations of more than one age, and the 
sword of Cromwell becomes the only visible agent in the removal, 
not only of the sacred head of royalty, but of the fractured nose of 
the alabaster Cupid who bedews the sepulchral effigy of a modern 

The real spoliators of 
Salisbury Cathedral were 
Bishop Barrington and 
his advisers. To say 
nothing of the pulling 
about of the interior, 
into the merits of 
which question this is 
not the place to enter, 
the lost belfry will ever 
be a subject of lamenta- 
tion. The annexed cut, 
though but a rude re- 
presentation of that 
building, exhibits the 
massiveness of construc- 
tion which could offer 
an inviting refuge to 
Ludlow's troopers. 
J. Waylen. 

Belfry of Salisbury Cathedral. 


'iltilfel]irr MnkB nnh (^\mm, 

James Shepherd, the youth who was executed in 1718 for high 
treason, in having offered in a letter to Mr. Heath, the non-juring 
clergyman, to assassinate George the First, always professed to 
have imbibed his Jacobite sentiments at the school in Salisbury 
where Dr. Hinchcliif had placed him. It appears to have been a 
school celebrated as the favourite as^dum for the youths of such 
parents as favoured the Pretender. Is any thing further known 
of this school, of its masters, or of its alumni ? J. W. 

Charlton Park. — The following instance of presence of mind 
occurred in 1773, when Lord Suffolk was adding the east front to 
t)ie old house. As Mr. Darley, the surveyor of the works was ex- 
amining the roof, he lost his footing, and fell off. In the jDrogress 
of his descent, he caught hold of the corner of a window, sixteen 
feet below the point from which he fell. The shock dislocated his 
shoulder, but he kept his hold and worked himself in at the window. 
When the men came to his assistance, they found that he had 
also broken his leg at the ancle, in such a manner, that the great 
bone protruded through the skin. ]\Ir. Dewell, the surgeon of 
Malraesbury immediately attended him. J.W. 

Wiltshire during the Civil Wars ; or, a Political, Military, 
and Domestic History of this County, during the Stuart controversy, 
embracing a period of one hundred years, that is to say, commen- 
cing with the outbreak of the war in 1640, and terminating with 
the Rebellion of 1745. This, which has already, in part, appeared 
in tlie WiltHhire Independent, J. Wajden proposes to re-p\iblish in 
a thick imperial octavo, with additions, and illustrated with nu- 
merous engravings ; price not to exceed a guinea. Subscribers' 
names to be sent to Mr. N. B. Randlc, or ^Ir. If. Bull, of Devi/ea. 
In f'urtlierancc of such a scheme, the loan of, or privilege of access 


Wiltshire Notes and Queries. 

to, original documents, such as warrants, inquisitions, parish entries, 
and private letters, will be esteemed a favour, and \Aill be duly 


As the work will contain 
an elaborate account of the 
estates of the royalists in the 
county on the one hand ; 
and lists of the Parliament's 
friends on the other ; it is 
conceived that the genealo- 
gist will here find many an 
unexplored field. The en- 
gravings to be principally 
historical groups. The ac- 
companying specimen of the 
smaller kind, is a supposi- 
titious portrait of Cantelow 
the Devizes wizard, the re- 
puted success of whose 
machinations keenly stimu- 
lated, even if they did not 
altogether bafile the prying 
scrutiny of King James I. 

Cantelow, the Devizes Wizard. 


When the paper on which old documents arc written is much 
creased, carefully press a warm iron over it, and draw out the 
creases. If a parchment document be creased, dip it in cold water, 
pull out the creases, and place it quite flat under a board with a 
weight upon it, and keep it there till it is dry. 

If the ink with which any document has been written, whether 
on parchment or paper, has become so pale as to render the docu- 
ment illegible, wash it with a solution of tannin made thus — 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries. 127 

Tannin, one drachm ; water, one ounce : add a little spiiits of wine to keep it 
from getting mouldy, and keep it well corked. 

If a document be torn and all the writing be on one side, paste 

it very smoothly on paper, but if there be writing on both sides, 

at or near the torn part, repair it with gold beater's skin, stuck on 

by gum arabic dissolved in water. F. A. Carrington. 


In the year 1823, I was told by the Rev. H. J. Todd, who had 
been one of the Chaplains of King George the Third, and was then 
Librarian to the Archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth Palace, 
and Rector of Settrington, a valuable living in Yorkshire, that as 
Rector of that Parish he had a right called a Whittlegate. This he 
said was a right of dining at the house of each inhabitant house- 
holder in his Parish one week in every year, but he must take his 
own knife, nothing being said as to a fork, as forks were not used 
in this country till long after the existence of the right of Whittle- 

The Parish of Settrington, in which Mr. Todd had this singular 
right, is a Parish containing 5,540 acres of land, and in the year 
1831 there were in it 131 inhabited houses, 40 occupiers of land 
who employed labourers, 34 tradesmen and master workmen, and 
5 professional and well educated men. AVhen the right was first 
established, the place had probably a much smaller number of 
inhiibitcd houses. 

The Rev. gentleman also further informed me, that from his re- 
siding at Lambeth Palace he could not exercise this right as he 
should have liked to have done, but was paid five shillings a year 
by each householder in lieu of it. 

The term Whittlegate is manifestly derived from the two words 
whittle a knife, and gate going; we have now a long knife to cut 
beef called a Shefiield whittle, and " gang your gate " for go your 
way, is a common expression in Scotland. 

I was informed by Mr. Todd that he knew of several Clergymen 
in the nortli, who in respect of the livings they held, had the right 
of Whittlegate. Docs any such right exist in Wiltshire ? 

F. A. C. 


The Committee feel great pleasure in acknowledging the receipt 
of the following articles, presented to the Society : — 

By the late Mr. DA^as, Chippenham. — Portrait of Robert Elliott 
of Chippenham; painted by Provis. 

By the Society of Antiquaries, London. — Yols. I. and II., and 
Nos. 37 to 43 of their Proceedings, being a complete set to the 
present time. Also a list of Fellows for 1855. 

By the Rev. Yaughan Thomas, B.D., Corpus Chrkti College, 
Oxford. — " A Memoir of the Rev. Samuel Wilson Warneford, 
LL.D., late Rector of Bourton-on-the-Hill, and Hon. Canon of 
Gloucester and Bristol." 1 vol., large 8yo., 1855. 

The following alterations in Rule lY. were decided on at a 
special meeting of the Society, held in the New Town Hall, Chip- 
penham, on Monday, September the 10th, 1855. 

lY. Members shall have the privilege of introducing friends to 
all meetings of the Society, in such numbers, and on such terms, 
as the Committee for the time being, may fix at a preliminary 

H. Bull, Printer, St. John Street, Devizes. 

Wii\B Slrrjjirnlngirfll k Jlatural IDmtnrtj ^nrittq. 


[77iose marked thus (*) are Life Members.'] 

•Ailesbnry, the Marquis of, Totten- 
ham Park. 

Alexander, Dr., 8, St. Peter's Square, 
Hammersmith, London. 

Alexander, G., Westrop House, 
Highworth. [Loc. Sec] 

Allen, J., Trowbridge. 

Anstie, G.W., Park Dale, Devizes. 

Anstie, T. B., Devizes. 

Anstie, E. B., Devizes. 

Antrobus, Sir E., Bart., Amesbury. 

Astley, Sir ¥. D., Bart., Everley. 

Attwood, F., The Close, Salisbury. 

Attwood, Mrs., ditto. 
•Awdry, Sir J.W., Notton House. 

Awdry, Rev. E. C, Grittleton. 

Awdry, H. Goddard, Notton. 

Awdry, Justly, Melksham. 

Awdry, Peter, Chippenham. 

Badger, T., Devizes. 

Bailward, J., Horsington. 

Baily, E., Cirencester. 

Barnes, Rev. W. (F.S.A.), Brixton 

Barron, Rev. .!., Upton Scudamore. 

Barrow, Rev. Canon, West Kington. 

Bathurst, Sir F.T.H., Bart., Claren- 
don Park. 

Bennett, J., Salisbury. 

Biedermann, Rev. G.A., Dauntsey. 

Biggs, Richard, Devizes. 

Bingham, J., Chippenham. 

Blackmore, Humplirey, Salisbury. 

Blackwell, T.E., Clifton. 

Bleek, C, Warminster. 

Bouverie, Hon. and Rev. Canon, 

Brabant, Dr. 11. 11., Bath. 

Bradburv, E., Chippenham. 

Bradford, J., Swindon. 

Brinkworth, J. H., Chippenham. 

Brodie, E.W., Salisbury. 

Brooke, S. B., Cowbridge HouBe, 

Brotherhood, R., Chippenham. 
Bro^\^l, Rev. M., Nonsuch House. 
Bro\\Ti, W., Devizes. 
Brown, W., Broad Hinton. 
Brown, G., Avebury. 
Brown, J., Salisbury. 
Brown, J., Aldbourne. 
Broughton, Rt. Hon. Lord, Erlestoke. 
Brunton, Rev. W., Warminster. 
Buckerfield, Rev. F. H., Little 

Buckley, Major-General, (M.P.), 

Bull, H., Devizes. 
Burne, Rev.W.W., Grittleton. 
Burrows, W., Devizes. 
Burt, J., Devizes. 
Butcher, H., jun., Devizes. 

Calley, Major, Burderop. 

Carey, Rev. T., Longbridge Deverill. 

Carrington, F. A., Ogboume St. 

Chamberlaine, Rev. G. T., Seend. 
Champ, J., Nursteed. 
Christie, Rev. R. C, Castle Combe. 
Clark, T., jun., Trowbridge. 
•Clarke, H. M., Devizes. 
Cleather, Rev. G. P., Aldbourne. 
Cleather, Rev. G. E., Chirton. 
Clerk, Rev. D. Malcolm, Kingston 

Clutterbuck, E. L., Hardenhuish. 
Glutton, H., Regent Sti-eet, London. 
Colborne, W., Chippenham. 
Cole, R., (F.S.A.), Upper Norton 

Street, London. 
CoUeu, D., Chippenham. 
Cooper, Astley Rev. S., Lovick. 
Cornthwaite, Rev. T.,Waltham8tow. 
Cotton, Rev. G. L., Marlborough 
Coward, R., Roundway. 
Crawley, Rev. R., Steeple Ash ton. 
Crook, Rev. H. S. C, Lpavon. 
Crowdy, Alfred, Swindon. 



Crowdy, Francis. 
Cunnington.W., (F.G.S.), Devizes. 

[Loc. Sec.] 
Cunnington, H., Devizes. 

Darley, R., Chippenham. 

Dodd, S., Kentish Town, London. 

Doniville, Rev. C. C, Nettleton. 

Dowding, Rev. B. C, Devizes. 

Dowding, W., Fisherton. 

Druiy, Rev. H., Bremhill. 

Du Boiilay, Rev. F. H., Heddington. 

Du Boulay, J. T., Exeter College, 

Dunn, A. E., Trowbridge. 
*Dulve, Rev. E., Lake Honse. 
Dyson, Rev. F., Tidworth. 

Edmonds, E.,jun., Bern-field House, 

Edwards, J., Amesbury. 
Ellen, J., Devizes. 
Esmeade, G. M. M., 29, Park Street, 

Grosvenor Square. 
*Estcourt, T. H. Sotheron, (M.P.), 

Estcourt House, Tetbury. 
Evans, M., Devizes. 
Everett, Rev. T., Biddesden. 
Everett, Rev. E., Wilsford. 
Everett, Dr.W. G., Devizes. 
Ewart, W., (M.P.), Broadleaze, 

Eyre, Rev. Subdean, Salisbury. 

Falkner, R., Devizes. 

Falkner, G., ditto. 

Falkner, Rev.T. A., North Newnton. 

Fane, Rev. A., Warminster. [Loc. 

Farley, Rev. G., Cherhill. 
Farrant, R., Salisbury. 
FeUowes, T. A., Chippenham. 
Fisher, F. R., Salisbury. 
Flower, T. Bruges, Rivers St., Bath. 
Fowle, W., Market Lavington. 
Fowler, Dr., Salisbury. 

•Gladstone, Capt., (M.P.), Bowden 

Goddard, Rev. G. Ashe, Clyffe Py- 

Goddard, H. N., Clyffe Pypard. 
Goddard, Rev. F., Alderton. 
Goddard, Ambrose,(M. P.), Swindon. 
Godwin, E.W., Bristol. 
Goldney, Gabriel, Chippenham. 
Gore, A., Melksham. 

Grant, J., Lj-mington, Hants. 
Grant, Rev. A., Manuingford Bruce. 
Grantham, H., Hevtesbury. 
Guthrie, Rev. J., Calne. 

Harris, Rev. E., Devizes. 
Harrison, Rev,W.F.,Winterboume 

Hauteuville, Rev. R. W., Yattou 

Hayward, J., Devizes. 
Haj-ward, .1. E., De^azes. 
HaVward, .TohnSon, Etchilhampton. 
Hazard, W. P., Wilsford. 
Heathcote, Rev. G., Colerne. 
*Heneage,G. H.W., (M.P.),Compton 

•Herbert, Rt. Hon. Sidney, (M.P.), 

Wilton House. 
Hetley, R., Close, Salisbiuy. 
Higliinore, Dr. N. J., Bradford. 

[Loc. Sec] 
Hillier, W. , Winterbourne Monkton. 
•Hoare, Sir. Hugh, Bart., Stoui-head. 
Hodding, M. T., Salisbury. 
Hodgson, Rev. J. D., Great Bedwyu. 
Holland, A. P., Wilts Co. Asylum. 
.Hony, Ven. Archdeacon, Baver- 

Howell, J., Rutland Gate, London. 
Howse, T., St. Paul's Churchyard, 

Hughes, Miss, Brock Street, Bath. 
Hughes, Rev. J. H., East Indies. 
Hulbert, H. H., De-sizes. 
Hidse, Sir Edwai'd, Bart., Breamore. 
Huntley, Rev. R. W., Boxwell 

Hussey, James, Salisbury. 
Hussey, Mrs., New Street, Salisbury. 
Howman, Rev. G. E., Barnesley, 


•Jackson, Rev. Canon, Leigh Dela- 
mere. [Gen. Sec] 
Jacob, J. H., Close, Salisbury. 
Jones, Rev. AV. H., Bradford. 
Joyner, R., Hounslow. 

Kemm, T., Avebury. 

Kenrick, G. C, Melksham. [Loc. 

Killick, Rev. R., Urchfont. 
Kilvert, Rev. R., Langley Burrell. 
King, Rev. C, Stratford. 
Kingsbury, Rev.T. L. , Marlborough. 
Kingslana, Rev.W., I)e^'izes. 


• • • 

Kiugsley, G.H., XorfoDc House, St. 

James's Square, Loudon. 
Kitcat, Kev. D., Wilton. 

Ladd, J. N., Calne. [Loc. Sec] 

Lambert, J., Salisbury. 
•Lau.sdowue, The Most Honble. the 
Marquis of. 

Law, Rev. It. V., Christian Malford. 

Lawrence, "W., Highworth. 

Lear, Rev. F., Bishopstone. 

Light, Rev. H., Wroughtou. 

Littlewood, Rev. S.,' Edington. 

Locke, F. A. S., Rowdeford. 
•Long, Walter, (M.P.), Rood Ashton. 

Lukis, Rev.W. C.,(F.S.A.), CoUing- 
boiu'ne Ducis. [Gen. Sec] 

Lukis, F. C, (F.S.A.), Guernsey. 

Luce, Thomas, (M.P.),Malmesbury. 

Macdonald, Ven. Archdeacon, B. 

Mc Niveu, Rev. C, Patney. 
Male, Rev. A., Tj'thertou. 
Markland, J. H., Bath. 
Marsh, Rev. G. T., Sutton Benger. 
Ma.skelyne, E. S., Bassett Dow^^ 

House, Swindon. 
Matcham, G., New House, Salisbury. 
Mayow, Rev. M. AV. , Market Lav- 

Maysmor, R., Devizes. 
Medlicott, Rev. J., Potterne. 
Meek, A., Devizes. 
Meredith, Captain, Bromham. 
•Merewether, IL A., Bowden Hill. 
Merrimau, W. C, Marlljorough. 
Merriinan, T. B., Marlborough. 
Methuen, Rt. Hon. Lord, Corsham 

Meyrick, Rev. E,, Chiseldon. [Loc. 

Miles, J., Wcxcombe, Great Bedwj'n. 
Moore, Rev. P. H., Devizes. 
Moore, C, (F.G.S.), Cambridge 

Place, Bath. 
Morgan, Rev. D., Ham, 
Morgell, Rev. C, Kuoyle. 
Montgomrey, R., Devizes. 
Morrice, Rev. W. D., Lougbridge 

Moulton, S., Bradford. 
Mailings, R. Stratton, Cirencester. 

Neale, H., Foxhangers, Devizes. 
Nelion, Rt. Hon. The Earl, Trafal- 

Nichols, J. B., (F.S.A.), London. 
Nightingale, J. E., Wilton. [Loc. 

*Nisbet, R. Parry, (M.P.), Devizes. 
Noyes, James, Chippenham. 
Noj'es, John, Chippenham. 
Noyes, John, Nottiug Hill, London. 

*01ivier, Lieut. Col., Potterne, 
Osmond,W.,jun., Salisbury. 

Pain, T., Salisbury. 

Parsons, J., Cheapside, London. 
*Penruddocke, C, Compton Park, 

Phelps, H., Bowood. 

Phillips, Jacob, Chippenham. 

Phillipps, Sii- T., Bart., Middle Hill, 

Phipps, Rev. E. J., Stansfield, Suf- 

Phipps, J., Leighton House. 

Picton, Rev. J. 0., Rowde. 

Player, J., Devizes. 

Popham, F. L., Littlecote. 

Popham, Rev. J. L., Chilton. 

Pooke, Rev.W. H., Keevil. 
*Poyuder, T., Hartham Park. 

Prangley, J. P., Heytesbiu-y. [Loc. 

Price, R. E., Marlborough. 

Proctor, T. Cathay, Bristol. 

Proctor,W. Cathay, Bristol. 

Prower, Rev. Canon, Purton. 

Purbrick, Rev. L., Chippenham. 

RadclifFe, Rev. G., Salisbury. 
Radnor, Rt. Hon. The Earl of, 

Randle, N. B., Devizes. 
Ravenhill, J., Ashton Gifiard. 
Reith, J., Salisbury. 
Richards, Rev.W. J., Salisbury. 
Robertson, Rev. D., Brighton. 

•Salisbury, The Right Rev. the Lord 
Bisho[) of. 

Salisbury, The Very Rev. the Dean of. 

Saunders, T. Bush, London. 

Sawyer, Rev. W. C., Highworth. 
♦Scropc, G. Poulett, (M.P.), Castle 
Combe. [President.] 

Seagram, W. 15., Devizes. 
*Selfe, H. Marten, Great Bedwyn. 

Seymour, A., Knoyle House. 

Seymour, Capt. Crowood, Rarasbui'y. 

Simms, Rev. E., Wilton, 

u 2 



Simpson, G., Devizes. 

Skipper, Rev. J. B., Marden. 

Sloper, G. E., Devizes. 

Sloper, G. E., jun., De^^7es. 

Sloper, S. E., Devizes. 

Smith, Rev. A., Old Park, Devizes. 

Smith, Rev. A. C.,Yatesbury. [Loc. 

Smith, R., Shaw House, 
Smart, Rev. N., Alderbury. 
Southby, A. (M.D.), Bulford, 
Spencer, J., Bo wood. 
Squarey, C, Salisbury. 
Stallard, Rev. G., East Grafton. 
Stancomb, W., Trowbridge. 
Stanton, Rev. T., Burbage. 
Stratton, R., Broad Hinton. 
Strickland, Rev, E., Warminster. 
Strong, Rev. A., Chippenham. 
Suffolk, Rt. Hon. the Earl, Charlton. 
Swayne, J., Wilton. 
Swayne, H. J. F., Stratford. [Loc. 


Tanner, J., Mudeford House, Christ- 
Tayler, C, Trowbridge. 
Taylor, S. Watson, Urchfont. 
Thumam, Dr. (F.S.A), Devizes. 
Tinker, W., Conock. 
Townsend, J., Swindon. 
Tufnell, Rev. E. W., Beechingstoke. 
Tugwell, W. E., Devizes. 

Yardy, R. E., Warminster. [Loc. 

Yicary, G., ditto. 

Wansey, W., Bognor, and iieiorm 

Ward, Rev. J. Wath., Ripon. 
Ward, H. J., Devizes, 
Warren, Rev. E. B., Marlborough. 
Warwick, J., Laverstock. 
Waylen, .J., Etchilhampton. 
Waylcn, R., Devizes. 
Wayte, W., Highlands, Calne. 
Wayte, Rev. W., Eton. 
Weaver, H. Beversbrook, Calne. 
Wellesley, Yiscount, Draycote Park. 
Whinfield, Rev. E. T. Woodleigh, 

White, W. M., Lansdown, Bath. 
Whitby, Rev. R.Y., Lechlade. 
Wickens, Miss, Salisbury. 
Wilkinson, Rev. Dr., West Lav- 

Wilkinson, Rev. J., Broughton 

Wilson, J. (M.A.), Chippenham. 
Wilton, Rev. E,, West Lavington, 

[Loc. Sec] 
Winzar, J., Salisbiu-y. 
Wittey, S., Devizes. 
Wood, Rev. P. A. L., Devizes. 
Wyatt, T. H., Gt. Russell St. Lond. 
Wyld, Rev. W. T., Woodborough. 
Wyndham, E., Blandford Square, 


Yerbury, Col., Belcombe, Bradford. 


Akerman, J. Y., (F.S.A.), Sec. Soc. Antiq., Somerset House. 

Bell, T., (F.R.S.), New Broad Street, London. 

Britton, J., (F.S.A. ), Burton Street, London. 

Godwin, G., (F.R.S., F.A.S.), Brompton, London. 

Hunter, Rev. J., (F.S.A.), Torrington Square, London. 

Owen, R., (F.R.S), Richmond Park, Surrey. 

Smith, C. Roach, (F.S.A.), Finsbury, London. 

Way, A., (F.S.A.), Wonham Manor, Reigate. 

Wright, T., (F.S.A.), Brompton, London. 

Yarrell, W., (F.G.S., F.L.S.), Ryder Street, London. 




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Irrljifningirni nnii Jictral listurq 


No. VIII. NOVEMBER, 1856. Vol. III. 



The Great Bustard: By the Rev. A. C. Smith 129-145 

On the Self-Government of Small Manorial Communities, as exem- 
plified in the Manor of Castle Combe: By G. P. Sceope, Esq., M.P. 145-163 
On a Cromlech-Tumulus called Lugbury, near Littleton Drew : And 

Note on the name of Drew: By John Thttenam, M.D., F.S.A 164-177 

Descent of the Manor of Draycot Cerne ; with Pedigree of Ceme and 

Heryng: By Chaeles Edwaed Long, Esq 178-181 

Bells of the County of Wilts, with their Inscriptions. (No. 3). By 

the Rev. W. C. Lukis 182-184 

Account of a Barrow on Roundway Hill near Devi2es, opened in April, 

1855 : By Mr. W. Cunnington, F.G.S 185-188 

Sheriffs of Wiltshire : By the Rev. J. E. Jackson 189-235 

Devizes Seals : By Mr. Edwaed Kite 236-238 

Font in the Church of St. George, Preshute : By Ditto 239 

Pilgrims to Rome from the County of Wilts, a.d. 1504: By Ditto. . 241 

The Office of Awakener: By F. A. Caeeington, Esq 242 

Foster of Marlborough, with Pedigree : By the Rev. John Waed .... 244 

The Despencers' Estates in Wilts : By J. Watien, Esq 245 

WiLTSHiEE Notes and Queeies : — 

On " Carduus Tuberosus:" By T. B. Flowee, Esq 249 

Family of Noyes 251 

Contributions to the Museum and Library 252 



The Great Bustard 129 

Tumulus, with fallen Cromlech, near Littleton Drew. . 164 

Ground Plan of ditto 172 

Seals of Devizes 236 

Font in the Church of St. George, Preshute, Wilts 239 


Henky Boll, Saint John Stheet. 


Bti-i, & Daldy, 186, Flkkt Stkket; J. R. Smith, 36, Sono Suuabe. 

Jo*. Uecti ilel. 

T. J. Smyth 5(. 


For Die Wiltshire ArchKological and Natural History Society. 




(Otis tarda.) 

In recording the circumstances of the recent capture of a fine 
male specimen of this most noble bird, on the borders of Wiltshire, 
(of which the accompanying woodcut is a portrait,) I propose to 
preface that account with some particulars of the habits of the 
species, and enter into some enquiry as to its former abundance or 
scarcity, believing as I do, that every fact is valuable which relates 
to so exceedingly interesting a bird, now alas ! for a long time 
extinct as a resident throughout the kingdom, and only rarely and 
after an interval of several years, seen as a straggler. And the 
evidence which I shall adduce will be derived, in the first place, 
from former writers on the subject, especially Yarrell's most val- 
uable work, and an exceedingly interesting paper on the Great 
Bustard, which appeared in a recent number of Frazer's Magazine, 
(September, 1854), supposed to be from the pen of the Rev. Charles 
Barham; and, in the second place, from facts which I have gleaned 
during several years, after diligent enquiries instituted by myself, 
and through others, of old shepherds, farmers, &c, who can recollect, 
when boys, seeing this bird in its wild state on our Downs, but 
which eye-witnesses are daily becoming fewer, and their memories 
of things so long passed away, more and more confused. 

The Great Bustard (Otis tarda,) belongs to the Order of "Ground 
birds" (RaHona,) and to the Family Struthionidoi; and it is the 
largest of tlic British land birds : its bill is nearly straight, and 
with the point of the upper mandilile curved ; its legs long, and 


130 The Great Bustard. 

naked above tte luiee, very muscular and strong; its toes three 
only in number, and these very short, united at the base, and all 
directed forwards ; its wings of mean length, but also muscular. 
A full grown male, if in good condition, will weigh 281b8, and 
measure three feet nine inches in length : its general plumage is as 
follows — head and neck, bluish grey; back and tail coverts, buff 
orange, barred and spotted with black ; upper part of the breast 
reddish orange ; all the under parts white : the adult male is also 
furnished with long wiry feathers, depending laterally from the 
chin, and moustaches of the same ; the female, which is only about 
one third in size as compared with the other sex, has no lateral 
chin feathers or moustaches, and her head and neck are of a deeper 
grey, but in other respects her plumage is similar to that of the male. 
Of large and bulky form, but with powerful wings as well as legs, 
it is enabled to fly as well as to run with considerable speed and 
endurance ; it never perches at all ; it is of a roving disposition, and 
loves vast open plains, amidst the long coarse grass of which, 
and the fields of corn, and thick gorse, it delights to dwell, and it 
will also frequent marshy ground, where such tracts are to be foimd 
near its favorite haunts. Its food consists chiefly of herbage and 
grain, such as rye and barley, stalks as well as ears ; and insects 
such as beetles ; but reptiles and the smaller mammalia are said to 
be devoured by this omnivorous bird. It is polygamous, and the 
males separate from the females at the period of incubation, leaving 
them to lay their two eggs on the bare groim.d, and rear their 
young alone ; but they all unite in flocks as autumn approaches, 
and during deep and continued snows are sometimes driven from 
their open plains to more sheltered and enclosed districts ; they are 
exceedingly bold and pugnacious, sometimes attacking those who 
come near them with most determined ferocity; they are at the 
same time very wild and difficult to approach, so that sportsmen 
were accustomed to mask their advance, as they do at this day in 
Spain, by means of a stalking horse. When in repose, bustards usually 
rest with one leg drawn up, and with head reclining backwards 
on the neck ; when seen at a distance, Gilbert White said they 
resembled " fallow deer," a fact corroborated by Mr. WoUey, who 


By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 131 

saw them in Spain, apparently walking in file, some with their 
heads down, as he was ascending the Guadalquiver in a steam-boat. 
When they take wing, they generally rise to a considerable height 
above the ground, and will fly often at an elevation of one hundred 
feet, with a regular, but by no means slow flap of the wings, for 
two miles or more before they alight again. As both in flight and 
in running its speed is remarkable, naturalists have been much 
puzzled to account for the specific names assigned to it, as the 
universal scientific name " tarda," and by the French " outardc" 
and by the Spanish " abutarda." In the paper above alluded to in 
Frazer's Magazine, Albertus is quoted, as accounting for these 
specific names, thus, "Bistarda avis est bis vel ter saltum dans, 
priusquam de humo elevetur, unde et eis nomen factum," and this 
alleged habit of the bird, giving two or three leaps. before it rises 
from the ground, and thus recalling the action of ascending a stair- 
case, is mentioned as being likewise the origin of its German name 
" Trapp-(jans" whence also the quaint distich — 

" The big-boaned Bustard then, whose body beares that size, 
That he against the wind must runne, ere he can rise." 

Such then being the habits of the bird, I proceed to its history ; 
and here we can trace it back to very remote times, its form 
appearing among the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and many well-known 
ancient writers having thought it not unworthy of mention. 
Athenajus, Plutarch, ^lian, Oppian, Xenophon, Aristotle, and 
Pliny, are some of those who have described it, and though much 
fable is mixed up •with their accounts, the description is sufficiently 
clear to enable us to identify the bird. But to pass on from these 
bustards of ancient Greece and Asia, to those of ancient Britain, 
wlien the Druids were in full force, and held their mystic rites at 
Avebury and Stonchcngc, then this bird flourished on the unbroken 
down, and abounded in the unreclaimed wastes throughout this 
county; its name was " JV araf chedydd," but to what extent it 
abounded, or liow far it was looked upon as game, or how much 
it was the object of pursuit in those days of flint arrow-heads, docs 
not so clearly appear. To come down, however, to a much later 
period, from the earliest records wc have of it in comparatively 

s 2 

132 The areat Bustard. 

modem days, viz., three hundred years since, the price it fetched 
proved it to be no very common fowl, for it figured in the list of 
game, provided at a feast in the Inner Temple Hall, at no less than 
ten shillings each, a large sum at that period, the third year of 
Philip and Mary: again, in 1712 an advertisement appeared in the 
Spectator, annoimcing in the market the seat of a deceased Baronet, 
containing in addition to fish ponds, canals, &c., " woods of large 
timber, wherein is game in great plenty, even to the Bustard and 
Pheasant :" and I have now before me an autograph letter of the 
Duke of Northumberland, bearing date May 10th, 1753, addressed 
to Michael Ewen, Esq., of Milton Lislebon, on the verge of Salisbury 
Plain, thanking him very heartily for a fine bustard he had sent 
him, pro\^g the bird at that date to be sufiiciently rare to be sent 
as a present to a nobleman. 

But Wiltshire was always allowed to be the stronghold of the 
Great Bustard, and our wide downs, and especially Salisbury Plain, 
were known to be its favorite haunts, and they are described as 
such by most of our older Ornithologists. In 1667 Merrett notices 
that it was " taken on Newmarket Heath and about Salisbury." 
In 1713 Pay thus describes its localities : " In campis spatiosis 
circa Novum Mercatum et Roj^ston, oppida in agro Cantabrigiensi, 
inque planitie, ut audio, Salisburiensi, et alibi in vastis et apertis 
locis invenitur." In 1771, Dr. Brookes says of it, " this bird is 
bred in several parts of Europe, and particularly in England, es- 
pecially on Salisbury Plain &c., for it delights in large open places; 
the flesh is in high esteem, and perhaps the more so, because it is 
not very easy to come at." In 1777 Gilbert White was told by a 
carter at a farm on the downs, near Andover, that twelve years 
previously he had seen a flock of eighteen of these birds, but that 
since that time he had only seen two, though Gilbert White's 
correspondent. Pennant, would lead one to suppose them far more 
common, for he says " in autumn these are (in Wiltshire) generally 
found in large turnip fields near the downs, and in flocks of fifty 
or more." 

Up to this point then, we may regard the Great Bustard, if not 
very numerous, (which from its size and its value it was not very 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 133 

likelj' to be), at any rate by no means a rare bird, but indigenous 
to our downs; and doubtless highly prized by our sporting fore- 
fathers, was this pride of Wiltshire, this stately denizen of our 
plains. But from this time the breed began to decline apace, and 
as cultivation increased, and the Enclosure Acts came into force, 
and the downs began to be broken up, and the waste lands to be 
reclaimed and drained, and, perhaps, more than all, as the system 
of wheat hoeing in the spring became general, the poor bustard 
had no chance, but, like the American Indian, rapidly retired 
before the advancing plough, till the race, (once so free to rove over 
its vast and retired solitudes as it listed), dwindled one by one, till 
the last survivor was no more ; but the destruction of these rem- 
nants of the bustard family was not unrecorded ; each bird as it fell 
a victim to the gun, the dog, or the snare, found a willing chroni- 
cler to record its death and his success ; and even now there are 
a few people living, who recollect seeing them wild in their haunts 
on our downs, and many others who have often listened to their 
fathers' account of them in their days, my own father-in-law in 
Norfolk, being perhaps the last person in the kingdom who ever 
fired into a flock of seven or eight of these birds : but before I pro- 
ceed to record the unpublished testimony of eye and ear witnesses, 
of its more recent occurrence in this county, I will first quote a 
very interesting paragraph, headed " The Bustard of Salisbury 
Plain," which appeared in the "Wiltshire Independent about two 
years since, and was afterwards copied into the Times. — " There 
arc people now living in Wiltshire, who recollect the time when it 
was the custom of the Mayor of Salisbury, to have a bustard as a 
prominent dish at the annual inauguration feast ; and these birds, 
once numerous on the wide and then uncultivated expanse of 
Salisbury lUain, could at length only be shot by means of a vehicle 
80 covered with bushes and placed in their haunts, as to enable 
men therein concealed, to bring them down at a long range. For 
more than fifty years the Wiltshire bustard has been extinct, and 
the Mayor of Salisbury has been obliged to forego his yearly 
delicacy." I do not know who was the writer of this curious and 
interesting fact, but he is incorrect in stating that the bustard has 

134 The Great Bmtard. 

been extinct in this county " for more than fifty years," as I shall 
presently proceed to show. 

In a paper " On the habits and structure of the Great Bustard," 
read before the Linnean Society in January, 1853, by Mr. Yarrell, 
that accomplished Ornithologist quotes a communication from our 
well-known Mr. Britton, respecting this bird on Salisbury Plain ; 
it is so extremely interesting that I shall not hesitate to repeat it 
in extenso. "A man, about four o'clock of a fine morning in June 
1801, was coming on horseback from Tinhead to Tilshead. While 
at, or near, an enclosure caUed Asking's Penning, one mile from 
the village of Tilshead, he saw over his head, about sixty yards 
high as near as he could estimate, a large bird, which afterwards 
proved to be a bustard. The bird alighted on the ground imme- 
diately before the horse, which it indicated a disposition to attack, 
and in fact very soon began the onset. The man alighted, and 
getting hold of the bird endeavoured to secure it, and after strug- 
gling with it nearly an hour he succeeded, and brought it to Mr. 
J. Bartley of Tilshead, to whose house he was going. Not knowing 
the value of such a bird, he ofiered it to Mr, Bartley as a present ; 
but Mr. Bartley declined to accept it as such, though he much 
wished to have it, and after repeated solicitations, prevailed on the 
man to receive for it a small sum, with which he was perfectly 
satisfied. During the first week that Mr. Bartley had this bird in 
his possession, it was not known to eat anything ; however, at length 
it became very tame, and would at last receive its food from its 
patron's hands, but still continued shy in the presence of strangers. 
Its principal food was birds, chiefly sparrows, which it swallowed 
whole in the feathers with a great deal of avidity : the flowers of 
charlock and the leaves of rape formed also other parts of its food ; 
mice it would likewise eat, and in short, almost any other animal sub- 
stance. The food in passing into the stomach, was observed to go roimd 
the back part of the neck. Mr. Bartley is of opinion that the idea 
of the bustard's drinking is erroneous, in support of which he says, 
that during the time this bustard was in his possession, which was 
from June till the August following, it had not a drop of water 
given it, after two or three weeks at first. This fact he considers 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 136 

as a proof that the generally received opinion of the bustard's 
drinking is untrue. This bird was judged to weigh upwards of 
201bs, and to measure between the extremities of its wings when 
extended about five feet, and its height was about three and a half 
feet. Its plumage was beautiful, and from its gait, which was 
extremely majestic, a spectator would be led to infer that it was 
sensible of its own superiority over others of the feathered tribe. 
In August, Mr. Bartley sold this noble bird to Lord Temple, for 
the sum of thirty guineas. The bustard inhabits the extensive 
downs of Salisbury Plain, but its race is now almost extirpated. 
It is thought that not more than three or four are now remaining. 
Some time in the last summer, (viz. 1801), while Mr. Bartley had 
this bird in his possession, a nest, supposed to belong to this bird, 
or at least to its mate, for Mr. Bartley's bird was judged to be a 
male, was found in a wheat field on Market Lavington Down; it 
contained two eggs; they sometimes lay three though very seldom; 
they are about the size of those of a goose, of a pale olive brown, 
with small spots of a darker hue. The nest was made upon the 
ground by scratching a hole in the earth, and lined with a little 
grass ; the eggs were rotten, and had probably undergone a period 
of incubation. 

"An instance of a bustard attacking a human being, or even a 
brute animal of any considerable size, was, I believe, never before 
heard of, and that two instances of this kind should occur so nearly 
together, may be considered very remarkable. About a fortnight 
subsequent to the taking of this bird, Mr. Grant, a respectable 
farmer of TiLshead, was returning from Warminster Market, and, 
near Tilshead Lodge, (which is something more than half a mile 
from the village), was attacked in a similar manner, by, as it is 
thought, the mate of the same bird. Mr. Grant's horse being 
rather high mettled, took fright, became unmanageable, and ran 
off, and consequently Mr. Grant was compelled to abandon his 
design of endeavouring to capture the bird." Such is the account 
communicated by Mr. Britton, and with reference to the bird kept 
by Mr. Bartley, I have further learnt, through the kindness of the 
llov. Vj. Wilton, that it w.'is kept in a kind of staked cage made for 

136 The Great Bustard. 

it in a little close belonging to the house, and that several bustards 
used to come and congregate round their confined companion at 
that date, and that people often used to hear them at night. The 
confined bird is described to have been a kind of spotted turkey. 
At that date the good people of Tilshead affirm there were many 
bustards haunting the flat between that village and Shrewton ; they 
were also in some abundance near the now Bustard Inn. Mr. 
Coleman, of Tilshead, says he perfectly recollects how horses tra- 
velluig over the plain, were known to shy at the noise of the bustards. 
The late Mr. Robert Pinckney, of Berwick St. James', used to say 
that during his occupation of Mr. Duke's farm at Lake, the bustard 
used to make its nest every year in the water meadows belonging 
to the estate, and was disturbed annually by the mowers. Again, 
a Mr. Compton, of Eastcott, described as a great sportsman and 
bird studier, was known to have shot two of these birds ; while an 
old whip of Squire Tinkers, carried nolens wlens down a steep 
"linchet" in the ardour of the chase, almost rode over two bustards, 
and could have struck them with his whip, had he been prepared 
to encounter such tenants of the linchets base ; he said they " were 
spotted all's one as a pheasant." Mr. B. HajTvard, of Easterton, 
near Devizes, says he recollects the keeper of "VYcst Lavington 
having often told him that when a boy, as he was on the downs 
with his father and the dogs, they came upon a young bustard, 
which he caught, but it being only partly grown, his father 
made him put it down again, saying, it would be better worth 
taking in a fortnight, at the end of which time they came up again, 
found, and took it : this shows the wildness of the downs at that 
time, but little of them being cultivated. Again, the late Rev. R. 
Ashe, of Langley Burrell, was riding in 1806 from Broad Hinton 
to Chisledon, when he rode down what he then conjectured, and 
afterwards ascertained to be a young bustard; having farther to 
go, he got off his horse, and tied its feet with a pocket handkerchief, 
and left it in a hole in a ploughed field ; but on his return, to his 
chagrin, both the bird and handkerchief were missing. Another 
bustard was killed in the early part of the present century at Langley, 
and came into the fine collection of Mr. Warriner of Conock ; this 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 137 

Wiltsliire specimen is, with the rest of Mr. Warriner's birds, now 
in the possession of W. Tugwell, Esq., at Devizes. 

In addition to the above instances of the capture or observation 
of these last remnants of the Great Bustard, some very interesting 
particulars of these birds have already appeared in our Magazine, 
vol. II, p. 212, obligingly communicated to reply to the queries 
we put forth about them in vol. I, p. 54. In Maton's " Natural 
History of Wiltshire," (by the way a very meagre and incorrect 
account), is the following. — "Avery observant and credible person 
of the name of Dew, whom I knew as a sportsman in my younger 
days, informed me in the year 1796, that he once saw as many as 
seven or eight of these birds together on the downs, near Winter- 
bourne Stoke ; but I have not met with any one since, who has 
actually seen the bustard in Wiltshire subsequently to that year." 
Others, however, were more fortunate, and, in addition to the 
instances above-mentioned, we have many published accounts of it 
sftice that date. Thus, in the year 1800, Daniel in his " Rural 
Sports," recounts how Mr. Crouch of Burford, shot a hen bustard 
on Salisbury Plain, with a common fowling-piece and partridge 
shot, at 40 yards distance, and how there were two other bustards 
in company with the one shot, neither of which appeared to be 
hurt. In 1802 Montagu observes that the bustard is only found 
upon the large extensive plains, and that the species is almost extinct, 
except upon those of Wiltshire, where they had become very scarce 
within these few years. 

In 1812, the Editor of the last edition of Pennant says, "the 
breed is now nearly extirpated, except on the downs of Wiltshire, 
where it is also very scarce." In 1813, Montagu in the Supplement 
to his Dictionary, says, " we were informed by the shepherds that 
they had not been seen for the last two or three years in their 
favorite haunts on the Wiltshire downs, where we have often 
contemplated this noble bird with pleasure." In 1821, Graves 
(whose figure of the Great Bustard was drawn from a male bird 
taken alive on Salisbury Plain in 1797, and kept for three years in 
confiiiemont, when it died), says, in the third volume of his "British 
Ornithology," "the enclosing and cultivating those extensive downs 


138 The Great Bustard. 

and heaths in various parts of Great Britain, on which formerly 
this noble species was seen in large flocks, threatens within a few 
years to extirpate the bustard from this country; instead of being 
met with in flocks of forty or fifty biids, it is a circumstance of 
rare occurrence that a single individual is now seen." Bewick 
merely states generally that "bustards were formerly more frequent 
in this island than at present," and that "thej'^ are now found only 
in the open countries of the south and east, in the plains of Wiltshire, 
Dorsetshire, &c. ; and in 1825, Selby, in his " Illustrations of Orni- 
thology," unable, on repeated enquiry, to hear of the re-appearance 
of a single bustard, since the days of Jlontagu, even in its most 
favorite haunts, pronounces "the breed to be extinct upon our 
extensive downs, of which it once formed the appropriate ornament." 

Thus has this noble species, once so common in our county, 
dwindled and died away, and now, alas ! is no more to be accounted 
a resident throughout the kingdom. Occasionally, however, a 
straggler makes its appearance in some quarter, and from its large 
size, invariably attracts observation, which generally ends in its 
capture. These occurrences have taken place in Korfolk, Sufiblk, 
Cambridgeshire, and more recently, in 1843, a female was shot in 
Cornwall, near the Lizard Point, while in 1850 another was killed 
in Romney Marsh in Kent, and another in 1851 in Devonshire; 
both of these two last were females : but Wiltshire still stands 
pre-eminent as the haunt even of stragglers of this species, two 
specimens having occurred in the county within the last six years ; 
one in 1849 near Stonehenge, seen and recorded by Mr.Waterhouse 
of the British Museum, a well-known Xatiu'alist, and the other, the 
subject of this memoir, at the beginning of the present year near 

With regard to the first of these, Mr. Waterhouse was returning 
with a party of friends, from Stonehenge, at about seven in the 
evening, in the month of August, when a great bustard rose and 
flew with a heavy, but tolerably rapid, flight at about twenty feet 
above the ground ; it was very wild, and would not sufier itself to 
be approached; Mr. Waterhouse never entertained any doubt of the 
species, and had a clear view of the bird for about ten minutes. 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 139 

But the last Wiltshire bustard, figured at the head of this paper, 
occurred as latelj^ as January last, and is an undoubted male, and a 
\erj fine specimen; the particulars of its capture were as follows. — 
Very early in January, one of Lord Ailesbury's keepers named 
King, seeing a large bird which he could not recognize, out sup- 
l^osed to be an eagle, flying over a part of Marlborough Forest 
called Henswood, fired a cartridge at it, though from the distance 
had little expectation of reaching it ; he was not therefore disap- 
pointed to see the bird continue its flight, apparently unharmed, 
and went away thinking no more of the matter. Subsequently, and 
apparently only a day or two after, a little boy of not more than seven 
years old, saw a large bird, crippled with a broken leg, and succeeded 
in capturing it, and the following is his own description of 
the occurrence, taken at the time from his own lips, and obligingly 
communicated to me by Mr. W. H. Rowland, of Hungerford, 
who afterwards purchased the bird. " I was going to Starve-all 
farm with my brother's dinner, about twelve o'clock, and passing 
along the edge of about a ten-acre field of turnips, I saw a great 
red bird laid down and fluttering away, he was close to the side of 
the turnips, I went to him and he tried to flutter away; he came 
at me and bit my fingers, but did not hurt me much, and as he put 
out his great wings, I caught hold of one, and dragged him along, 
pretty near a quarter of a mile, up to ' Starve-all,' where a man 
broke his neck : the bird wasn't dirty when I first saw him, I made 
him so pulling him along the field ; the bird made a terrible row 
with his wings on the barn floor, after his neck was broken : one 
of the men put the bird on my back, and I held his head in my 
hand and carried him home to mother ; he was main heavy, and I 
couldn't scarce get along with him." So far wo have the account 
of the little boy himself, the fortunate captor of the last British 
bustard, but it appears farther that there was a council of war held 
over the bird, (when the boy first took it into the barn alive), by 
all tlie labourers, who were just at that time assembled at dinner, 
and it was very nearly decided to pick it and dress it then and there, 
but file Utile boy's brother claimed it for him, so one of the men 
killed it, that the boy might carry it home better. Later in the 

T 2 

140 The Great Budard. 

clay, at about two o'clock in the afternoon, two young men were 
going shooting, and the mother of the little bustard-catcher asked 
them to come into her cottage to see what a bird she had got, when 
one of them offered her six-pence for it, then eight-pence, and 
idtimately bought it for one shilling, with the promise that the woman 
should have the carcase after the bird was skinned, but its purchase 
by Mr. Eowland prevented that being done. The dragging across 
the field by the boy, and the rough handling of the man at the 
barn, injured its feathers a good deal, but owing to the care and 
skill of Mr. Leadbeater it has been well cleaned, and is pronounced 
by Mr. Yarrell, who also examined it, a very good specimen. The 
latter gentleman was extremely anxious to procure the neck for 
dissection, in order to clear up the much-vexed question, as to 
whether the male bustard has, or has not, the gular pouch, or bag 
between the under side of the tongue, and the lower mandible of 
the bill, which, from the days of Daines Barrington, and Edwards, 
afterwards copied by Bewick and Yarrell in their respective histo- 
ries of British birds, was supposed to exist and to supply the bird 
with drink in dry places when distant from water. Subsequent 
research, and careful anatomical observation, have since shaken 
Mr. Yarrell's belief in this gular pouch, and in this he is supported 
by the old French Naturalists, with Cuvier at their head, as well 
as Professor Owen of the Eoyal College of Surgeons ; the question, 
however, is still an open one, with warm advocates on both sides, 
" et adhuc sub judice lis est." 

But to return to the Hungerford bustard. Though, unfortunately 
for science, Mr. Yarrell was unable, in this case, to prosecute his 
investigation by dissection, all the soft parts required having been 
irrecoverably destroyed, Mr. Leadbeater satisfied himself by ana- 
tomical observation that the bird under his hands was a young 
male, and has j^reserved in spirits a sufficient portion of the body 
to satisfy any one on that point. This is the more important, as, 
though the dimensions are too large for a female, the specimen 
before us being a bii-d of the second year only, is without the whis- 
kers so conspicuous in an adult male, as may be seen in the woodcut ; 
for in young birds these become visible only at the pairing season. 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 141 

Though in a poor emaciated condition when captured, it weighed 
thirteen and a quarter pounds, and measured from tip to tip of the 
wings, six feet three inches. How so large, powerful, and pugnacious 
a bii'd, should suffer itself to be mastered by a boy of tender age, 
seems strange at first sight, but if we take into account the broken 
leg, the wound in which seemed to be a stale one of some days' 
standing, and its consequent exhaustion from loss of blood ; and if 
we suppose the boy to have caught hold of the left wing, the same 
side as the broken leg, we can easily conceive how the bird was 
rendered powerless, and could not recover itself to offer resistance. 
How it came by the broken leg, has been also much disputed, the 
limb not being shattered as if by shot, but the bone broken off, as 
if by ball, and the fracture being too high up to have been caused 
by a trap. Mr. Yarrell suggested the probability of the accident 
occurring by the bird getting its leg entangled among the bars of 
a sheep hurdle, and making efforts to get loose ; but ever since I 
gained intelligence of the keeper's shot with a cartridge, I have 
come to the conclusion that that shot took effect, and that the bird 
he fired at, and the one caught subsequently by the little boy, were 
one and the same, and therefore Henswood, (the scene of the 
keeper's shot,) being in Wiltshire, I lay claim to this bustard as a 
bona fide Wiltshire specimen, though I own it was so misguided 
as to cross the border to die within the county of Berks. I am 
happy to add, that this last of the Wiltshire bustards is established 
in the county, in the excellent collection of the Rev. G. Marsh, at 
Sutton Benger. 

I shall conclude my account of the Great Bustard by some 
enquiry into another doubtful point with regard to this bird, as to 
whetlier or no it was hunted down with greyhounds by our ancestors ; 
a practice generally declared by our older Ornithologists to have 
been in vogue, though of late years it has been niuch disputed. 
There arc three distinct opinions on this knotty point, each of 
wliich has its strenuous sujiportcrs. 1. That old and yoimg birds 
indiscriiuinatoly, were so hunted by greyhounds. 2. That the 
young only were so coursed. 3. And that neither old or young 
could have been over so taken. With regard to the first, that both 

142 The Great Bustard. 

old and young were hunted down witli dogs, Brooks in his Orni- 
thology in 1771, above-quoted, says of the bustard in France, near 
Chalons, "sometimes fowlers shoot them as they lie concealed behind 
some eminence, or on a load of straw ; others take them with grey- 
hounds, which often catch them before they are able to rise." 
Yarrell in his article on the bustard in his "British Birds," quotes 
the Rev. Richard Lubbock for the following, "A very fine bird, 
an old male, is still in preservation as a stufl'ed specimen, at the 
house of a friend, in my neighbourhood, which was taken by grej^- 
hoimds 40 years ago, within three miles of Norwich." Again, Mark 
Antony Lower in his " Contributions to Literature," (1864), says, 
" The South Downs afford a fine field for the Naturalist as well as 
the sportsman ; one cannot but regret, however, the extinction of 
some of the animals which they formerly nourished, particularly 
that fine indigenous bird, the bustard or wild turkey. The grand- 
father of the present writer was among the last who joined in the 
sport, about the middle of the last century, of hunting down the 
last remains of the species with dogs and bludgeons ! " and in a 
note which I have lately received from that gentleman, he adds 
" My grandfather, John Lower of Alfriston, was born in 1735 : lie 
Avas a boy at the time he went a-hunting bustards, and we may 
assume the year 1750 as about the period : my friend the late Mr. 
John Dudeny of this town, (Lewes), a shepherd in his youth, and 
the son of a shepherd, told me that his father, who must have been 
cotemj)orary with my grandfather, had also talcen part in bustard 
hunting in his youthful days:" and, he adds, "I have no hesitation 
in saying, that fully grown birds were hunted down with dogs, 
though I have never heard it mentioned what kind of dogs were 
emploj'ed." The next witness I adduce for the hunting of bustards 
generally on the ground, is the Honorable Robert Curzon, in his 
recent work on "Armenia and Erzeroum." At p. 145 he says, " Later 
in the year I risked my neck by riding as hard as I could tear, 
over the rocky, or rather stony, plains at the foot of the mountains 
after the Great Bustard ; I have more than once knocked some of 
the feathers out of these glorious huge birds, as tliey ran at a 
terrible pace, half flying and scrambling before my straining horse, 

Bi/ the Rev. A. C. Smith. 143 

but I never succeeded in killing one, though I have constantly 
partaken of those which had fallen before more patient gunners, 
who stalk them as you would a deer, and knock them over witli a 
rifle or swan shot from behind a stone or bank." Lastly, Bishop 
Stanley in his familiar history of birds tells us, "the bustard can 
fly, but its usual motion is on foot, running with such speed as 
often to rival a greyhound." 

For the second opinion, that the young alone were thus coursed 
with dogs, I first adduce Bewick, who lived when these birds were 
not yet extinct, and who, (one would suppose), could not well have 
been mistaken as to the method of obtaining them generally adopted 
by sportsmen ; in his life-like woodcut of the Great Bustard in his 
first edition in 1800, we see in the back-ground of the picture, one 
of these birds running, pursued by greyhounds, and followed by a 
man on horseback ; and in his subsequent editions, with the descrip- 
tions added to the figures, he says, " they are slow in taking wing, 
but run with great rapidity, and when young are sometimes taken 
with greyhounds, which pursue them with great avidity: the chase 
is said to afford excellent diversion." My next authority for this 
opinion, is Mr. Hooper of Littleton, who has alwaj'S lived on or 
near the plain, and states that he has often heard from old men, 
that in the days of bustards the shepherds were in the habit of 
hunting the young birds with their sheep dogs; he says "there can 
be no doubt of the matter as far as the practice of this neighbour- 
hood is concerned ;" but, he adds, " the older birds were too swift 
under the combined help of wings and feet, thus to bo taken, and 
they were understood not to be so followed ; they hunted the young- 
ones before they were fully fledged." 

With such authority for the hunting of bustards with dogs, as I 
have adduced, and I might mention much more to the same effect, 
we shall scarcely be prepared to deny the fact altogether, Avhethcr 
we incline to the belief that the old birds were so coursed, as well 
as tlie young, or no; for my own part, I incline to the belief that the 
old birds were occasioiuilly so taken, though, perhaps, this was 
generally in drizzling wet weather, which was certainly the time 
usually chosen for the sport, when the birda feathers were soaked 

144 The Great BitstarcL 

with rain. But I must adduce the arguments of the advocates for 
the contrary opinion, that neither old nor yoimg birds were so 
hunted T^^ith dogs at all, and these are foimded on the supposed 
impossibility of the thing. Thus, Selbj^ the talented author of the 
" Illustrations of British Ornithology," says, "upon being disturbed, 
so far from running, in preference to flight, (as has been often 
described), it rises upon wing with great facility, and flies with much 
strength and swiftness, usually to another haunt, which will some- 
times be at the distance even of six or seven miles. It has also 
been said, that in former days, when the species was of common 
occurrence, it was a practice to run down the young birds, (before 
they were able to fly), with greyhounds, as afibrding excellent 
diversion ; so far from this possibility existing, with respect to the 
present remnant of the breed, the yoimg birds, upon being alarmed, 
constantly squat close to the ground, in the same manner as the 
young of the Lapwing, Golden Plover, &c., and in that position 
are frequently taken by the hand." The same opinion, though 
with somewhat less confidence, is given by Mr. Nicholson, (quoted 
by Yarrell in his paper on the bustard, read before the Linnean 
Society), who had enjoyed great opportunities of observing these 
birds in the neighbourhood of Seville, where they aboimded; he 
says, " they never try to run ; one that I had winged making the 
most absurd attempts possible to get away from me, and though a 
young bird, showing much more disposition to fight, than to get 
away by running. I cannot imagine gi'eyhounds being able to 
catch bustards, though there seems to be good authority for believing 
they did." 

With these observations, and leaving every one to form his own 
conclusions on this much-disputed point, I take leave of the Great 
Bustard, regretting with all my heart, the extinction of so noble a 
bird from its once favorite haunts on our open wide- spreading 
do"\viis, and earnestly entreating all who can glean any authentic 
information regarding its habits and aijpearance, within the memory 
of living persons, to rescue from oblivion facts of such deep interest 
to the Ornithological world, relating, as they do, not only to the 
largest, but, I may say, the noblest and most highly prized of 

On the Self- Government of Small Manorial Communities. 145 

British bii'ds ; as well as to that one for which our county was so 
notorious, as the principal stronghold of what once stood at the 
head of the game list. Alfred Chakles Smith. 

Yatesbury Rectory, Calne, June 4iA, 1856, 


Itlf-((0nniniimrnt nf Imall Blannriiil CnmminiitirB, 
m nm^\\k\ m tjie ffiatiur nf €m\\i Cnmlie. 


Those who have paid any attention to the Constitutional History 
of our country need not be told that to the Mxjnicipal privileges 
exercised from a very early period by the citizens of its townships, 
we are in a great degree indebted for those political liberties of 
which we are justly proud, and which by securing to us the 
blessing of domestic tranquillity, form the main source of our 
national wealth, power, and greatness. 

The origin of these privileges is obscure. Nor has much light 
been hitherto thrown upon the subject, however interesting, by 
constitutional historians. That they existed long before the intro- 
duction of the feudal system is as certain as that they formed the 
most effectual barrier against the oppressive and tyrannical influence 
of that remarkable military institution. It is known that the 
provincial cities under the Roman empire enjoyed a municipal 
constitution, securing to the citizens a magistracy of their own 
appointment, and important rights of internal regulation and 
self-government, together with much common property. And in 
France and Germany, as well as in this island, claims to privileges 
of this character were more or less successfully maintained by local 
communities throughout the period of the occupation of these 
countries by their Teutonic invaders, with whoso native institutions 
Huch riglits assimilated readily, and became closely incorporated. 


146 0)1 the Self-Gocerninent of Small Manorial Coinmunities 

Even when tlie general establishment of feudality had compelled 
the towns to submit themselves to some paramount lord, ho usually 
found it politic to respect the ancient privileges of their inhabitants ; 
or, if temporarily suspended, they were recovered at the first 
favourable opportunity. It was not so easy to oppress a collected 
body of citizens, as the scattered and dispirited cidtivators of the 
soil. The monarchs, moreover, found in the towns efficient allies 
in those contests in which they were so frequently engaged during 
the middle ages with their powerful vassals ; and they repaid the 
assistance of the citizens by confirming and extending their ancient 
franchises, imder the form of royal or imperial charters of incor- 
poration. By an extension of the royal prerogative, springing 
from the same obvious motive, many towns or manors which 
possessed no special charter, grant, or corporation, claimed and 
enjoyed analogous privileges of self-government, as having anciently 
formed part of the royal demesnes. 

It is remarkable how little attention has hitherto been paid to 
this very important element of our constitutional history. Even 
in the case of many of the larger cities and towns, whose charters 
of incorporation have been repeatedly confirmed and renewed by 
successive sovereigns, little is known, or has at all events been 
communicated to the public, of the early history and character of 
their municipal privileges. The very title deeds of these privileges, 
and the records of the proceedings of their courts, corporations, or 
governing bodies, have been imperfectly preserved, and in the 
majority of instances, it would appear, are irrecoverably lost. Their 
ancient customs and usages have been allowed to fall into desuetude, 
and few memorials remain of their former existence, unless in the 
case of some parliamentary franchise, or other privilege to which a 
pecuniary or party value was attached. 

This very general neglect of the ancient municipal constitutions 
of our towns was remarkably brought out by the replies forwarded 
in the year 1831 to queries circulated by the Record Commission 
among them, requesting information as to what docimients relating 
to these matters were in the custody of their municipal officers. 
From the replies it appeared that in very few out of some hundred 

As exemplified in the Manor of Castle Combe. 147 

places to which the circulars were addressed, was any thing clearly 
known by these officers, or any series of documents preserved 
relative to the history of their ancient liberties, the proceedings of 
their local courts or governing bodies, or the early usages and 
customs of the place. There are, as I have said, some few exceptions 
to this general neglect ; and from the records preserved in these 
instances, and other sources, it would be possible to derive much 
valuable information on the general history of our municipal 
institutions. "Whoever would undertake such a work would confer 
a great benefit on the literature of this country, and supply an 
important defect in the materials of its history. 

In the meantime I have thought it may not be uninteresting to 
those who look into the philosophy of history, and love to trace the 
remote sources from which our most valuable institutions of the 
present day are derived, if I produce an example of the extent of 
self-government practised from a very early time in one of these 
privileged communities, although unincorporated, and of an insig- 
nificant cliaracter in comparison with the great towns of the 
kingdom — being in fact at no time more than a rural or upland 
township, with a population consisting of but a few hundred 
persons — from the records that happen to be in my possession, and 
in a tolerably perfect state, relating to the manor of Castle Combe. 
The very insignificance of the place, indeed, may add to the value 
of its history in these respects, as being a specimen probably of 
many hundred other village communities, in which similar customs 

The inhabitants of the Manor of Castle Combe, although not 
incorj^orated by Royal Charter, enjoyed, however, from an early 
period all the special rights and privileges which appertained by 
the Common Law to those Vills which belonged to the domain of 
the Crown in the Saxon sera. These rights were conveyed under 
the terms, now scarcely intelligible, of Tol, Tliem, Sok, Sak, 
Infangthef, View of frank-pledge. Waif, Stray, &c., and were 
generally known as Jura Regalia, including tlie power of punisliment 
by Stocks and Pillory, Pit and Gallows, (Cippus, Pilarum, Fossa 
et Furcu). The particular meaning of all those obsolete terms is 

TT 2 

148 On the Self- Government of Small Manorial Communities 

not at present clearly distinguishable, nor would it repay us to 
investigate very closely points upon wliicli tlie highest authorities 
differ. It is sufficient to know that they comprised among other 
rights the valuable one of Exemption of the free inhabitants from 
the arbitrary exactions of the usual collectors of tolls or taxes for 
the military service of the Sovereign ; contributions under the 
name of Tallage being specially rated upon these towns only on 
extraordinary occasious, by the King's writ as Royal Vills, and 
distributed upon the inhabitants by officers of their own choice. 
They were relieved from contributing to the expenses of Knights 
of the shire. They were not to be put on Juries in the Sheriff''s 
Courts. They elected their own officers for the protection of the 
public interests. They were entitled to local Courts of Justice, 
both Criminal and Civil, which held pleas of debt or damage 
arising between the inhabitants, and adjudicated on offences against 
the common weal. These Courts enacted bye-laws for the regulation 
of sundry matters of local interest, and enforced them by penalties. 
In them the Citizens themselves determined all the Causes heard, 
as Jurymen, under the presidency of the Seneschal or Steward of 
the Manor, who was the only officer appointed by the Lord, and 
seems to have had little power over the decisions of the Court. 

The Courts held within the Manor of Castle Combe were of 
three kinds, viz : — 

1. The Court Baron, or Manor Court, usually in the Rolls 
styled Caria Intrinseca, at which the Customary Tenants of the 
Manor surrendered or were admitted to their holdings, paid their 
quit-rents, and transacted all business relating to their tenures 
through a Uomar/e, or selected body of themselves, usually six in 
number, chosen upon the meeting of the Court. This Court was 
usually held twice in the year, but oftener if required ; and in this 
last case was styled " Ilok-day Court," (Curia tenia ad hoc). The 
Steward presided, and looked to the Lord's interest in these matters. 
The Bailiff (Ballivus Domini) collected the fees due to the Lord, and 
the fines and amerciaments imposed by the Homage. The Homage 
appointed the Hayward of the Manor (Prepositus Camporum), and 
a Sheep- teller (Numerator ovium). They determined all cases of 

As exetniJJified in the Manor of Castle Combe. 149 

Waif and Estray, of Villains absenting themselves, or marrying 
their daughters without the Lord's consent, of trespass on the Lord's 
soil or waters, or the deer in his park, or the hares, conies, or 
pheasants in his warren, of trespass on their own lands or tenements, 
the stint of sheep or cattle which each tenant might place on the 
common lands, questions of bounds, of the necessary repair of 
tenements, and generallj^ speaking all matters relating to their own 
estates and that of the Lord ; as to which matters they also 
enacted and enforced bye-laws, with the assent of the Lord, given 
through his Seneschal, and appointed proper officers to see them 
carried out. 

The Homage also tried causes of debt and damage to the amount 
of 40s. between the inhabitants of the Manor, or pleas brought 
against them by strangers, with the ancient common-law proceedings 
of " distringas, or common plaint." And great pains were taken 
by repeated orders, followed up by the levy of penalties, where 
these were contravened, that none of the residents of the Manor 
should sue one another, or be sued themselves, in any other Court, 
nor any officer of another Court execute a writ within the Manor ; 
unless in cases of felony, and such as were beyond the Jurisdiction 
of its proper Court. 

The Homage occasionally appointed special meetings of them- 
selves, or sometimes of all the tenants, at the Market-cross, or 
elsewhere, for the purpose of proceeding thence to view and 
determine questions relating to boundaries, or damage to property, 
or encroachments on the common, or waste of the Manor, or the 
state of repair of some Copyhold tenement, or of the fences of the 
woods, common arable fields, or commons of pasture, which the 
several occupiers were bound to maintain. Or they looked to the 
necessary repairs of the Church-house, the Market-cross, the Town- 
bridge, tlie Town-well, the pijnfold, or Pound, tlie Stocks, the Butts, 
and other public properties ; and ordered their due repair, under 
penalty for default, by the parties respectively liable thereto by 
ancient custom. 

Tlie Homage presented at every Court the ancient Customs of 
the Manor, by which tlie Copyhold tenants were bound, as to 

150 On the Self- Government of Small Manorial Communities 

Executorships, widow-hoods, seasons of surrender, right to Ml 
timber, heriots, &c, : and great care was taken (a care continued up 
to the present daj^), to enrol the record of these customs in the 
Court-book. They presented the decease of anj- Copyholder since 
the last Court, and reported the heriot that fell to the Lord, and 
the name of the succeeding taker, if any ; who, thereupon, prayed 
to be admitted, and on doing his fealty, and paying his fine, if any, 
was admitted, by delivery of the rod, in case of a yardland, (virgata 
terrce, from virga a rod,) and enrolled as Tenant.^ 

From time to time (and especially on the entry of a new Lord, 
or the appointment of a new Steward), an extraordinary Court 
Baron was held, for the Survey of all the Copyholds, at which each 
Tenant was required to exhibit the Copy of Court Roll by which 
he claimed to hold, an abstract of which was entered on the Roll. 

2. The Knight's Court (Curia Militnm) sometimes called in the 
Rolls Curia Extrinscca ; usually held at the same time with the 
Court Baron, but occasionally on separate days for special purposes. 
At this Court the Noblemen or Gentlemen who held lands or manors 
by Knight's Service of the Barony of Castle Combe were bound to 
attend, either in person or by proxy, to do their suit and service, 
and pay the rents, escheats, and reliefs due from them severally, as 
it might happen. They were generally, as a matter of course, 
essoigned ; that is, excused from attendance, on payment of a fee, 
latterly of 2s. each, but which in early times appears to have been 
higher. Against such as failed to pay, writs of distringas were 
issued, to be executed by the Bailiff of the Manor, and on further 
failure pledges were required, or distraint actually enforced. Tlie 
proceedings of this Court, it will be observed, referred wholly to 
the interests of the Lord. It was presided over by the Steward of 
the Manor, and composed of the freeholders who resided within 
it, or attended on summons, owing suit and service there to the 


3. Lastly the Court Leet, or Yiew of Frank-pledge, which was 
usually held twice a year, and at the same time with the Court 

1 The rod seems to have been typical of Serf-ship. 

As cxemj)/ijied in the Manor of Castle Combe. 151 

Baron, but sometimes oftener, and separately. At this Court the 
matters treated of had reference to the interests of the entire 
Community, " totius Communitatis," or " totius Villae." It was 
pi'esided over by the Seneschal or Steward of the Lord. The 
Tything-man attended, with the entire tything, (Decennarius cum 
totd Decennid), that is to say, the Dozein or twelve principal 
inhabitants, who acted as a grand Jury. In later times a Jury 
was sometimes sworn of as many as sixteen or even twenty persons. 
The absence of any ixihabitant duly summoned to attend was 
reported, and he was fined 2d., as also was the Tything-man for 
not producing him. The Tything-man presented a nominal list of 
foreigners, chiefly servants and artificers, who paid yearly 2d. each, 
for the privilege of living in the Manor, not being tenants of the 
Lord, or members of the tything, into which they could only be 
admitted by license of the Court. This list was called Capitagitim 
Garcionum, sometimes Chevagi%im, or Head-roll. Its numbers 
varied from twenty to seventy, or more. Their masters stood 
pledged for the good conduct of these strangers, who might at any 
time be removed by order of the Court. 

The several public officers then reported all cases of breaches of 
the common or statute law, or of the bye-laws enacted by the Court 
itself for the good government of the place. These officers, the 
number of which increased as general Statutes were passed pre- 
scribing their appointment, consisted in the fifteenth century of 

The Tything-man, (Decennarim),\f\xo&Q duties have been already 

Two Constables specially appointed to see that the peace be not 
broken, and to arrest and bring to Justice all offenders against the 

TwoAle-Conncrs {Tastatores Cervisice), whose duty it was (perhaps 
not an unpleasant one), to taste the ale made at every brewing for 
public sale witliin the place, and sec that it was of the ordained 
strength and goodness. They had to report to the Court all cases 
of breach of the Assize of Beer. And the same persons, but some- 
times others specially appointed, were to fulfil the same duties in 
respect to the Bread offered by the Bakers of tho place for sale. 

152 On the Self- Government of Small Manorial Communities, 

Two "Viewers of Flesclie or Yitealh," (Carnarii) , who exercised 
a similar superiiitencleiice over the Butchers. 

Two Sigillatores Corel, Searchers or Sealers of Leather, to look 
after the Tanners and Curriers. 

Two Overlookers of the process of dyeing and fulling Cloth, a 
business much followed within the IManor. (Consermtores artis 
tinctorum et fullatorum) . 

Two Wardsmen, ( Gardinares) , Guardians or Overseers of the 

Two Siq)ervisores Begixe via', or Highway Survej'ors. 

The two Churchwardens, (Ciistodcs honorum Ecclcsi(e), were not, 
I believe, appointed at the Leet Court, but probably at a vestry 
held within the Church. 

The offences of a public character adjudicated in the Court Leet 
were usually of the nature of affrays, assaults, blood-shedding, 
tippling in ale-houses, eaves-dropping or night-walking, keeping 
bad houses, gaming or playing at forbidden games, barratry, or 
disturbing the peace by false reports and quarrels, rescue, pound- 
breach, scolding or scandal, nuisances of all kinds, breaking hedges 
or neglecting to keep them, or the highways, or village bridge, or 
well, in repair, using false or unstamped weights or measures, 
forestalling, regrating, and all the other numerous tribe of offences 
ao-ainst the general statutes or bye-laws of the Leet, enacted for 
the purpose of regulating the sale or quality of provisions or other 
goods — flesh, leather, cloth, bread, beer, wine, &c. 

Felonies do not appear to have been finally adjudicated in this 
Court, notwithstanding that several entries in the Rolls record the 
repair of the ' Gallowes,' (probably kept up only in terror em), and 
that, according to Aubrey, writing late in the seventeenth century, 
old men then alive remembered them ; evidence, however, was 
taken in all cases of felony, and if the Jury presented the prisoner 
as guilty he was committed by the Court to the County Gaol for 
trial. It was the duty of the Tything-man to convey him to Old 
Sarum Castle, for which purpose he was authorised to seize the 
horse of any tenant. 

The goods of every convicted felon being forfeit to the Lord of 
the Manor, the Jury of the Leet, on presenting any one as guilty 

As exemjilified in the Manor of Castle Combe. 153 

of felonj^, and remitting him for trial at the County Sessions, 
always had his goods appraised by the Tything-man, and impounded 
for the Lords' use, in case of his conviction by the Court which 
tried him. And the same process took place when any accused 
person fled from justice, or did not abide judgement. Many such 
instances occurred ; so many, indeed, that the goods of felons appear 
to have been a perquisite of some value to the Lord. 

On one occasion, in 1524, a criminal who had committed homicide, 
took shelter or Sanctuary, in the Parish Church, on which the 
Coroner was sent for, to whom he abjured his fealty to the Sovereign, 
and elected to leave the kingdom by the Port of Dover, and so was 
indicted of murder, and his goods forfeited as above to the Lord. 
This seems to have been the process by which alone even a murderer 
who had taken sanctuary could be got rid of. 

At another time, one Thomas Hassell was presented by the Jury 
as " having feloniously broken into the Parish Church, by force of 
arms, to Avit, a dagger, and stolen therefrom a Missal, worth 15 
marks, (probably richly illuminated, to be worth that sum), a silver- 
gilt cup worth 8 marks, a silver cup worth 5 marks, and a pax- 
brede of the value of 15 shillings, of the Goods and Chattels of the 
said Church." 

Though instances occur of the infliction of personal punishments, 
but generally for a second offence, or on the non-payment of 
fines, such as whipping, the stocks, and the pillory, the usual 
penalties awarded were pecuniary fines, to be levied, if need be, by 
the Constable, by distress on the goods of the offender. These fines 
seem to have been practically unlimited in amount at the discretion 
of the Court, since I find very considerable sums occasionally taken ; 
as for instance, in the yeUr 1438, when Sir John Grene, parson of 
the Parish, was fined in 40 marks, (£26 13.S'. 4rf.), for cutting down 
an ash tree and some thorns in the Lords' park ; which fine ho 
being totally unable to pay, ten marks were taken from him at the 
time, and a bond for the remaining £20 at his death ; on the 
occurrence of which event his goods were sold, and it is stated 
in an abstract of the Roll, that the fines actually levied for this 
offence, were worth to the Lord more than £40, — probably one 


154 On the Self-Govcrnment of Small Manorial Commuiiifies 

hundred times the value of the timber destroyed by the unlucky 
Parson. The Parsons, indeed, figure very frequently in the Rolls ; 
sometimes as accusers, more often as defendants. They were 
occasionally fined for oppressing the Parishoners by citations into 
the Ecclesiastical Courts, for it was, as I have already stated, one 
of the ordinances of the Manor Court, most rigidlj- enforced, that 
no tenant, or resident, should sue or implead another tenant or 
resident within the manor, in any other Court, under a penalty of 
twenty shillings ; and, of course, the church very unwillingly 
submitted to this rule. But, strange to say, the ofience of which 
the Parsons appear to have been most frequently accused and con- 
victed, was that of poaching in the Lords' park or preserves, or 
encouraging poachers to bring fish or game to them from thence. 
One entry, in the year 1392, records the conviction, for breaking 
the Lords' park and warren, of a large party, headed by no less 
than four chaplains, viz., of Castle Combe, of Kington, of Netelton, 
and of Bath. The fines ranged in this instance, from 6s. 8d. to 
40s. each, and amounted in all, to the sum of £12. The Clerical 
appetite for sport, or perhaps for venison and game, must have 
been something checked by so severe an amerciament ! 

On the other hand, the Leet Court duly protected the person of 
the Parsons, who appear, not unfrequently, to have been in some 
danger from violent assaults, perhaps from some sinner to whom 
absolution was refused. On one occasion, in 1364, John le Tayllor 
was presented for " homesokenc," by drawing a knife upon the 
Parson in the church. Again, in 1414, Richard Spenser was fined 
for assaulting the Rector, "quia levant ictus super dictum Becforem." 
The fines were not large in these cases, considering the ofience, 
being only three pence in one, and six pence in the other. William 
Baate, however, three years later, was bound imder a penalty of 
twenty pounds, to keep the peace towards the same Parson. And 
the church was occasionally conciliated by the imposition of fines 
upon transgressors, in the shape of candles, to be burnt upon its 

The most frequent oflfences brought before the Court, were, as 
might be supposed, (since the same may be said, I fear, even in the 

As exemplified in the Manor of Castle Combe. 155 

present more tranquil days), of the nature of assaults, for which, 
the usual penalty imposed was a pecuniary fine, and the forfeiture 
of the weapon employed, the value of which is always carefully 
given.i The offender was also bound over to keep the peace, and 
to find sureties for the same, in considerable sums, for the time. 
Some offenders were proceeded against, not for particular breaches 
of the peace, but as habitual disturbers of it, "communes perturbatores 
pacts in perturhationem totiis domimi." This, I presume, was the 
offence styled Barratry in the old law books. 

Both males and females were occasionally convicted of Eaves- 
dropping, that is, "Kstening at windows at night, to hear the 
conversation going on within." Night-walking, " noctivagari," 
was also treated as a serious offence. And as the public-houses 
were compelled to close at nine o'clock at night, all good subjects 
were of course expected to be asleep soon after that hour, and fined 
if they were found about. Indeed, it is stated in one accusation 
against a prisoner for assault, in the year 1429, as an aggra- 
vation of the offence, that it took place at nine o'clock at night, 
and had the effect of " disturbing and waking from their sleep, the 
tenants who lived in the neighbourhood." Another singular and 
common offence was called "hole-creeping," explained to mean the 
creeping into pig-styes, and geese or hen-houses — whether for 
shelter, or with the intention of stealing the swine or poultry, 
does not seem clear. 

Scandal seems to have been severely punished. In one case of 
the year 1570, John Brewer pleaded for damages to the extent of 
39a. lid. against Nicholas "Willes for using these words, viz., "Thou, 
John Brewer, art a fals theff, and thou mayntenest theves in thi 
houB." The Jury brought in a verdict of guilty, and awarded 
damages 26s. 8(/. and for costs of Court 126'. 

The keeping of bad houses, or harbouring of dishonest women, 
was checked by frequent convictions and fines ; as also habitual 

1 Bomctiincs this is a knife, as in the case of assault on the Parson by John 
Tailor. Somotiines it is a sword, a dagger, or an axo, (basclars). In several 
canes it was a candlestick I occasionallj' a stick " nullius valoris," and, of course, 
sometimes the fist, "suo pugno," which could not conveniently be forfeited to 
the Lord. 

X 2 

156 On the Self-Got'ern?iient of Small Manorial Communities. 

drimkeniiess, " alehouse-haunting, and idling." Surely it may be 
regretted, that proceedings of this kind have fallen into disuse in 
our days. Gambling was often the subject of presentment and 
punishment, and ordinances frequently issued and enforced against 
the playing of illegal games. Those mentioned are card-playing, 
at a game called kuiFes and tables, shifte-groate, thimble-rigging, 
dicing, playing at bowls, (globi), at hand- ball, foot-ball, and stave- 
ball or "stobball;" (pilum manualem, pedalem, sive huculinam), 
" nine-holes" and " kittles." Workmen not having forty shillings a 
year of income, are specially prohibited from playing at these games, 
which seem to have been considered fit only for their betters. On 
the other hand, many of the lieges were fined 6s. Sd. each, for not 
practising with bows and arrows at Ics buttes, in obedience to the 
statutes thereunto provided. The Butts themselves were repeatedly 
repaired by order of the Court. The keeping of dangerous dogs, 
accustomed mordere homines, to bite the king's subjects, or any 
hound or grey-hound, if the owner was not possessed of 40s. a year, 
was treated as a pimishable ofieuce. So also the opening of shops 
or public-houses on the Sabbath day, or during Mattins ; the not 
attending Church on Sundays, (even the Ladj^ of the Manor was 
fined for this on one occasion) ; the carrying of lighted candles in any 
barn, stable, or other out-house, or any fire without a proper cover- 
ing, in the street. Fines were levied on all inhabitants who left 
dung or any other nuisance in the street, or who defiled the water 
of the river by washing skins in it, or throwing in filth, &c. The 
unlicensed harbouring of strangers, or persons liable to become a 
burthen on the community, was an ofience punishable by penalty, 
if the stranger was not removed upon notice from the Constable. 
The keeping of "Quernes" for the grinding of corn at home, instead 
of sending it to the Lords' mill, where it would be subject, of 
course, to toll, was prohibited under penalty. Of all the proceed- 
ings at the Court Leet, however, those which, perhaps, most 
repeatedly occur, related to the sale of beer, bread, and other 
necessaries, or articles of general consumption, and had for their 
chief object to secure the amplest supply of such articles, of the 
best quality, and at the lowest prices ; — a matter which at the 

As exemplified in the Manor of Castle Combe. 157 

present day we have at length happily discovered to be far more 
efiectually attained through the influence of free competition in an 
unfettered market, than by any compulsory process of law. It is 
well-known how obstinate was the struggle, protracted almost up 
to the present day, and, I may add, how vain and unsuccessful, to 
effect this object by statutes, regulating what was called the Assize 
of Beer and Wine, and of Bread, and prohibiting under penalties 
certain offences styled Forestalling and Regrating. Of these 
endeavours, and of their complete failure, the records of the Court 
Leet of Castle Combe present abundant instances. 

The regulations resj^ecting the brewing and selling of ale and 
beer, were especially various and perplexing. Firstly, no one was 
permitted to brew any for sale, so long as there remained unsold 
any Church-ale, (that is, ale made at the Church-house, by the 
Church- wardens, and sold there for the benefit of the common fund 
for the relief of the poor), or so long as the keeper of the park, or 
any of the Tenants of the Manor, had any to sell. Nor could any 
one sell liqaors at any time, without license from the Lord or the 
Court; nor without a sign, or at fair-time an Aledalie, hung out; 
nor refuse to sell so long as the sign was hung out ; nor ask a 
higher price for each quality than that fixed by the Jury of Assize ; 
nor lower the quality below what the Ale-tasters approved of; nor 
sell at all without enteriug into a bond for ten pounds, with a 
surety for five pounds to keep order in his house, and in particular 
to close at nine o'clock in the summer, and eight in the winter 

The enforcing the Assize of Beer and Ale, was ever a matter of 
endless difiiculty. From the beginning of the fifteenth, to the 
middle of the sixteenth century, the price at which malt liquors 
were ordered to be sold, was two pence the gallon for the best ale, 
( optimum et saluherimam Cervisiam) , one penny for the second sort, 
and one half penny for the third, "and no more." In 1557 I find 
the following order of the Court, " that the sellers of ale do sell 
their beste ale under the hcrseve (hair-sieve, that is, freshly brewed) 
for three pence a gallon ; there stalle ale for four pence a gallon ; 
their Bccond ale under the herseve for three half pence a gallon, 

158 Oil the Self-Government of Small Manorial Communities 

when itt ys stale for two pence a galon ; there smallyst ale under 
the herseve for a half penny a galon ; their beste ale in ther housys 
a wyne quarte for a peny, and withoute ther dore, a ale quarto for 
a peny ; ther second ale a half penny the wine quarte withyn dore, 
and Avithout ther dorres the ale quarte for a half penny. And 
every of them to sclle oute of their houses so long as there ys three 
gallons in the howse, every of them who may break any of these 
ordinances, to forfeit to the Lord ten shillings for every defaute." 

But this Assize did not endure long. In 1566, the Court order 
" that all brewers or ale-wyffes, shall sell at their dores the best 
liquor for four pence the gallon ; and of ale or beer of the best, 
within and without, for one penny the ale quart ; and the fine ale 
at one half penny the quart, within and without, so long as they 
sell of the best." At a Court held the year after, the Jury order 
" that the Constables visit and view the ale-brewers, and see that 
the orders of the leet Courte be followed, under penalty of forty 
shillings ;" and they soon after issue a fresh order, varied from the 
last, " that all the brewers doe sell the beste drink in their houses 
at six pence the gallon ; and that all vitulers shall sell the second 
best ale, out of their houses, for two pence the galon, under penealty 
of three shillings and four pence." In the next year we find another 
change, viz., "the Jury present the tiplers ' tiplatores,' to sell their 
ale within doors and without, the best for an ale-quart, one penny, 
and the other sort as the order before made was." But at a subse- 
quent Court, held in the same year, (1570), it is presented by the 
Tything-man that " the ale-uijves have broken all the orders of the 
laat lawe-clay." Next follows the order " that the ale-wyves shall 
sell their ale forthe of doors, for an ale- quart, one penny, and in 
the doors, a noggin-quart for a penny; and yf they make here and 
have no ale, they shall sell their bere in the same order and pryse, 
and not to deny any man as long as they have the stake at the 
dore ; pena every one that makyth default, to loose ten shillings." 
That this order also was unsuccessful, is shewn by frequent convic- 
tions and renewals of similar orders, and complaints of their non- 

The Assize of Bread was another matter of frequent regulation. 
The price by weight was from time to time fixed. Penny, half- 

As crcmpUficd in the Manor of Castle Comhe. 159 

penny, and fai-thing loaves were ordered to be made by all bakers. 
(1557). No inbabitant was allowed to buy bread of a foreign 
baker ; and sucb were of course prohibited from selling it, except 
on market-days and in the market of the town. 

So also in the article of Candles. The Chandlers were required 
to sell at prices fixed by the Jury. And to enable them to do so 
the butchers were prohibited from selling out of the town the fat 
of the animals they slaughtered (1572) ; and again no inhabitant 
was allowed to have in his house at one time more candles than he 
could readily use, (1573). The brewers were prohibited from 
selling their ' graines ' out of the town, and the price was also fixed 
which they were bound to accept, viz. : 2d. the bushell, (1590). 
None were to sell " grain or other viteal," except on market-days, 
nor to sell at all before nine o'clock, or buy more than might serve 
tlieir own household. This buying of any article more than was actu- 
ally required for immediate consumption was called " encroaching ; " 
the buying before-hand for the purpose of profit by re-sale, 
"forestalling," and the subsequent sale at a profit "regrating." 
And these practices Avere prohibited as well by general statutes, as 
by the orders of the Court, and punished if detected. All those 
branches of business which are now carried on by what are called 
middle-men or salesmen, merchants who buy and sell articles of 
general consumption for the sake of the profit, and who thus act 
most beneficially for the general interests, by equalizing as near as 
possible the supply to the demand, as respects both time and place, 
were by these absurd laws and regulations prevented from exercising 
tlieir most useful callings. It must have offered a curious and 
instructive lesson in political economy, tliis small community 
endeavouring in so many various ways to carry out the 'Protectionist' 
principle of self-supply, by prohibiting themselves from buying or 
selling almost anything in any other market than their own, accu- 
mulating restraints upon manufactures and trades of every kind, and 
dictating the terms of almost every bargain. We have no right, 
however, to cast ridicule for these absurdities on the uneducated 
inhabitants of this remote rural township. They only copied on a 
small scale the proceedings of the Sovereign and supreme legis- 

160 On the Self- Government of Small Manorial Communities 

lature of their times in similar matters ; and, indeed, it is only at 
a very recent period, if even now it can be declared with truth, 
that the Parliament of this kingdom, and its highest authorities, 
have wholly emancipated its internal and external commerce from 
similar shackles, and themselves individually from the prejudices 
in which they had their root. 

Without prolonging these extracts further it is evident from the 
proceedings already noticed, that the inhabitants of this and of 
similarly privileged Manors (and, indeed, it seems probable that 
many of these privileges were shared by all ordinary Manors, 
entitled to hold a Court Baron and View of Frank-pledge, although 
not having Jura RegaKa, as being of Ancient Demesne), formed, 
from a period as early as the close of the thirteenth century at 
least, and probably from the the time of the Saxon monarch, 
Edward the Confessor, down to the beginning of the eighteenth — 
when the proceedings of their Courts fell into disuse — a community 
to a very considerable extent self-governed. 

The Grand Jury and Homage, appointed by and from amongst 
themselves, at the Leet and Baronial Courts, exercised, it is clear, 
a very extensive and powerful authority within their jurisdiction, 
both of a civil and criminal character. They amerced all offenders 
against the public peace or welfare, or who committed damage or 
injury on any of the inhabitants, in pecuniary penalties, or punished 
them by whipping, imprisonment in the stocks, or the pillory. 
They legislated, moreover, very largely, by " orders," upon 
numerous matters which may appear perhaps of trifling moment 
individually, but which still are, and in those times were collectively 
yet more than at present, of great and daily importance to the 
inhabitants of a rural township ; such as the stocking of their 
common lands, the repair of fences, roads, bridges, water-courses, 
and drains, the abolition or prevention of nuisances, the prices at 
which bread or liquors should be sold Avithin their jurisdiction. 
They provided for the good morals of the place by punishing 
disorderly conduct, idleness, gambling, debauchery, foul language, 
eaves-dropping, petty thefts, assaults, and affrays. They regulated 
their own numbers in a great degree by a superintending control 

As exemplified in the 3Ianor of Castle Combe. 161 

over strangers coming in for work, or residence, and in later times 
by enforcing the statutes regulating the settlement of the Poor, 
whom, also, they relieved at their discretion. They chose their 
own officers, numerous as we have seen, each with his special 
department and authority, to see that their "orders" were obeyed 
as well as the general statutes of the realm, and to bring all 
offenders to Justice. These officers had power to levy by distress 
the fines forfeited by order of the Court, and were expected to 
account for them at the succeeding Court to the Lord's bailiff, and 
he to the Auditor or Supervisor. They collected and applotted 
among themselves the public as well as the local taxes, or compo- 
sitions to which they were liable. They possessed a "Peculiar" 
Jurisdiction for the proof of Wills. 

Moreover the inhabitants at these Courts determined all disputes 
among themselves, or arising within the limits of the Manor, 
and all pleas of debt or damage, both as to person and property. 
They inspected their own provision-shops, regulated their own ale- 
houses, their market, their poor, their roads, paths, fences, common- 
rights, and crops. And all this without the intervention of a 
Justice of Peace, or an Attorney ! without pajj^ment of a single 
lawyer's fee ! 

The Steward of the Manor was paid an annual stipend by the 
Lord, and though presiding over the Courts, and probably more or 
less influencing, as well as recording, their proceedings, does not 
appear to have been empowered to exercise much direct authority 
over them. He acted, of course, as attorney or agent for the Lord 
in all matters in which his interests were cbncerned, saw that the 
proceedings were regular, and gave advice to the Lord's tenants, 
who composed the Homage and Jury. He was occasionally, but 
not necessarily a lawyer by profession. William of Westbury, made 
a Judge of the King's Bench in 1426, had been previously for 
many years Steward of the Manor of Castle Combe. 

It may be questioned whether such communities have gained 
much by the gradual extinction of all these ancient privileges and 
customs of Self-government to a considerable extent, which has 
taken place very generally within the last two centuries. No doiilit 


162 On the Self- Government of Small Manorial Communities 

the general improvement in communications, by facilitating inter- 
course and multiplying transactions between tbe inhabitants of 
different parishes and towns, rendered highly inconvenient, if not 
impracticable, the continuance of separate municipal jurisdiction* 
of so very limited an area ; and at the same time facilitated the 
resort for Justice to the Courts of the Hundred or County. But 
it seems now generally recognised that the concentration of all 
authority in the higher Courts, and the disuse or decay of local 
municipalities have been allowed to proceed too far. And in many 
recent legislative measures for establishing, or increasing the autho- 
rity in respect to many of the matters above-mentioned, of County 
Courts, Union Boards of Guardians, local Boards of Health, and 
Commissions for paving and lighting of towns, &c., as well as in 
the grant of Corporations to many towns not hitherto possessed of 
them, may be seen a clear admission of the necessity for restoring 
much of the practice and principle of local self-government, which 
the inhabitants of this country seem to have enjoyed from the very 
earliest period of its history, and to which in a great degree they 
are indebted for that rational liberty and that general attachment 
to their free institutions, which so peculiarly distinguish it from 
nearly every other part of the old world. 

It is not, however, intended by what has been said, to deny that 
the institutions of the country at these early periods were very 
faulty, and the liberties of its inhabitants defective. Quite the 
contrary. The power of the Lords over their tenants was for a long 
time excessive, and their exactions sometimes intolerable. Personal 
and prsedial slavery were long maintained, and lasted in some 
instances to a very late date, though gradually growing obsolete,, 
and frequently terminated through the good sense and liberality of 
individual Lords, or still more of the Judges of the superior Courts, 
who, (as is observed by Blackstone), made it a general rule in 
doubtful cases to decide in favor of the liberty of the subject. 
Moreover nothing could be more tyrannical than many of the laws 
in force in these early times, and even of the practices which the 
chief inhabitants themselves ordered, and did their best to enforce ; 
such as those described above, intended to regulate trade, to fix the 

As exemplified in the Manor of Castle Combe. 163 

prices of goods, and even of labour, and to prevent migration. It 
is hardly, indeed, in the present day that we can boast of the 
complete abolition of such unwise shackles, or of the entire extinction 
of the prejudices in which they took their rise. 

On the whole we may gain something from a study of the peculiar 
modes adopted by our ancestors for the conduct of their public 
interests, both in the way of warning and example. And I shall 
be much gi-atified if the sketch I have given, from the materials 
that have fallen into my hands, shall contribute in any the slightest 
degree to either of these ends. 

I may add a hope likewise that the owners of other Manors, or 
the custodiers of their title-deeds, may be led, by my example, to 
examine them with a view to ascertain how far, and during what 
period, their inhabitants possessed or exercised any of these muni- 
cipal rights. It seems a mistake to suppose, as is generally done, 
I believe, that such rights were confined to the larger and incor- 
porated towns. And it will probably appear, on examination, that 
they were commonly exercised to a considerable extent at least, in 
all Manors holding Courts Baron and Leet. If this be the fact, it 
opens up, I think, a new and interesting view of our Political 
History, as yet almost unsuspected by the bulk of writers upon it, 
but quite as important as that of the transactions of Statesmen, or 
Ambassadors, Sovereigns, or Parliament itself. 

Y 2 


M a Criimltrli-tiimiihiH ralleh Iiigliiini, near 

f ittlrtnn Irm. 

By John Thuenam, M.D., F.S.A. 

In the County of Gloucester, and north-west of Wilts, particu- 
larly in the district of the Cotswold hills, and some neighbouring 
parts of Somerset, are several sepulchral tumidi of peculiar 
character, which have hitherto attracted but little attention, and 
which, so far as we know, are nearly confined, at least in their most 
fully developed forms, to this part of England. These tumuli are 
cairns or barrows (in the language of the district fumjjs) composed 
chiefly of loose stones, of long or oval form, var5dng from about 
120 to 180 feet in length, ranging nearly from west to east, and 
having the broadest and highest part towards the east. Internally 
they are found to contain, in some cases, chambers walled in with 
stone, which open into a gallery, evidently intended to be entered 
from one end, the east ; in others, cells or cists, which, when used for 
the purpose of interment, must have been opened from above. In 
some instances, from their ruinous condition, or from the imperfect 
descriptions given of them, it is almost impossible to decide to 
which of these classes they belong. Of the first class, or those 
containing chambers, the best examples are at TJley in Glouces- 
tershire, and at Stoney Littleton in Somersetshire.^ Of those 
containing one or more cists or cistvaens, as it is usual to call 
them, Duntesford Abbots in Gloucestershire, and Littleton Drew 
in Wiltshire, now to be described, present well-marked instances. 
In the long barrow at Avening, there seems to have been both a 
chamber and cists ; whilst as regards those at Lanhill, Luckington, 

I Archseologia, vol. 19. p. 43. Archajological Journal, 1854, vol. XI. p. 315. 


!» O 


Q) CD 

3 H 





On a Cromlech-tumulus called Lughury, 165 

and Shurdingtou/ there is more or less doubt to which form the 
contained structures must be referred. There is however suflficient 
similarity in their character, notwithstanding this variety of internal 
structure, to lead us to refer all these barrows to the same period 
and people. This conclusion is confirmed by the mode of interment, 
which, so far as they haA-e been examined, is common to all of them. 
In the chambers, and also in the cists, are found entire human 
skeletons, in a contracted posture, and frequently crowded together 
in groups. With these only very trivial objects of art have been 
discovered ; but, so far as appears, these are confined to stone 
implements, such as flint flakes, knives, or arrow-heads, and stone 
axes ; and with these, bones and teeth of the lower animals, for 
instance, of oxen, horns of the red deer, and tusks and other teeth 
of boars. In several instances, fragments of pottery and other 
objects have been met with, chiefly near the surface ; but these are 
evidently of a later, and generally of the Roman, period, and must 
have been deposited in these spots, either by those who have resorted 
to them for superstitious or funereal purposes, or who have dug into 
and rifled them, in search of treasure. 

From these general remarks, we may proceed to the description 
of the Littleton Drew tiunulus, which is situated in a field 
called the " three stone field," in the parish of Nettleton, nearly 
equidistant, and about a mile, from the villages of Littleton Drew, 
Nettleton, and Castle Combe. The earliest notice to be found of 
this barrow is in an unpublished woi'k by John Aubrey, the weU- 
known Wiltshire topographer and antiquary, from whom we learn 
that in the 17th century it was called "Lugbury," a designation which 
it has probably long ceased to bear. " Lugbury," says Aubrey, 
"is in a field in the parish of Nettleton, but near to Littleton 
Drew in Wiltshire, over against the ruins of Castle Combe. At 
the east end of this barrow is a great table stone of bastard free- 

' For the Lanhill barrow, see ante, page 67 ; for that at Luckington, Sir 
E. C. Hoare's " Ancient Wilts," vol. II. p. 101 ; and for that at Shurdington, 
the "Journal of the British ArchiBological Association," vol. I. p. 158; vol III. 
p. 64; and Wright's "Celt, Itomau, and Saxon," p. 53, maj' be consulted. 

166 On a Croinlech-tumuhis called Luybury, 

stone, leaning on two pitched perpendicular stones. I suppose it 
was heretofore borne up by two more such stones like the legges of 
a table. Neer to this stone was a little round barrow, before it was 
ploughed away since a.d. 1630." ^ In Aubrey's manuscript work, 
Monumenta Britaimica, now in the Bodleian Library, is a rough 
sketch of the barrow, with the trilith at the east end, which shews 
that, two hundred years since, the stones had the same position as 
they retain at present.^ 

The barrow is about two hundred yards from the great Roman 
road, the Foss, which traverses nearly the whole of south Britain, 
from S.W. to N.E., from Devonshire to Lincolnshire, and whence 
the legionaries of the Caesars must have often contemplated this 
ancient monument.^ Traces probably of earlier occupation exist on 
the opposite Castle hill of Combe ; where, within range of cannon 
shot from the Foss-way, is an entrenched camp or hill fortress, 
cxiriously protected by a series of parallel earth-works, doubtless of 
ancient British construction, though afterwards chosen as the site 
of the Castle of Combe, in Norman times.'* 

The barrow, though in the parish of Nettleton, is immediately 
without the boundary of that of Littleton Drew, and it may be 
worth naming that a road or trackway now disused, but evidently 
of great antiquity, leads directly past the western end of the 
barrow to this last-named village, which it connected with that of 
Nettleton. Where it descends the intervening valley, this path is 
hollowed out, so as to form a true " covered way." Upon this road, 

1 Sir R. C. Hoare, Ancient Wilts, vol. II. p. 99, quotes this from Aubrey's 
M.S., " Monumenta Britannica," written chiefly between the years 1663 and 
1671. See Memoir of Aubrey, by J. Britton, 1845, p. 39—47. 

2 A wood engi-aving ft-om this sketch, is given in the "History of Castle 
Combe," by G. Poulett Scrope, Esq., M.P., 1852, p. 7. 

3 CoUinson, (History of Somerset, 1791, vol. I, p. 101), gives a brief notice of 
this tumulus, which has been copied into the additions to Camden, (Britannia, 
1806, vol. I. p. 119). Collinson adds " I doubt not that this was the monument 
of some Roman chief who died on the march, and was commemorated in this 
rude manner, for want of time and other conveniences." This opinion will 
scarcely now be regarded as calling for serious refutation. 

i Sir R. C. Hoare, "Ancient "Wilts," vol. II. p. 301, and "Roman Era," 
p. 102. G. Poulett Scrope, Esq., M.P., " History of Castle Combe," p. 7. 

near Litth'ton Drew, North Wilts. 167 

half-way between the barrow and Littleton Drew, close to a farm- 
house, is an ancient quarry, yielding large blocks of what the 
quarrymen still, as it would seem in Aubrey's time, call " bastard 
freestone," belonging to the great oolite, which occurs in this 
district of the Cotswolds. From this quarry, the stones of which 
the cromlech is formed, were evidently obtained. 

Both Aubrey and Sir Richard C. Hoare appear to connect the 
barrow with Littleton Drew rather than Nettleton ; and the latter, 
in particular, insists on its neighbourhood to "Littleton Dru or 
Drew, a name evidently of druidical antiquity." There is perhaps 
no difficult)', in the fact of its position beyond the boundary of the 
parish of Littleton, in connecting it with this place rather than 
with Nettleton ; there being much reason for concluding that the 
existing parochial divisions, in many cases at least, do not ascend 
beyond Norman times. Whether, however, the epithet Drew had 
in its origin any reference to the Druids, may admit of enquiry. 
There are at least three other places, where are remarkable remains 
commonly called druidical, into the name of which this epithet 
enters. These are Stanton Drew in Somersetshire, where are the 
well known megalithic circles of unhewn stones, inferior only in 
size and number to those of Abury; Drews' Teignton, Dartmoor, 
Devon, where is one of the best preserved cromlechs in England ; 
and Trer Drew in Anglesea, near the spot where the Romans are 
believed to have landed, and where are many remains of cromlechs 
and other early British monuments. Here, not improbably, were 
the groves devoted to superstition and barbarous rites, with altars 
dedicated to human sacrifices, which, Tacitus tells us, were destroyed 
by the Romans.' In all these cases, topographical writers to the 

1 Stukely, " Itin. Cur." vol. II. p. 91, plate. Camden, "Britannia," vol. 
III. p. 197. Pennant's "Wales," 1810, vol. II. p. 229; vol. III. p. 11. 
Rowland's " Mona Antiqua," 1766, p. 88—236. Compare Tacitus, ''Annates," 
Lib. 14. § XXX. Mr. Herbert, "Cyclops Christ." p. 30, maintains that the 
Welsh word here should be written " Dryw, — 'Tre'r Dryw," meaning "the 
house of the wren." lie liimself however quotes a passage from Taliesin, 
which at least shews that in the mystical system of the bards, the Druids were 
fiometimes called wrens. 

" Wyv dwr, wyv diyw, "I am water, I am a wren, 


yv Baer, wyv syw. 

I am a builder, I am wise." 

168 0)1 (I Croinlech-tunmlus called Lughury., 

present time, have not failed to connect the epithet Drew Avith a 
supposed Druidical origin. This has however been contested by- 
some, who suppose this name to be derived from that of families 
who have lived near, or possessed lands at, these places. Aubrey 
himself in his " Collections" for North Wilts, has preserved a deed, 
probably of the 12th century, to which " Walterus Drew, Dominus 
de Littletone" is the principal party.^ The question certainly 
admits of discussion, though the evidence seems to be in favour of 
the druidical derivation of the name ; and in this instance there 
appear grounds for Dr. Stukeley's opinion, who, in writing of 
Stanton Drew, says, " I make no doubt but the name of Stanton 
Drue is derived from our monument, Stanton from the stones, and 
Drue from the Druids. It moves not me that some of the name of 
Drew might have lived here formerly, for such a family might 
take the denomination of the town, and leaving out the first part 
retain only that of Drew. It is sufficient conviction that there are 
so many other [places] in England and elsewhere that have preserved 
this name, and all remarkable for monuments of [this] nature."* 

To return however to the tumulus itself. It is of a long oval 
form, ranging nearly due east and west, measuring somewhat more 
than 180 feet in length, by 90 in greatest breadth. Its present 
greatest elevation is about six feet ; but, being in a ploughed field, 
it has lost somewhat of its original height in the memorj- of those 
living, and the rude sketch of Aubrey, seems to shew that, two 
hundred years since, its elevation, towards the east end, was much 
more considerable.^ The south side of the mound is still somewhat 

According indeed to Welsh lexicographers, the words Derwj'd and Dryw both 
signify a Druid, the latter having the additional meaning of a ivren. See 
Owen, 1805, and Spurrell, 1848. 

1 "Collections for Wilts," part I. 1821, p. 125. The family of Drew of 
Littleton Drew, appear to have been lords here for several centuries, and the 
family to have ended in the female line, by marriage with the family of 
Mompesson. Ibid. p. 56. 

2 Stnkeley's " Itin. Cur." 1776, vol. II. p. 177. Some further remarks on the 
topographical question, as to the name of Drew, will be found in a supplementary 

3 CoUinson, toward the close of the last century, gives the length as 200, and 
the height as 9 feet. 

mar Littleton Drew, North Wilts. 169 

steeper and more defined than the north, a character which was 

much more marked as late as the year 1821, the date of the 

sketch from which our view is taken.^ The most remarkable 

feature is the trilith, or cromlech of three large stones, at the east 

end, which still give its name to the field. 

" Campus ab illis 
Dicitui", ffiternumque tenet per sascula nomen." 

These stones are placed somewhat on the slope of the barrow, 

about thirty feet from its base. The two uprights, which are six 

and a half feet apart, are of a flattened pyramidal form, about 

two feet thick and four wide. That to the south is six and a half 

feet in height, that to the north, from which part of the top seems 

to have been broken, is a foot lower. From recent excavations, 

made by Mr. Scrope, it is found that these stones are sunk upwards 

of four feet below the surface. Resting on the ground, and leaning 

against the western edges of these uprights, is the large table stone, 

measuring about twelve feet in length, by six in breadth. There 

can be no doubt, whatever was their intention, that this large 

table stone was originally supported by the two uprights, aided 

perhaps by a third, or, as Aubrey thought, by two others. The 

stones are altogether rough and unhewn, and are richly covered 

with time-stains and lichens. Their first inspection suggested the 

idea that they were the remains of a chamber, such as exists at 

Stoney Littleton and Uley, but a consideration of their size, and 

the great height of the uprights above the highest part of the 

barrow, is sufficient to refute such an opinion. Sir R. C. Hoare 

concludes the account he gives of his examination of the tumulus, 

by stating that he had no doubt the primary interment was placed 

" beneath the huge superimpending stones at the east end." This 

view, however, has been fully disproved, by examinations made 

in the summer of 1854, and again in September 1855, when the 

space between the two uprights was excavated down to the base 

of the stones, and a considerable trench dug in front of them, by 

which the red clay of the natural surface was uncovered. A similar 

excavation was made on the western side of the stones. No traces 

* This Hketch was by Mr. Crocker, the artist employed by Sir R. C. Hoare. 


170 On the Cromlech-ttonulns called Lnghiiry, 

whatever of human remains were met with ; and the only objects 
found were some trifling fragments of black Roman pottery, a foot 
or two from the surface; and at a greater depth, in part mixed 
with the natural soil, a few fragments of bones, tusks and teeth of 
boars, with one or two rude flakes of black flint. It is not probable 
that these stones had been at any time buried beneath the cairn, as 
would have been the case had they formed part of a sepulchral 
chamber, of which, it has been shewn, there is no proof. The only 
likely view which remains is that they had in reality formed an 
external structure, such as the French term a dolmen and the 
English a cromlech, in all probability devoted to pagan sacrificial 

In 1821, an extensive excavation, 150 feet in length, was made 
by Sir R. C. Hoare, along the whole length of the mound, to the 
west of the trilith. On this occasion, what was probably the 
original principal interment was disclosed, about 60 feet from the 
east end of the barrow, and about 30 to the west of the cromlech. 
Here, on the natural soil, a slight cist had been scooped out, and 
furnished with a rudely constructed pavement of unworked thin 
stone. Over this, a sort of rude arch, of the same kind of stone 
appeared to have been raised, which however had fallen in. In the 
cist, was an entire human skeleton, laid on the right side, having 
the head to the west, and the face to the south. It was in a 
contracted position, with the knees drawn up, the right hand on the 
upper part of the chest, and the left arm laid across the body. 
Under the left hand, and not far from the head, was a small 
instrument of flint about an inch and a half in length, brought to 
a very sharp point, and apparently formed for piercing or cutting. 
" It was," says Sir R. C. Hoare, " too thin for an arrow-head, but 
might have served for a lancet.^ 

Fliiit Instrument found with Skek'ton. 

1 Our wood engraving of this curious relic has been drawn from the object 
itself, very obligingly lent for this purpose, by Mrs. Carrick. The late Dr. 
Carrick of Clifton was the former owner of the Nettleton property. 

ttear Littleton Drew, North Wilts. 171 

Dr. Wallis of Bristol, at that time a lecturer on anatomy, who 
was present when the skeleton was exhumed, informs us it was 
evidently that of a young man, the sutures of the skull not being 
firmly united. The skull was of full size and well formed, the teeth 
were perfect, the thigh bone measured 18 inches in length, and the 
humerus was of the usual size. In the course of the excavation, 
many scattered pieces of charcoal were thrown out, but nothing 
else was met -ndth. There were traces of two dry walls of loose 
stone having been formed across the barrow ; one close to the 
cromlech on the east side, and the other about 60 feet to the west, 
the interment being midway between the two.^ 

In the spring of 1854, the existence of a rude cist on the south 
side and near the centre of the barrow, containing several skeletons, 
was brought to light by the plough. Subsequently to this, the 
proprietor of the field, G. P. Scrope, Esq., M.P., has made a very 
complete examination, by which a series of four such cists has 
been discovered.^ Their position is shewn on the ground-plan. 
They vary a little in form and size, but on the average, are about 
ten feet in length, by four in width, and two in depth. Their 
shape is an irregular oblong, and they are formed of large rough 
flat stones set on edge : there were no covering stones, (though it is 
possible that such may have formerly existed, and been removed 
when the barrow was first subjected to the plough), the cists being 
filled with stone rubble carelessly thrown in ; whilst in the spaces 
between the cists and elsewhere, the stones forming the barrow had 
evidently been heaped up by hand. The largest cist nearest to 
the east is wthin a few feet of the south-west angle of the cromlech, 
and has its long axis placed east and west. The three other cists 
range nortli and south, and lie somewhat nearer to the edge of the 
barrow and nearly equidistant from each other. In three of these 

• "Gentleman's Magazine," vol. XCII., Feb. 1822, p. 16, and MS. letter 
from G. Wallis, M.D., Bristol. 

2 Two of the cistB were opened at the time of the Meeting of the Wilts 
Arr;lia,'ological and Natural History Society at Chippenham, in September, 1855; 
on which occasion Mr. Scrope, the President of the Society, entertained a large 
party of the Members at Castle Combe. Mr. Scrope kindly contributes the 
lithographic illuHtrations. 

z 2 

172 On the Cromlech-tumulus called Lughury. 

cists, were nine, seven, and ten skeletons respectively, there being, 
apparently, some distinction of sex and age, as to the cists in which 
they were found. The bodies must have been packed closely 
together, in a crouched or sitting posture, and were particularly 
crowded near the angles of the cists. Their being buried in rough 
stone rubble, made it difficult to ascertain their precise position, or 
to remove the bones in an entire state. No reKcs of any other 
kind were found in the cists ; but in the course of the general 
excavations, a flake or two, and a round worked disc, of black flint 
were met with. Cist A. — This, it is said, contained seven skeletons ; 
we examined five, all of Which appeared to be of women or children, 
of the ages of about 1, 2, 5, 15, and 50 years of age. Cist B. — 
This appears either never to have been used, or to have been rifled 
at some period of its contents, not even a fragment of bone being 
found in it. Cist C. — This contained nine skeletons, all apparently 
males, and of adult age, about 20, 25, 30, 45, 50, and 55 years ; 
two others were those of aged persons. There were the fragments 
of a ninth skull, the fractured edges of which were very sharp and 
clean, suggesting the idea of having been cleft during life, but they 
may possibly have been broken after interment, by the falling-in 
of one of the side-stones of the cist. Cist D. — In this were ten 
skeletons, eight of which we examined; four were those of adults, 
two possibly of each sex, and four of children, of about 3, 4, 7, and 
17 years. It may here be briefly stated that the crania from these 
cists are almost uniformly of a somewhat lengthened oval or doli- 
chocephalic form. The facial bones are generally smooth and little 
indented ; the alveolar edge of the superior maxillary, upright and 
rather short ; the lower jaws narrow ; the crowns of the teeth generally 
very much worn. The only thigh-bone which could be obtained 
for measurement was 18 inches and a half in length. 

The whole of the barrow has latterly been excavated by Mr. 
Scrope, but without discovering any further interments, nor any- 
thing worthy of note except two or three more flint-flakes of 
irregular form. The bulk of the stones having been carted away, 
the barrow is now consequently much reduced in elevation ; except 















t— * 









Note on the name of Drew. 173 

at the east end where the cromlech stands, where the barrow has 
been left of its full height, and only dug through, (as stated above), 
to ascertain the non-existence of any deposit. 

Considerable light is thrown on the long barrows of this part of 
England, by the examination of that of Littleton Drew; the real 
character of which seems now fully ascertained. Some other long 
barrows in this district must have been of the same description, 
containing cists or chambers within, and having megalithic struc- 
tures, in the form of standing stones, apparently the remains of 
cromlechs, at the east end. Such probably was the long barrow 
at Gatcombe Park, near Minchinhampton, in Gloucestershire ; the 
barrow in a spot called Irecombe at Boxwell, near Wootton-under- 
Edge; the long tumulus at Duntesbourne Abbots, near Cirencester, 
both in the same county ; and that with a fallen cromlech, at 
Enstone, near Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire. In all these 
instances there are, or have been, large stones on the barrow, which 
appear unconnected with the sepulchral cists, and to have been 
designed for some other purpose than one connected with the 
interment of the dead. The evidence afforded by such examples as 
these, is in favour of some of the megalithic structures called 
cromlechs, being reallj^ designed (as the whole of them were formerly 
erroneously supposed to be) for other purposes, and most probably 
for sacrificial rites, — in fact that they were altars. 


At what period the name of Drew was first applied to places and 
persons is not clear. In Doomsday Book, the name occurs as that 
of two servants of the Conqueror, Herman de Drewes, and Amelric 
de Drewes, each of whom held of the king a manor in Wiltshire. 

The name of Drogo, common in mediaeval times, is generally 
and with good reason, regarded as synonymous with that of Drew. 
Both the words appear to be of Teutonic origin, and to be derived 
from the verb drayan, to draw, which makes drag and drogon in 
the past tense, as our modern English verb makes drew. Skinner 

174 Note on the name of Drew. 

in his Etymology,^ under the proper name of Drew, traces it to 
Drogo, but, it is noticeable, that he hesitates whether it should not 
rather be derived from the Anglo-Saxon dry a druid or magician. 
As in early English, Drogo and Drew appear synonymous, so in 
the Norman-French of the same period, are Drogo and Dreux. 
This last name Dreux, that of a place in France near Charti-es, 
so called, as conjectured, from the Druids, is supposed to have been 
the site of the "locus consecratus," or temple "infinibm Carnutum," 
alluded to by Caesar, where was held the annual assembly of the 
Druids for the whole of Gaid.^ That the name was in common 
use among the Normans, as a personal appellation, a reference to 
the Anglo-Norman history of Ordericus Yitalis is sufficient to shew. 
Ordericus refers to at least four persons of the name of Drogo. The 
first is Drogo, Archbishop of Metz, the son of the Emperor 
Charlemagne, who is mentioned imder the year 840.^ The next is 
Drogo, also called Dreux, Count of the Vexin, who died about 
1035, whilst on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and who was likewise 
descended from Charlemagne.^ A third Drogo, otherwise Dreux, 
was of the celebrated Norman famil}' of Hauteville, one of the 
twelve sons of Tancred de Hauteville, who conquered the south of 
Italy in the early part of the 11th century; this conquest, under 
the fourth brother, Robert Guiscard, embracing at a subsequent 
period the whole of Sicily. The eldest brother William had 
assumed the title of Count of Apulia in 1043, in which he was 
succeeded by his brother Drogo or Dreux in 1046.^ The fourth of 
the name is Drogo, called indiscriminately Dreux, the son of a 
Norman baron, Geoffrey de Neuf-marche, who became a monk and 
had sreat influence, in ecclesiastical affairs, at the court of William, 
about the time of the conquest.*^ 

1 " Etymologicon," 1671. Ouomastieon, suh voc Dru. Mr. Lower, in his 
"Essay on English Surnames," 1849, chap. 9, pp. 152. 167, treats of Droffo 
and Drew as identical. 

2 B. G. 1. 6, c. 13. 3 Ordericus, Lib. 1, c. 34. 

i Ibid, Lib. 3, c. 8. Lib. 7, c. 14. 

5 Ibid, Lib. 3, c. 3. Lib. 8, c. 7. See Gibbon, Chapter 56. 

c Ordericus, Lib. 5, cap. 12. Lib. 6, c. 4. Lib. 6, c. 4, and 8. 

Note on the name of Dretv. 175 

To return, however, to England ; in Doomsday, Drogo, the son of 
Ponz, is named as holding Seagry and other places, with half a 
messuage in Malmesbury. Drogo or Drugo de Buerer, a Fleming, 
married a niece of William the Conqueror ; he was the first Earl 
of Holderness, and is said to have built the Castle of Skipsea. In 
the following century, we find mention of another Drogo, the cham- 
berlain of the Empress Matilda, who was possibly the father of 
that " Drogo the Younger," from whom the Montacutes, four of 
whom were Earls of Salisbury, are said to have descended. Risdon, 
in his survey of Devon, "writing of Drew's Teignton, says expressly 
that in its name it " honours" that of " its ancient landlord Drogo 
de Teign, by time's continuance mollified into Drew. In the 
reign of Richard the First, Drogo granted one farthing of land to 
Parisius Arlecheston."' Collinson, speaking of Stanton Drew, says 
that at the time of Doomsday, and some time later, this place in 
great part belonged to a family who derived their name from it, 
among whom he instances Roger, William and Hugh de Stanton, 
and a Gefirey de Stanton, as late as the time of Henry the Third. 
One of this family, he says, bore the appellation of Drogo or Drew 
de Stanton, and gave the place his name, by way of distinction 
from other Stantons in the neighbourhood. The descendants of 
this family, as he states, were chiefly settled here and at Littleton 
Drew in Wiltshire. He goes on to say that, 12 Edward III., 
Walter Drew was certified to hold half a knight's fee in Stanton, 
which William de Stanton formerly held ; and that, 10 Henry IV., 
the same moiety, late the property of Roger Drew, was held by 
John de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury. Collinson adds that these 
Drews were closely allied to the Dinhams of Buckland and Corton.'^ 
Aubrey, in his collections for North Wilts, as we have shewn, (ante 
p, 168), has preserved a deed probably of the 12th century, to which 
" Walterus Drew dominus de Littlctone" is the principal party. 
We have had no opportunity of tracing the documentary evidence, 
on which the statements of Risdon, as regards Drew's Teignton, 
and those of Collinson, with respect to Stanton Drew, rest ; but 
the argument which derives the name of the places from that of the 

> "Survey of Devon," ed. 1811, p. 127. 
2 Collinson's "Somerset," vol. II., p. 432, 

176 Note on the name of Drew. 

persons seems neither satisfactory nor conclusive — the reverse indeed 
appears more probable. It would certainly be a curious circum- 
stance, if three places, in as many counties of the west of England, 
all remarkable for ancient British, and probably Druidical, remains, 
should each have been the property, in the 12th or 13th century, 
of persons or families of the name of Drew or Drogo, unless indeed 
they derived their names from the localities. 

That Drogo, the chamberlain of the Empress Matilda, had 
extensive possessions in the western counties, in great part probably 
derived from his illustrious mistress and her son Henry II., is well 
known. ^ It must also be admitted, that in one remarkable instance, 
a place derived its name from this very Drogo. In this case, 
however, the name took the form of Drown, a corruption evidently 
of the Latin Drogonis. A remarkable spring in a very romantic 
situation on the top of a hill, in the forest of Pewsham, about three 
miles from Chippenham, now called Lockswell, was given by Matilda 
and her son Henry to Drogo. "Ego," says the charter, "et Mater 
mea dedimus et concessimus Drogoni matris mese camerario." The 
spring hence came to be called "Fons Drogonis," and in the English 
of that time, Drownfont. We owe to Mr. Bowles the publication 
of the original documents, and the topographical enquiries 
by which this spot was identified, as well as the discovery that it 
very soon after, in the same reign, became the site of an Abbey, 
hence called Drownfont abbey, — "Abbatia de Drogonis Fonte." 
After three years, this abbey was removed to Stanley, but the 
water of the spring was so highly prized, that the monks had it 
conveyed in pipes to their new abode, about three miles distant. 

Mr. Bowles, in a note, appends the following enquiry from his 
friend, the celebrated Saxon scholar Dr. Ingram, late President of 
Trinity College, Oxon. "Is there not a romantic spot near Devizes 
called 'Drew's Pond?' Is this another 'Fons Drogonis?' I suppose 
he had more wells or ponds than one ; but there was only one 'fons 
Hoeer V " Mr. Bowles has not answered this not unnatural enquiry 
of his friend ; and it may not, perhaps, be superfluous to observe, 

1 Polwhele, "History of Cornwall," cited by W. L. Bowles, "History of 
Bremliill," pp. 87, 90, which see for the description and identification of 
Lockswell and Drownfont. 

Noie on the name of Drew. 177 

what perhaps nearly every inhabitant of Devizes could have told 
Mr. Bowles — that this well-known spot can claim no connection 
either with the druids, or with the favorite chamberlain of Matilda. 

The name of Thomas Drewe, occurs in a list preserved by Fuller, 
of the gentry of AViltshire in the twelfth year of Henry YI. (1433),* 
whether of the same family with that settled at Devizes, for at least 
two centuries from Henry VII. to the close of the reign of Charles 
II., is not clear. Robert Drew represented Devizes in several of 
the parliaments of Elizabeth and James the First ; and different 
members of this family are commemorated by monumental tablets 
in the old church at Westbury, and in those at Devizes of St. John 
and St. James', Southbroom.^ This family was possessed of the 
Southbroom estate, which they parted with about the year 1680. 
Drew's pond was included in this property, and indeed continued to 
be so down to its last change of ownership, about the year 1826. 
There are title-deeds, and other old documents, preserved in the 
office of the Town Clerk of Devizes, shewing that in the time of 
Henry the Seventh, this family bore the name of Trewe; among 
which is a lease from the Bishop of Salisbury to John Trewe, 
bearing date the twenty-fifth year of this reign. That this is not 
a mere clerical error is proved, by a deed of the 20th of November 
of the 25th Elizabeth, in which are found the names of "John 
Drcwc alias Trewe," and of " Robert Drewe alias Trewe his son 
and heir apparent."^ 

In the case of Drew's pond then, we have this name applied to 
a locality, almost in our own day, without any reference to Druids, 
and without any further significance than any other common name 
would have in the same connection. The name itself, in this in- 
stance, traced back as far as we can reach, teas not Drewe but Treice. 

1 " Worthies of England," ed. 1840, p. 339. 

2 See II. C. Hoiiro "Modern "Wilts, Westbury;" and Waylen "Chronicle of 
Devizes," 183!), pp. 292. 307. 313. 

3 There is a pedigree of this family of Drew in the " Visitation of 1623," and 
a eontimiation in flic possession of the family of the latcWilliam Ilughcs, Esq., 
of Devizes and Poulshot ; whose father, by marriage with a female descendant of 
the Dnws, (Elizabeth Marsh the daughter of Elizabeth Drew, of Laeock), became 
the rirpresentative of the Drew family, which seems to have become extinct, 
exei'id in the female iini!, by the death in 1728, of Robert Drew the younger, 
and in 1729, of Joseph Drew, both the sons of Robert Drew of Laeock. 

2 A 


DtnrEnt iif tlje JHanar nf Drniicat Ctrne. 

By Chaeles Edwaed Long, Estj. 

In connection with the Topography of Wiltshire, the descent of 
a property belonging to one of its oldest families, may not be, 
altogether, unworthy of notice. The manor of Draycot, otherwise 
Draycot Cei'ne, has, for four centuries, been the inheritance of the 
family of Long, yet how it came into their possession, whether from 
consanguinity to the last of the race who conferred upon it its 
agnomen, as has been hitherto, traditionally, supposed, or by the less 
distinguished process of purchase, remained, until a short time 
back, a matter of doubt. 

It will be my endeavour to trace its history in as succinct a way 
as is practicable with a due regard to intelligibility ; and the 
appended pedigree will serve to explain the case more clearly as 
regards the family of Cerne, while the nature of its transfer to the 
Longs, may be readily understood without the necessity of printing 
in extenso the record upon which the fact of its acquisition by them 
is founded. 

It appears from the Hundred Rolls, that, in the time of Henry 
the Third, the vill and advowson of Draycot were held of the king, 
in capite, by John de Venuz, and that he alienated the same to 
Henry de Cerne, sometimes spoken of as "Mayistcr Henricus de 
Cerne." On the decease of this Henry de Cerne it was held by 
his successor Philip de Cerne, and who appears to have been in 
possession in the thirty-ninth of Henry the Third, (1254-5). From 
this period, and until the decease of Richard de Cerne in the eighth 
of Henry the Sixth, (1429-30), it remained one of the possessions 
of that famil)^, and was held by the like tenure. By the inquisition 
taken in the ninth of Henry the Sixth, (1430-1), on the decease of 
Richard de Cerne, John Heryng was found to be his cousin 

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Descent of the Manor of Draycot Cernc. 179 

and heir, and the Estates, both in Dorset and in Wilts, de- 
volved to him. The line of his descent from a common ancestor 
with the deceased possessor, is given in both Inquisitions in a 
narrative form, though there is an omission of one descent, a mere 
clerical error, in the Wilts Inquisition, viz., the one in the sixteenth 
of Henry the Sixth, (1437-8). These pedigrees are curious, as 
exhibiting the accuracy with which genealogies must have been 
preserved at that period, for the relationship was, as will be seen, 
extremely remote, and yet, on reference to the several Inquisitions 
and other documents, the correctness in the recital of these descents 
is fiUly borne out. In the thirty-fourth of Henry the Sixth, 
(1455-6), John Heryng died, leaving his grandsons, John jde la 
Lynde and John Russell, his co-heirs, as appears from his Inqui- 
sition : but he did not die seized of Draycot, and, on further 
research, it is shown that, by a fine levied in the sixteenth of Henry 
the Sixth, (1437-8), he had conveyed his reversionary interest in 
the manor and advowson, expectant on the decease of Isabella, 
relict of Edward de Cerne, the father of Richard, to William 
Ryngeborne for life, to be held by the nominal paj'^ment of a rose 
at the feast of the nativity of John the Baptist, with remainder to 
John Longe, the son of Robert Longe, and in default of heirs of 
his body, to Richard Longe, brother of John, and the heirs of his 
body ; in default to Reginald Longe, another brother, and the heirs 
of his body; in default to Robert Longe, the father, and the heirs 
of his body, and failing these, to the right heirs of the before- 
mentioned John Heryng. At the date of this conveyance there 
was then living an elder brother of John Longe, viz., Henry 
Longe, who eventually succeeded his father, Robert, at Wraxhall, 
but, dying without issue, that property descended to his nephew 
Thomas, the eldest son of his next brother John. Thus the two 
properties of Wraxhall and Draycot became thence- forward united, 
and so remained, until their severance on the decease of Sir Walter 
Long in 1610. There was then some truth in the traditional tale 
recounted by Leland. — " Then succeeded him," viz., the supposed 

first possessor of Wraxhall, " Robert and Henry Then cam 

one Thomas Longo, descending of a younger brother, and could 


180 Descent of the Manor of Draycot Cerne. 

skille of the law," viz., Thomas, afterwards Sir Thomas, eldest son 
of John, the first owner of Draycot, " and had the inheritances of 
the aforesaid Longes." From John Longe then, this younger 
brother, the Draycot estate descended, through ten generations in 
the male line, to the late Mrs. Long Wellesley, and so to her son, 
Lord Wellesley, the present possessor. It will, therefore, be clear, 
from the foregoing statement, that there was no descent of Long 
from either Cerne or Ileryng, and, it may be observed, in further 
confirmation of this, that whenever the armorial bearings of the 
Longs of Wraxhall and Draycot are noted in the early MSS. at the 
British Museum and at the Herald's College, the quarterings are 
invariably confined to Popham and Seymour, and that there has 
never been any pretence, in any authentic document, to introduce 
any Coat of Cerne or Ileryng. The Coat of Philip de Cerne, as 
tricked in Glover's Ordinary at the College of Arms, f. 60, appears 
to have been, Quarterly Or and Gules a lion rampant within a 
bordure, all counter-changed. The shields on the monumental slab 
of Sir Edward de Cerne, still, with the effigies of himself and his 
second wife, existing in Draycot Church, were unfortunately torn 
away before the days of Aubrey, but the cutting of the stone for 
the insertion of the brass, proves plainly that the crest which 
surmounted the helmet was a demi-lion rampant. With regard to 
AVilliam Ryngeborne it might seem, at first sight, a question 
whether the interest he took under the above limitation, was 
beneficial or fiduciary. There can, however, be really very little doubt. 
His position was obviously that of a Trustee, to carry out some 
legal fiction, probably to represent the real purchaser Robert Longe 
the father, and we find him holding the office of Escheator for the 
Crown, for Wiltshire, on this Inquisition of Richard de Cerne, 
sixteenth of Henry the Sixth, (1437-8), the year in which the 
conveyance was executed. It is a somewhat remarkable coincidence 
that this William Ryngeborne and his family, appear, on another 
occasion, in connection with the Longs. 

One moiety of the manor of Barton Sacy in Hampshire, now 
called, in error, Barton Stacey, was held by these Ringebornes, 
while the other moiety devolved upon John Long by his marriage 

By Charles Edward Long, Esq. 181 

with the co-heiress of Wayte and Popham. It may be further 
remarked, that the grandfather of William Eingeborne had married 
the niece of William of Wykeham, whom tradition has handed 
down to us as the son of one John Long, and that the name 
existed anterior to Wykeham's time can be shown by the Placita 
de quo Warranto, where, in the ninth of Edward the First, (1280-1), 
a John Long was a juror in respect of a rent due to the Crown 
in Ludgcrshall. But this point would more properly form the 
subject of a separate communication. In the mean time, the name 
of the present contributor may, peradventure, induce a belief that 
he puts himself forward as a claimant to be of the undoubted blood 
and lineage of the knightly race of Wraxhall and Draycot. Bor- 
rowed plumage is not a creditable garment. A Wiltshire origin, 
family traditions, and the inference to be derived from scattered 
allusions, in early times, of friendship, if not of kindred, are all 
that would lead to such a conclusion. The male Hne of the Wraxhall 
and Draycot Longs, as far as direct evidence can show, is extinct. 
We may all believe, but none can prove, a descent from Hobert, — 
the recorded Rodolph of the race. Be this as it may, the real 
foundation of the fortunes of all our respective and wide-spreading 
branches was, most probably, laid in the substantial broad cloths 
of Wiltshire. Whether we were originally "Preux" adventurers 
from Normandy, or good old Saxon Longs, so called, seemingly, 
though not in truth, in the tongue of the Conqueror, from stature, 
is a matter of no great moment. 

In conclusion, I should desire to state that I am indebted to my 
friend, Thomas Bond, Esquire, of Tyneham, Dorset, and of the 
Inner Temple, during his researches respecting the family of 
Ileryng, for the discovery of the Final concord which has so clearly 
and satisfactorily established the true story of the acquisition of 
the Manor of Draycot by the family of Long. 


[continuation of paper on church bells.] 

From Vol. 11, p. 355. 

Mb nf i^t Cnntiti] nf WiWb, 


By the Rev. W. C. Lukis. 

Deanery of Avebury. 

[Omitted in List given in Vol. II., page 338.] 

All Cannings, 5, and 1 Priest's Bell. 

1. R. 6261 : in : im : od : on : na ii« * 

2. Thomas Andrews, WUliam Maslen, Churchwardens, 1771. TAR. 

3. H& an : no : do : mi : ni. 1626 A 

4. James Wells, Aldbonrn, "WUts, fecit 1806. Henery Hitchcock and 
"WUliam Hayward, Ch-wardens. 

5. Robert MareslenjWiUiam Stevens, Churchwardens, 1658. AW A PA 
Priest's Bell, dated 1629. 

Deanery of Pottern. 

[Omitted Vol. II., page 349.] 
Brouyhton Giffard, 2. 

1 & 2. Recast in 1850 by Llewellyn of Bristol, f 

Archdeaconry of Bristol. 

Deanery of Cricklade. 
Liddington, 5. 

1. 2. Robert Webb and Richard Haggard, Churchwardens. 1663. 

3. Robert Webb, Churchwarden, 1663. W A P A R A P. 

4. Giles Tombs and John Crips, Churchwardens. Robert Wells, Aldbourn, 
fecit 1786. 

5. John Brind and Edward Jeffries, Churchwardens. W. Taylor, fecit 

Swindon, 6. 

1. Peace and good neighbourhood. A A R. 1741. 

* Letters reversed. 
+ The former bells were inscribed thus : — 

1. William Harding, Nicholas Gore, Churchwardens, 1665. wA^A^A^A 


Bells of the County of Wilts. 183 

2. Prosperity to this Parish. A A R. 1741. 

3. Prosperity to the Church of England. A A B. 1741. 

4. Wm. Nichols, Vicar. A A R. 1741. 

5. Richard Wajrt and Wm. Ijawrence, Churchwardens. A A R. 1741. 

6. C. and G. Mears, founders, London, 1851. 
Wandhorough, 5, and a Priest's bell. 

1. John Fox and John Brind, C. W. John Corr 1750. 

2. Richard Herring, Chiu-chwarden. A A R A 1706. 

3. George Gooding, John Hayward, C. W. 1662. "W A P A made mee. 

4. "Willum Purdeu and Roger Purdeu A A A A Thomas Smith and 
Daniel "Wells, Churchwardens, 1664. 

5. George Gooding, John Hayward, Churchwardens, Anno Domini, 1662. 
William Purde A east mee in : the : year : of : our : Lord : 1662. 
Priest's bell. W. Lee and J. Avenell, C. Wardens. R. Wells, Aldboum, 

fecit 1783. 

Deanery of Malmsbury. 
Castle Comhe, 1, and a Priest's bell in Turret. 
I to the Church the living call 
And to the grave do summon all. T. A B. 1766. 
Chippenhatn, 8. 

1. Let us ring 

For the Church and King. A A R. 1734. 

2. Peace and good neighbourhood. A A R. 1734. 

3. Prosperity to this Town and Parish. A A R. 1 734. 

4. The gift of John Norris, Esq. A A R. 1734. 

5. These bells were aU cast by A. RudhaU of Gloster, 1734. 

6. Prosperity to the Church of England. A A R. 1734. 

7. Unity and Loyalty.* Saral. Martyn, Gent., BaylifFe, 1734. 

8. John Norris, Esq., and Anthony Guy, Gent., Churchwardens, 1734. 
Corsham, 6. 

1. Robert Neale and Anthony Guy, Gent., Churchwardens, 1757. T. B. F. 

2. 3. 4. Robert Neale and Anthony Guy, Gent., Churchwardens, 1758. 
T. B. F. 

5. William Hulbert and Harry Ovens, Ch-wardens. James Wells, Ald- 
boume, fecit 1820. 

Motto of the UorougU Seal. 

184 Bells of the County of Wilts. 

6. Robert Neale, Esq., and Anthony Guy, Gent., Chnrchwardens, Thos. 
Bilbie cast mee 1758. 

I to the church the living call 
And to the grave do summon all. 
Dray cot Cerne, 1. 

James Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit 1803. 
Garesden, 2. 


2. Richardus Modi* Armiger secundus mci conditor 1 586. 
Grittleton, 5. 

1. John Wilshire and Sai-gent, 1718. 

2. Anno Domini, 1627. 


4. No inscription. 

Kington St. 3Iichael, 6. f 

1. Prosperity to this Parish. 1726. 

2. Peace and good neighboiu-hood. 1726. 

3. Prosperity to the Church of England. 1726. 

4. William Harrington, Vicar. A. R. 1726. 

5. No inscription. 1726.| 

6. Jonathan Power and Robert Hewett, Chui'chwardens, 1726. 
Lnycoch, 6. 

1. Robert Wells, Aldbourne, Wilts, fecit 1792. 
■■2. James Wells, Aldbourne, Wilts, fecit 1813. 

John Awdry, Esq., James Edwards, Churchwardens. 
3. 5. Anno Domini 1628. 

4. Henry Goddard, Esq., and Edward Barton, Ch- wardens, 1852. Jefferies 
and Price, Bristol. 

6. Wm. Selfe, Churchwarden. R. Wells of Aldbourne, fecit 1770. 
Littleton Drew, 3. 


2. Al praise be to God. I. G. § 


• Moody. 
+ Of the former bells the first -was dated 1620, the second 1018, and the third was inscribed 

% Date in Gilt Figures. \ Inscription in black letter. 



51 Sarrnm nti Jvnitntoaij Ml near SenijeB, 

By Mr. Cunntngton, F.G.S. 

As tte progress of modern agriculture is rapidly sweeping away 
from our downs the barrows and other similar relics of the ancient 
inhabitants of the district, it becomes increasingly important that 
a faithful and minute account of all the discoveries made, should 
be permanently recorded. Happily our "Wiltshire Magazine" 
affords opportunities for the publication of such records. 

The barrow in question is situated near the brow of the hill, on 
the right hand side of the track leading to Calstone, and is about mid- 
way between the "Leipsic" plantation, and the large chalk quarry. 
It is on land in the occupation of Richard Coward, Esq., by whose 
kind permission and assistance it was opened. The elevation is 
very slight, not exceeding six inches, and the area ill defined, but 
extending over a space of about eighteen yards in diameter. This 
was all the external indication afforded of the interesting interment 
beneath ; and it is by no means surprising that it had hitherto escaped 
the notice of antiquaries. It is probable that at some former period 
the original mound was levelled. 

The excavation was commenced as near as possible to the centre, 
and on removing the turf, abundant evidence of the artificial con- 
dition of the subsoil was obtained. There were traces of the ashes of 
wood, and the peculiar mouldincss which is so often found in barrows. 
At from two to four feet a considerable quantity of ashes occurred, 
mixed with the bones of birds and other small animals, numerous 
shells of Ileliic nemoralis,^ a fragment of burned bone, a few bits of 

* Query. Were these snails used for food ? Although this species occurs 
abundantly among the brush-wood on the side of the hill, thoy are never found 
on the open down, and thoy must consequently have been brought to tliis spot. 

2 JJ 

186 Account of a Barrow on Ro^imdway Dorm. 

rude British pottery, and a flint flake. After the hole had heen dug 
to the depth of five feet, traces of vegetable mould and ashes ceased, 
and the challt was in such a pure condition, as at first to lead to the 
supposition that the bottom of the barrow had been reached. A 
few inches further, however, at about five and a half feet, a skeleton 
was found in a flexed position, with its head towards the north, and 
lying on its left side. The left arm was bent up, so that the hand 
was close to the face, the other arm and hand were placed across the 
bodj', and the knees bent upwards. The skeleton was deposited in 
an oblong oval cist of about five feet long, and two and a half feet 
wide, very smoothly hollowed out of the chalk. The depth of the 
barrow was somewhat remarkable ; from the surface of the turf to the 
bottom of the cist being rather more than six feet. At the distance of 
a few inches from the skull was a small flint arrow-head. An urn 
six inches in height was standing upright at the feet. This, although 
highly ornamented, must have been fashioned by hand previous to 
the introduction of the lathe. It contained nothing but loose chalk. 
Near the left hand, with the point towards the feet, lay a plain 
bronze dagger, ten inches long, without any ornament except that 
the surface is neatly bevelled oif towards the edge. It is somewhat 
curious that the portion by which it was attached to the handle 
has no rivet holes. When first found it was covered with a thin 
layer of a black pulverulent substance ; and there was a similar layer 
underneath it, doubtless the remains of the sheath. A small 
quantity of the same substance, extending for a short distance 
beyond it, seemed to represent the handle. In front of the breast, 
and between the bones of the left fore arm, lay an oblong piece of 
chlorite slate, an inch and a quarter wide, and four inches in length, 
nicely smoothed, and pierced with two holes at each end, the holes 
being neatly countersunk on both sides. Adhering to it was a 
small bronze pin much corroded. It was doubtless used for a 
brooch, or ornament for the breast. Similar plates have been found 
in other parts of Wiltshire. The late Mr. Fenton found one in a 
tumulus on Mere down which had two holes only. It is figured 
in " Hoare's Ancient Wiltshire," pi. ii, vol. I. Another, but 
much broader sjiecimen Avas found by the late Mr. Cunnington at 

By Mr. Cunnington, F.G.S. 187 

Sutton, (vide pi. xii " Hoare's Wiltshire.") lu a subsequent exami- 
nation of the rubbish which had been removed, another flint flake, 
and a fossil bivalve shell, aj^parently from the Green sand, was 
found. All the articles discovered on this occasion have been pre- 
sented to the Society by Mr. Coward. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. Thurnam for the following 
remarks on the bones found in this barrow. 

" The skull is that of an ancient Briton, an old man at least 
seventy, perhaps even eighty years of age. Many of the teeth have 
been lost during life, and of various others, including all the upper 
incisors, canines, and bicuspids, only the stumps remain, thus 
giving to the upper jaw a completely edentulous aspect. The 
crowns of the more perfect teeth in the lower jaw are very much 
ground down and hollowed out by the rough usage to which they 
have been subjected in the mastication of coarse, and perhaps half- 
cooked food. The nose has been somewhat abruptly prominent. 
The general form of the skull is a short oval, narrow in front and 
wide behind. The frontal sinuses are full, the brows have been 
prominent and overhanging. The forehead is somewhat receding, 
but elevated posteriorly, especially in the centre, giving a conical 
appearance to the front view of the skull. The middle (parietal) 
region of the cranium, is remarkable for disproi^ortionate width, 
and the posterior (occipital) for width and flatness, especially the 
latter. The peculiarity of form in this last respect is decidedly 
unusual. The occipital ridge, and other processes for muscular 
attachment are strongly marked. The thickest part of the parietals 
measure the third of an inch. The probable weight of the brain 
has been recovered by a process which consists in filling the skull 
with sand, and after making certain requisite deductions, comparing 
the weight with that of the healthy human brain. By this means 
the brain is ascertained to have weighed 55 (54.8) ounces ; this 
considerably exceeds, by nearly five ounces, the average weight of 
the adult brain in the modern European. The thigh bone measures 
twcnty-ono and a half inches in length, which may be taken as 
indicating a stature of not less than six feet. This is much greater 
than the probable stature of the ancient Britons in general, the 

2 ij2 

188 Account of a Barrow on Roundway Down. 

length of the thigh bones in their barrows seldom exceed eighteen 
or nineteen inches, which gives a probable stature of about five 
feet eight or five feet nine inches. The skull possesses all the 
characteristics of that of a man of great physical power, who through 
a long career in a rude and barbarous state of society had maintained 
a successful struggle with, and supremacy over the wild animals 
from which he obtained food and clothing. The bones of this 
cranium and skeleton are unusually dense and firm, retaining 
probably more of their animal matter than is usual in bones from 
ancient British tumuli. This no doubt arises from the considerable 
depth in the dry chalk of the cist in which the body had been 

In addition to Dr. Thurnam's remark that the skeleton gives 
evidence of a physical power which maintained supremacy over the 
wild animals, would not all the circimistances of the interment — 
the presence of the breast-plate, the dagger, and urn, together 
with the unusual size of the grave, lead us to the conclusion that 
this was the burial place of a person of considerable distinction 
amongst his rude cotemporaries? 


$\\nih nf B^iltejjiit. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 

A List of the Sheriffs of this County from 1 Henry II. (1154), 
to 25 Henry VI. (1446), when the Shrievalty ceased to be held ex 
officio by the Castellans of Old Sarum, is printed in Hatcher and 
Benson's " History of Salisbury," part II, p. 706. A stiU longer 
one, from 1 Henry II. to 4 Charles I. (1628), is to be found in 
" Puller's Worthies," vol. II, (8vo), under the head of "Wiltshire," 
and the same, with continuation down to 1821, was printed by the 
late Sir R. C. Hoare in a thin folio volume called " Repertorium 
WiLTONENSE,"^ of which work, however, only twenty-five copies 
were struck off for private distribution. In all these lists there is 
a frequent mis-spelling of names, and (the more modern portion of 
Sir E. C. Hoare's excepted) a total want of identification of the 
Sheriffs, by reference to family history, property, or residence. 
In the following list (though it by no means pretends to be free 

1 The title of this very scarce book is as follows. " IlErEETOEnjM Wiltox- 
ENSE," printed with a view to facilitate inquiry into the Topography and 
Biography of Wiltshire. Collected by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Baronet. Bath, 
Richard CruttweU, 1821." The contents of the volume are as follows: — 1. List 
of Cities and Boroughs in Wilts which send Representatives to the British 
House of Commons, with particulars of the respective returning officers, rights 
of election, &c. ; extracted from Beatson's Chronological Register. 2. Knights 
of the Shire from 26 Edward I. 3. Borough Members to 1821. 4. High Sheriffs 
from A.D. 1154 to 1821. 5. Wiltshire Gentry temp. Charles I. and II. (Ilarl. 
MS. 1057). 6. Ditto a.d. 1565 (Harl. MS. 1111). 7. A second list of ditto. 
8. Justices of the Peace a.d. 1667. 9. Wilts Gentry who contributed to the 
defence of the Country at the time of the Spanish Invasion a.d. 1588. 10. 
Knights of the Royal Oak, with value of their estates, a.d. 1660. 11. Names 
of personages who came in with William the Conqueror, whose families appear 
to have been connected with the County of Wilts, (v. Lcland. Collect. I. 208). 
12. Wilts' Nobility. Vi. Bishops.— I. Of Sherborne. II. Wilton and Sherborne. 
III. Sarum before the Reformation. IV. Sarum since the Reformation. 13, 
Nomina villarum, Edward II. (1308-9). 

190 Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 

from error), an attempt has been made not only to supply certain 
vacua, but to add to tbe historical value of the names, by annexing 
to each, so far as opportimity has permitted, a brief notice of the 
family or place with which the Sheriff was connected. 

The absence from the list, of the names of some of the principal 
County Families, especially in modern times, is accounted for by 
the circumstance that members of Parliament are exempt from 
serving the office. 

On the Office in general, and the difficulty of defining with pre- 
cision the exact year of each Shrievalty, one or two observations 
may be useful. 

The Saxon governor of the county was the Earl, (Comes). The 
Shire-reeve or Sheriff, is an officer of great antiquity, attributed 
by historians to Alfred. His Latin name was Vice-comes; not, as 
being subject to any other superior than the king, but as appointed 
by him to supply the place of the Earl (supplere vicem Domini) in 
such territory as had no Earl placed in them ; or if they had, these 
were still subject to the king's immediate jurisdiction. The effect 
of the first appointment of Shire-reeves upon the peace and morality 
of the kingdom, is gravely stated by Ingulphus, Abbot of Croyland, 
to have been such, that if a traveller left ever so large a sum of 
money in the fields or open roads over night, he would be certain 
to find it the following day ; even a month afterwards. If so, it is 
to be feared that the Sheriff's moral influence is now much less 
than it used to be. Before the 9 Edward II. (1315), Sheriffs were 
elected by the Freeholders at the County Courts, in the same way 
as Ejiights of the Shire were chosen down to the time of the 
Reform Act. In some counties (as at one time in Wilts), the 
office was hereditary. But popular elections growing tumultuous, 
they were put an end to in the year above-mentioned (9 Edward 
II.), by a statute which enacts that the Chancellor, Treasurer, and 
Judges are to meet on the Morrow of All Souls (" crastino ani- 
marum") in the exchequer chamber, and shall nominate Sheriffs. 
The day was afterwards altered to that which is observed at present, 
the Morrow of St. Martin, November 12th. The Crown selects 
one of the three nominated, who receives his appointment (until 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 191 

lately by Letters Patent, but now) by warrant, signed by the 
Clerk of the Privy Council. 

For a long time the appointments were very irregular, sometimes 
several being named within the same year, sometimes the same 
person continuing his office for several years, sometimes for term 
of life. Many acted by Deputies, whose names are in some lists 
mistaken for SheriflFs. Many of the Pipe Rolls are wanting, and 
the mandates are irregularly preserved. Perfect accuracy in the 
lists is therefore seldom to be expected. 

With respect to the time of year at which the Sheriff always 
entered upon office there is also some uncertainty. Madox (" Hist, 
of Exchequer," II, 174) says that " they were wont to account for 
the whole term they held their bailiwick, whether a quarter of a 
year, half a year, or a whole year. In process of time they 
generally accounted from Michaelmas to Michaelmas." In later 
reigns, the Sheriff has been usually considered to enter at the 
commencement of the old legal year, March 25th. It will therefore 
be borne in mind, that the actual year of a Shrievalty rarely, if 
ever, corresponds exactly either with the regnal year, or with the 
year of our Lord. Each person is Sheriff in two regnal years, and 
in two years of our Lord. In the case of James I., whose regnal 
year began March 24th, a Sheriff entering on office March 25th, 
would be for 364 days of the first, and for a single day of the 
second regnal year. Under the particular circumstances of Charles 
the First's death, the Sheriff of that time would be of three regnal 
years. Charles's regnal years dated from 27th March, so that the 
last Sheriff in his reign, entering on office 25th March, 1648, would 
for that and the following day be reckoned as of " 23 Charles ; " 
from 27th March, 1648, to 30th January, 1649, as of "24 Charles;" 
and from 31st January 1649, to 24th March following, as of "1 
Charles II." These examples will be sufficient to explain to the 
reader that a precise description of each separate shrievalty, as to 
regnal years, &c. could not have been given without much elaborate 
reckoning, and a wearisome repetiton of figures. 


Sheriff of WilUhire. 




William I. From 2oth December, 1066. 



Aiulphus the Sheriff. 

Mentioned in Domesday Book (Wyndliam, p. 433), 
as holding Tollard of the Crovra. 

Henry I. From 6th August, 1100. 



Edward of Salisbury " The Sheriff."^ 

Edward D'eureux held thii'ty-eight manors in "Wilts. 
"Wyndham's Domes. Bk., p. 219. 



Warin de Lisures or de Lisoriis. 

Sherifl" of Dorset, Somerset, and Wilts, (Gt. Pipe EoU). 
The counties being set to farm, "Warin accounts for the 
old farm and has acquittance. 

Henry II. From \Wi December, 1154. 



William, the late Sheriff, (qui fuit vicecomes). 
Great Pipe RoU. 



Patrick (D'eureux), (four years). 

Son of "Walter; and created 1st Earl of Salisbury by 
the Empress Maude. Slain by Guy de Lusignan, 
and buried in the church of St. Hilary in Poictou, 



Richard Clericus. Probably the Sheriff's Clerk. 



Milo de Dauntesey. Of Dauntsey, near Malmesbury. 

1 Edward of Salisbury was youngest son of "Walter Rosmar, called " le 
Heureux" or "the Fortunate," from having received at the Conquest enormous 
grants in "Wiltshire, including the Castle of Old Sarum. "W"alter's eldest son 
remained in Normandy. Edward having been born in England was selected 
by his father for the English inheritance, with the adopted name of Edward of 
Salisbury, and the hereditary office of Vicecomes. He was father of another 
"Walter of Salisbury, who founded Bradenstoke Abbey, and ancestor of Ela, 
Countess of Salisbury,who founded Lacock Abbey. He is commonly distinguish- 
ed as Edwardus Vicecomes or the Sheriff. "Wiltshire seems to have had no 
Comes or Earl at the time of the Domesday Survey. The official rents of the 
Sheriff were received in kind ; bacon-hogs, corn, honey, hens, cheeses, &c. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 






A. D. 









2,3,4i 1200-3 


Richard de Wilton or de "WiltesMre, (seventeen 

In 1168 the Sheriff accounts in the exchequer for 
seventeen murders in Wilts, for which variovis fines 
were paid, from £10 to 20s. In 20 H. II. (1174), 
Richard de Wilton was one of the king's chief Justices, 

Michael Belet and Robert Malde (Mauduit). 
Of Warminster, Fonthill, or Somerford Pai-va. 

Ditto, ditto, and Roger Fitz Renfr : or Reuf. 

Q. Fitz Reiufred (Ulverstone), or Fitz Ralph of 
Stratton, (AVilts. Fines. 10 Richard I.) 

Robert Mauduit. See above, a.d. 1181. 

Richard I. Fiwn 3rd Sejitember, 1189. 

Hugh Bardolf. 

History of Castle Comhe, p. 33. Adam, the Sheriff's 
clerk, mentioned Abb. Plac. Ric. I. 

William (D'Eureux), Earl of Sarum. 
Son of Patrick, 1156. 

Robert de Tregoz. 

Married Sibilla, the Heiress of Ewyas of Lydiard 
Ewyas, now Tregoz. 

William D'Eureux, Earl of Sarum. 

Same as 1190. Buiied at Bradenstoke 1196. 

Ditto and Thomas his son, (four years). 

Stephen de Turnham and Alexander de Ros. 

John. From 21th May, 1199. 

Stephen de Turnham and Wandragesil de Cour- 
Descended from Roger de Curocllc (Churchill) of 
Fisherton, (Domes. Book 403). 

William Longspec, Earl of Sarum. 

Natural son of Henry II. and Fair Rosamond. Marr. 
Ela, CountesH of Salisbury. Laid the fourth stone of 
Sulisburj' Catliedral. 

2 c 


Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 


A. D. 





























Eobert de Berneres, (three years). 

A Family of this uaine held Alton Bemers, now cor- 
rupted into Alton Barnes. 

WilHam Longspee, Earl of Sarmn, and John 
Bonet, (6 years). 
Sir John Bonet, Clerk, was one of the Earl's executors. 
(History of Lacock, 147.) 

William de Brewere. 

"William at the Heath," Lord of Torbay: married 
Beatrix de Vannes. (History of Castle Combe, p. 18, 
note). Constable of Denizes Castle, 8 Heni'y III. 
(See " WUts Mag. yoL I., p. 1G9, note 4. 

Robert his son. 

Nicholas de Vipont. 

William de Chanton. 

William Longspee, Earl of Sarum. 

From this time William, Earl of Sarum, held the 
Shrievalty for life. 

Henry Fitz-Alchi or Alet. 

Henry III. From 28th October, 1216. 

William, Earl of Sarum. 
Robert de Crevecoeur. 

Ditto and Sir Adam de Alta Ripa (Dantrj'), Kt. 
Sir Adam Dantry was one of the executors of the Earl 
of Salisbury. (Hist, of Lacock 147.) 

William, Earl of Sarum. 

Died 7th March, 1226. Bur. at New Sarum. (Hist, 
of Lacock, 138). His will (ditto 144). 

Robert de Hales. 

Mentioned as Sheriff, Wilts Fines, Phillipps, p. 12. 

Ela, Countess of Sarum. 

Heu'css of the family of D'Em'CUX, the first Earls of 

By the Rev. J. E. Jaehson. 



A. D, 

























Sarmn, and widow of William Longespee. Foundress 
of Lacock and Henton Charter house Abbeys. Born 
at Amesbury. Buried at Lacock 1261. She laid the 
fifth stone of Salisbury Cathedral. 

John Dacus (the Dane). 

For John the Dane see Hist, of Lacock, 183, and app. 
p. X. 

John de Monemue, Knt. (Monmouth). 

Of Steeple Langford. Son of John de Monmouth, 
Executor to King John, who married one of the co- 
heiresses of "Walrond of West Deane. This Sheriff 
was afterwards hanged for killing Adam de Gilbert a 
Chaplain at Wells. (Abb. Plac, p. 256). His estates 
went to St. Martyn and Ingham, who represented the 
two other heii-esses of Wabond. (Hist, of Alderbury). 

Ela, Countess of Sarum. 

John the Dane. 

Ditto and Robert de Phigenet. 

The Plugenets held AVhaddon, a Tj^thing of Alderbury. 
In 1307 Alan Ploukenet, Kt., was patron of West 
(Wilts Inst.) 


Robert de Haversham. 

Nicholas de Haversham. Of Barford St. Martin. 

Nicholas de Lusteshall. Now LushUl near Highworth. 

William deTynhide. NearEdington, now called Tinhead. 

Ditto and John his son and heir. 

John de Vernon. 

Of Horningsham. Founder of the Prioiy of St. 
Iladegund at Longleat. 

Ditto and Godfrey de Escudamore. 

Of Upttjn Scudamoro near Warminster. Married 
Maude, one of the aunts and coheiresses of John, last 
Lord Gilfard of Brymsficld, called " le Kych." Ap- 
pointed tH Henry HI. Conservator of the peace ior 
the County of Wilts. (Hoaro's Hist, of Warminster, 
p. 00.) He wore on his shield a cross pattee fitehy 
(Harl. MS. 5804, p. US.) 

2 c 2 


Shcri^s of Wiltshire. 































John cle Ycrnon. See 1253. 

Ralph Russell. 

Of Codford St. Mary [?]. (Heyts. 231). East Bedwyn 
(Norn. Vill.) 

Ralph de Aungers. John de Aungers. 

Of Little Langford, (Wilts Inst.), and of Alton 
Daungers. Mere 18. 

Ralph de Aungers. 

William de Duge and Stephen de Edworth, 
(live years). 

Robert de Vernon. Heyts. 47. 

John Benett. Plac. de quo "War. I, 807. 

Nicholas Luteshill. (Wilts Fines, p. 12). ] 

StejDhen de Edworth and Walter de Strichesley. 
Alderbiiry, p. 158. 

Edward I. From '20th November, 1272. 

Walter de Strichesley. 

(Hist, of Alderbury, p. 158.) In this year the abbess 
of Amesbury refused to let the Sheriff execute the 
kings' writ in Melksham and Beanacre. (History of 
Amesbury, 177). 

Hildebrand or Hildebert de London, (six j'^ears). 
(Hist, of Westbury, p. 74.) 

John de Wotton, (8 years). 

One of the Commissioners to perambulate Groveley 
Forest. (Hist, of Dunworth, 184). 

Richard de Combe. 

OfFittleton. [Amesb. 152. Wilts Inst. 1303]. 

Thomas de St. Omer, (five years). 

Of Britford, which was settled on him ia 1280 by his 
grandmother, Petronilla de Tony. 

By tJie Rev. J. E. Jackson. 



A. D. 



























Walter de Paveley, 

Of Westbiiry. (See Hist, of Westbury). 

John de Novo Burgo or Newburgh. 
[SoutK Damerham, p. 29]. 

John de Hertinger. (Wilts Fines, p. 8. 39). 

Henry de Cobham. 

Of Chisbiiry. [Norn. ViU.] Broad Hinton [ditto]. 
Binknoll and Langley Burrell [ditto]. Cliff Pypard, 
Froxfield, 1310. [W. I.] 

John de Gerberd. Of Odstock. 

Edward II. From 6th July, 1307. 

Andrew de Grimstead, Knt. 

West Grirastead, (Alderbviry p. 202). Patron of St. 
Nicholas, Wilton 1308. (Wilts Inst.) 

Alexander Cheverell, Knt. Of Little Cheverell. 

John St. Loe. 

Married Joan, heiress of Alex. Cheverell. [Hutehins's 
Dorset, I, 518]. Died 1314. 

William de Harden. 

Of Harden near Savcrnake. Knight of the Shire a.d. 
1307. The heiress of this family married Sir Robert 
de Bilkemore. 

Adam Walrand. 

Of Asserton in Wintcrbourn Stoke, B. and D. 31. 
Wilts Inst. 1305. Knight of the Shire a.d. 1314. 

Ditto and John Kingston, Knt. 
Of Sutton Parva. AVilts lust. 1312. 

John dc Holt, Knt. 

Of Holt near Bradford. Arms on his Seal, Threo 
lions rampant, 2 and 1 . 

Philip do la Beche. 

01' riackneston, [I'Ustub and Evorley, \i. 153]. Also 
Patron of Wottou Ryvcrs 1321, [VV. 1.] 


Shri'i^s of WUhhire. 


A. D. 















[In 9 Edwfird III. Sheiift's were no longer elected by the 
people, but were nominated by the Crown on the 3rd 

Walter de Risum. 

John de Tichbourn. 

Marr. Margaret, daughter of Sir Richard de Sifrewast 
of Chitterne. Hey ts. 170. 

Adam Walrand. See 5 Edward II. 

Adam Walrand. 

Edward III. From 25th January, 1327. 




Adam Walrand. See 5 and 17 Edward II. 

Philip de la Bcche. See 9 Edward II. 

John Mauduit. OfFouthillandWestbury. See 27 H. II. 

Ditto and William Randolph. Kt. of Shire a.d. 1327. 

John Tichbourn. 

John Mauduit. 

Gilbert de Berwick. 

Kt. of the Shire. Of Norrington (ChaUc 83). Luck- 
ington 1338 (W. I.) 

Reginald de Paveley. Kt. of the Shire. See 25 E. I. 

Peter Doygnel. 

Of Hiiish 1309. Yatesbiirv 1331 (W.I.) Kt. of the 
Shire 1338. 

Peter de Berwick. 

John Mauduit. 

See 3 Edward III. Probably the founder of Poulton 
Priory, Wilts. See vol. I, p. 136, note 3, and Hist, 
of Westbury, p. 4. 

Thomas de St. Maur and 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackmii. 



A. D. 































Robert Lokes. 

E. L. is claimed as an ancestor of the Locke family. 
See Gent. Mag. 1792, p. 799. 

Jolin Mauduit. See 3 Edward III. 

Jotn Roches. 

Sir John Roche of Bromham. One of his daughters 
and coheiresses married Walter Beauchamp; the other 
Nicholas Bayntun of Falstone. 

Ditto and Thomas St. Maur. See 1341. 

Robert Russell. 

Q. of Quedhampton, (Hist, of Castle Combe, 83), or 
Kellaways near Chippenham. 

No return. 

Thomas de la Ry ver. Of Wotton Ilyvers. 

John Everard. 

A family of this name at Salthorp in Wroughton, 
(Hist, of Castle Combe 83.) 

Thomas de Hungerford, (five years). 

Of Heytesbury. Purchaser of Failey-Moutfort, after- 
wards Farley-Hungerford, Co. Somerset. 

Henry Sturmy, (five years). 

Of Wolf Hall and Figheldean. Ranger of Savernake 
Forest. See his Seal, vol. II., p. 387. 

Walter de Haywood, (five years). 
Q. Heywood near Westbury. 

William de Worston (Wroughton). 
Of Clifl' Pypard 1381. (W. I.) 

Henry Sturmy. See 13G1. 

John Dauntesey, Knt. 

Of Dauiitscy. Died 1391 . Descended from the Shorift" 
of 9 Heury II. 

John Delamero, Knt. 

Of Steeple Laviiigton, Laugley liiUTell, Fiuhertoa 
Delamerc, Leigh Dclamore. 


Sheriffs of Wiltuhir 



A. D. 

































Hugli Cheyne. Q. of Barford St. Martin and Deptford. 
Richard II. From 22nd June, 1377. 

Peter de Cusaunce, Knt. 

Lord of Lackliam 1352, and of Hilmarton 1380 (W. I.) 

William de Worston. See 1372, 

[Sir Jolin Delamere, 

named as Sheriff this year, Heyts. 255]. 

Ralpli de Norton, Knt. 

Of Fisherton near Wyly, (W. I. 1381). Arms: Vert 
a lion rampant or. 

Laurence de St. Martin, Knt. 

Of Upton Lovell 1349, (W. I.), and Steeple Langford 
1348. (Hist, of Heyts. 191). Of Wardour, (Nom. 

Hugh Cheyne. See above 1376. 

Michael WoodhuU. 

Q. of Great Diu-nford. See Hist, of Amesbvuy, p. 127. 

Bernard Brocas, Knt. 

Patron of Barford St. Martins 1394. Wilts Inst. 

John Lancaster. 

John de Salisbury. 

Hugh Cheyne. See 50 Edward III. Kt. of Shire 1386. 

Richard Mawardyn. 

John Eoches. Of ToUard Royal. See 19 Edward III. 

Robert Dyneley. 

Patron of Fittelton 1385. "Wilts Inst. 

John Gawayne. 

Of East Hurdcot, Dimworth 99. Of Norrington, 
Chalk 84. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 







A. D. 















Richard Maward^'ii. 

Q. of Marden near Deyizes. See Hist, of Lacock, app, 
p. xxviii. 

John Moigne, Knt. 

Of Maddington. Mere 44. B. and D. 18. Of Alton 
1397. Wilts Inst. 

Thomas Bonham. 

Of Boniam in Stourton. Mere 89. Of Gt.Wishford 
1418. Wilts Inst. 

Richard Mawardyn. See 17 Eichard II. 

Henry IV. From ZQth Septemher, 1399. 

John Dauntesey, Knt. 

Died 1413. Son of the Sheriff of 48 Edward III. 
Arms,: Giiles, a lion rampant ar, pm-suing a Dragon 
retreating to the dexter, vert. 

William "Worston. 

John Gawayne. See 46 Edw. III., and 16 Rich. II. 

"William Cheyne. 

See 11 Richard II. Patron of Hilperton 1403. W.I. 

Walter Beauchamp. 

Of Bromham, mar. the coheiress of Roche, (H. of Down- 
ton, p. 5). Patron of Whaddon 1420. Bur. at Sarum. 

Walter Ilungerford, Knt. 

Of Farley Castle. Son of T. H. 30 Edward III. 

Ralph Greene. 

Son of Sir Henry Greene who married the heiress of 
Mauduit of Warminster, (Warm. p. 8). His monu- 
ment at Luffwick, Co. Northampton. 

Walter Beauchamp. See 4 Henry IV. 

Robert Corb(;tt, Knt. 

Patron of Tholweston 1402, (W. I.) Arms: Or, a 
raven proper. 

2 D 


Sheriff's of Wiltshire. 














William Clieyne, Knt. See 3 Henry IV. 

John Berkeley, Knt. 

Patron of West Grymstead 1339, 1418, (W.I.) 

Thomas Bonham. Same as 19 Richard II. 

Henry V. From 2\st of March, 1413. 

Elias Delamere, Knt. 

Of Fisherton Delamere. Anns : Gules, 2 lions passant 
gardant ar. Was at Agincourt. See 49 Edward III. 

Henry Thorpe. 

Q. of Newton Toney. Hist, of Amest. 184. 196. 

Thomas Calstone. 

Q. of Littlecote and Upton Lovell. Heyts. 191. 

Ilobert"*Andrewe, Esq. 

Patron of Bliinsdon St. Andrew 1417, (W. I.) 

William Finderne. 

Patron of Sutton Parva Chapel 1423, [W. I.] 

William Stiirmy, Jun. 

Of Wolf Hall. On his death his sister and heiress 
married Roger Seymour. Arins : Argent 3 demi-lions 

Thomas Ringwood. 

Lord of Loveraz Coulesfield 1428, [W. I.] 

William Darell, Esq. 

Of Littlecote, by man-iage with heiress of Thomas 
Calstone. Patron of Fitleton 1431, [W. I.] 

Henry VI. From Ut SeptemUr, 1422. 
William Durell. See year preceding. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 



A. D. 































Robert Shotesbrook, Knt. 

Patron of Lyiliard Tregoz 1430. Mentioned as a 
Feoflee of the Stoiirtou family 1435, [W. I.] 

William Finderne. See 5 Henry V. 

Walter Pauncefoot. 

Married a daughter of Joan [Hussey], Lady Hunger- 
ford, by her first husband John Whyton. 

John Stourton, Esq. 

Of Stourton; afterwards the first Baron Stourton, 
died 1462. 

William Darell, Esq. See 1 Henry VI. 

John Pawlet, Esq. 

Of Fisherton Delamere. Ancestor of the Dukes of 

John Bayntuu. Of Fallersdon. Hist, of Downton, p.7. 

David Cervington. 

Of Longford Castle [Cawden 27]. One of this name 
was patron of a chantry in North Wraxhall 1432. W.I. 

John Seymour. 

Of Wolf Hall. Son of Roger St. Maiir of Penhow, 
Co. Monmouth, by the heiress of Sturmy. 

Walter Strickland. 

John Stourton, Knt. 

Of Stourton ; same as 5 Henry VI. 

Stephen Popham, Knt. 

Patron of Fisherton Aucher. B. and D. 193. 

Edivard Ilungerford. 

Probably Edmund, 2ud son of Walter, Lord Hunger- 
ford. Theie was no Edward in the family at this period. 

William Bcaucliamp. 

Afterwards Lord St. Amand. Son of Walter: (See 8 
Henry I\^), and lirother of Kichard, Bishop of Sarum. 

John Stourton, Knt. Same as 12 Henry VI. 

2 D 2 


Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 







A. D. 






John Lisle, Knt. 

Arms: A fesse between 2 chevrons. Sir John Lisle 
is Dientioned as one of the Feoflees of Sir Stephen 
Popham, (B. and D. 193) ; and of John Skilling of 
Cholderton. (Amesb. 158). There were Lisles of Holt 
near Bradford in later times. 

Jolin St. Loe. 

See 3 Edward II. This John mnst have been of a 
younger house of St. Loe, the heiress of the elder 
having married Sir W. Botreaux. For St. Loe of 
Knighton in Broad Chalk, see Chalk 143. 

John Norris. 

Feoffee of the Earl of Warwick for "Wintcrslow 1458. 
[W.I.] In 1464 a family of this name were Patrons 
of Leigh Delamere. The anns of this Sheriff same as 
K'orris of Speke, Co. Lane, 

Richard Restwold. 

Arms: Argent 3 bends sable. 

Wniiam Beauchamp. See 15 Henry VI. 

John Bayntun. 

Of Falstone, and of Shaw near Melksham, [Hist, of 
Castle Combe, 219]. 

John Basket^ 

Q. of Lydiard MiUicent [see W.I. 1477]. Arms: a 
chevron erm. bet. 3 leopards heads. 

1 The following is from " FuUer's Worthies," vol. Ill, p. 351, (8vo.)— 
"John Basket, Esq. is memorable on this account, that a solemn dispensation 
granted unto him from the Court of Eome acquainteth us with the form of those 
instruments in that age not unworthy our perusal. ( Translation ). " Nicholas, 
by divine mercy, &c., Cardinal Priest of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem, to oiir 
beloved in Christ the worshipful John Basket, Esq. and Alice his wife, of the 
Diocese of Sarum, greeting in the Lord. The See Apostolic iiseth to grant the 
pious desires and just requests of petitioners, especially when the health of souls 
requireth courteous favour to be bestowed upon them. Whereas ye have humbly 
sued unto us that for the comfort of your souls we would vouchsafe to grant you 
license to chuse for yourselves a Confessor : we favorably yielding to your request, 
by the authority of our Lord the Pope, the charge of whose Primary we bear, 
and by his special command herein verbally delivered to us, do grant to your 
pious wish, so far as permission may be granted, to chuse for your Confessor a 
fit and discreet Priest, who as touching the sins which ye shall confess unto him, 
[except they be such for which the said See is to be consulted with], may, by 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 









A. D. 









33 1454-5 

William Restwold. 

William Stafford. 

Of the Dorsetshire family. Married Catharine Chedyok, 
coheiress of a moiety of the Pavely estate inWestbury 

William Beauchamp. See 21 Henry VI. 

John Norreys. See 19 Henry YI. 

Philip Baynard. 

Of Lackham : his ancestor having married the heiress 
of Bluet, c. 1349. 

John Seymour, Knt. Same as 10 Henry VI. 

John Nanfan. 

Feoflee of the Earl of Warmck for "Winterslow 1440, 
1458, and 1473. (W. I.) 

Edward Stradling. 

Of Dauntesey : his father having obtained the estate 
by marriage with Joan, dau. of Sir John Dauntesey, 
Sheriff a.d. 1400. Arms: Paly of 6 arg. and az.; on 
a bend gules 3 cinque-foils or, 

John Willoughby. 

Of Brooke Hall near Westbury, by marriage with 
the coheiress of Cheney. See vol. II, p. 183, note. 
Presented to Avon Chapel 1455. (W.I.) 

George Darell. 

Of Littlccotc, son of the Sheriff 6 H. VI. Died 1474. 

authority aforesaid, provide for you concerning the benefit of due absolution and 
wliolesome penance so long as ye live, so often as there shall be occasion. But 
if ye have made any foreign vows of Pilgrimage and Abstinence which ye cannot 
conveniently keep, [vows to the blessed Peter and Paul, and James, apostles, 
only excepted], the same Confessor may commute them for you in other works 
of piety. Given at Florence, under the Seal of the Office of the Primary, 3rd 
April, 13 Eugenius IV., [1440]." Why it sliould be harder and liigher to dispense 
witli vows made to St. James than to St. Julin [his brother and Ciirist's beloved 
disciple], some courtier of Rome must render the reason. 

"'J'Ik! posterity of tliis Master Basket in the next generation removed into 
Dorsetsliire, where they continue at this day in a worshipful condition at 


Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 


A. D. 































Reginald Stourton, Knt. 

Of Stoui-ton, youngest son of the Sheriff IG Henry VI. 

Henry Longe, Esq. 

Of South Wraxhall: eldest son of Robert Longe, M.P. 
for Wilts, and brother of John Longe, for whom 
Draycote was piu'chased by his father, see p. 179. 

Jolin Seymour, Esq. 

Of Wolf HaU. Son of the Sheriff of 29 Henry YI.— 
died vita patris. 

Hugh Pilkenliam or Pekentam. 

John Ferris, Esq. Of Blunsdon St. Andrews. 

Edward IY. From 4th 3Iarch, 1461. 

George DareU. Same as 33 Henry VI. 

Reginald Stourton, Knt. Same as 34 Henry VI. 

Roger Tocotes, Knt. 

Married Elizabeth (Braybrooke), wadow of William 
Beauchiimp, Lord St. Amand, of Bromham. Buried 
at Bromham. Executor to Margaret, Ladj^ Hungerford 
1476, (Heyts. 95). 

George Darell, Knt. Same as 1 Edward IV. 

Thomas Delamere. 

Q. of Aldermaston, Berks, who was engaged in a plot 
against Richard III. 

Christopher Wolsley. 

Richard Darell, Knt. 

George Darell, Knt. 

Same as 1 Edward IV. Was Sheriff" in December, 
1468-9, when Sir Thomas Hungerford and Henry 
Coiu'tenay were arrested for high treason at Sarum. 

Laurence Raynsford, Knt. 

Married the Lady Ann (Percy), widow of Sir Thomas 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 





A. D. 
























Hungerford of Rowdon, who was beheaded at Sarum 
in 1469. 

Eoger Tocotes, Knt. See 4 Edward IV. 

Maurice Berkeley, Knt. 

The Berkeleys of Beverstone were connected with 
Mere by marriage with the heiress of John Bettisthorne. 
Berkeley of Uley had the Manor of Milston. 

John Willougliby, Knt. See 32 Henry VI. 

William ColHngboume. 

Aubrey connects this name with Bradiield in the 
Parish of HuUavington, and believed a Collingboiirne 
of Bradfield to have been the William CoUingbourne 
who lost his head for writing the satirical lines on 
R. III., " The Rat, the Cat, and Lovell the Dog, &c." 

Henry Longe, Esq. Same as 35 Henry VI. 

"Walter Bonham, Esq. 

Descended from Sheriff 12 Henry IV. 

Edward Hartgill, Esq. 

M.P. for New Sarum. This name is memorable for 
the murder committed in 1556 by Charles Lord Stour- 
ton, at Kilmington near Mere. (Mere 153). 

John Mompesson. 

Of Bathampton Wyly. See Pedigree, Heyts. 219. 

Walter Hungerford. 

Of Farley Castle. Second son of Robert Lord Hunger- 
ford and Molincs, and brother of Sir Thomas H. who 
was beheaded at Sarum 1469. This Walter H. turned 
against Richard III. at Bosworth. 

Charles Bulkeley. 

William CoUingbourne, Esq. Sec 14 Edward IV. 

John Mompesson, Esq. Same as 18 Edwai-d IV. 


Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 



































Richard III. From 2Gth June, 1483. 

Henry Longe, Esq. Same as 15 Ed^vard IV. 

Edward Hartgill, Esq. See 17 Edward IV. 

Jolin Musgrave. 

Roger Tocotes, Kiit. See 4 Edward IV. 

Henry VII. From 22nd August, 1485. 

Roger Tocotes, Knt. See 4 Edward IV. 

Jolin Wroughton, Esq. Of Broad Hiuton. 

John Turberville, Knt. 

Probably of Bere Regis, Dorset, (Hutcli. I, 42), whose 
mother was heiress of Thomas Bonham, Co. Wilts. 
Anns: Ermine a lion ramp, giiles crowned or. The 
name often shortened to Tiirville. 

Thomas Yinour. 

This name at Stanton St. Bernard 1565. 

Edward Darell, Kut. 

Of Littlecote, son of the Sheriff of 9 Edward IV. 

Constantius Darell. 

John Lye. 

Of Flamstone in Bishopstone. (Downton, p. 4). 

John Yorke. Of Helthrop near Ramsbury ? 

Edward DareU, Knt. See 5 Henry VII. 

Richard Puddesey, Esq. 

Constantius Darell. See 6 Henry VII. 

George Chaderton, Esq. 

This name is found at Norton near Malmsbury 1535, 
Bradfield in Hullavington 1575, Oaksey ditto, Draycot 
Folliot 1568. Edmund Chaderton had all the pos- 
sessions of WOliam Collingboiirne. (See 14 Edward 
IV). Harl. MS. 433, art. 1223. 

By the Ror. J. E. J(trho)!. 



A. D. 































Edward Darell, Knt. See 9 Henry VII. 

George Sejinour, Knt. 

Yoimgei- brother of the SherLft" 23 Henry VII. Uncle 
to the Protector Somerset. 

John Huddlestone, Knt. 

Tatron of Codford St. Mary 1495, 1507; of Steeple 
Langford 1509, 1513, (W.I.) See B. and D. 181. 

Thomas Longe, Esq. 

Ts'^ephew of Sheriff 1 Eichard III. Of South Wraxhall 
and Draycote. Men. to him in Draycote Church. 

John Yorke, Esq. See 8 Henry VII. 

"William Caleway, Esq. 

Of Titherton Kellaways near Chippenham ; of Whelpley 
(Alderbury) ; of Bapton, (Chalk 84) ; of Rockbourne 
Co. Hants. 

John Danvers, Knt. Of Dauntesey. 

John Ernie, Esq. Of Witham. 

John Gawayne, Esq. 

Of Norrington, (Chalk 85), See 16 Eichard IT. 

Thomas Longe, Knt. Same as 16 Henry VII. 

John Seymour, Knt. 

Of Wolf Hall. Elder brother of Sheriff 14 Henry VII. 
Father of the Protector. Died 1 536. Buried at Easton 
Priory; removed to Great Bedwyn 1590. 

John Mompesson, Esq. Grandson of Sheriff 18 E. IV. 

Henry VIII. From 22nd April, 1509. 

Edward Darell, Knt. Same as 13 Henry VII. 

Walter Tlungerford, Knt. 

Same an 19 Edward IV. Buried at Heytcsbury 151G. 

Henry Longe, Esq. 

Of South WraxhuU and Draycote. Son of the Sheriff 
<.f 1507. 

2 K 


Sheriffs of WiUshire. 





























Christopher "Wroughton, Knt. 

Of Broad Hinton. Son of the Sheriff of 2 Henry VII. 

John Danvers, Knt. 

The first of this family at Danntsey. Married Joan 
the heiress of the Stradlings. Died loH. Buried in 
Dauntsey Church. 

William Bonham, Esq. 

Of Bonham, at Stourton and Great "Wishford. (B. and 
D. 45). (W.I. 1518). 

John Scrope, Knt. 

Of Castle Combe and Oxendon. Son of Stephen Scrope 
of Bentley, Co. York, and Castle Combe. Died 1516. 

Nicholas Wadham, Knt. 

Of Merefield near Ilminster ; grandfatlier of the 
founder of "Wadham Coll., Oxon, (Chalk 93). 

Edward Hungerford, Knt. 

Son of the Sheriff of 2 Henry VIII. Buried at Heytes- 
bury 1521. 

John Seymour, Knt. Same as 23 Henry VII. 

Edward Darell, Knt. 

Of Littlecote. Same as 1 Henry VIII. or his son. 

John Skilling, Esq. 

Of Lainston, Co. Hants ; and Draycot Folliot, (Wilts 
Visitation 1623). A family also of Cholderton 1380, 
1401, (W.I.) Of Rolston 1565. Nicholas Skilling 
Knight of the Shire 1361. 

John Erneley, Esq. 

Of Burton. Son of Chief Justice Ernie ? Patron of 
Yatesbury 1522, (W.I.) 

Edward Bayntun, Knt. 

Of Bromham ; to which his father, John B. succeeded 
in 1508 as heir to Lord St. Amand. Died 1544. 

Thomas Yorke, Esq. See 8 Henry VII. 

John Seymour, Knt. 

Same as 10 Henry VIII., and 23 Henry VII. 

Bt/ the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 



























Henry Longe, Esq. Same as 3 Henry VIII. 

John Bourctier, Knt. 

Probably eldest son of the 3rd Baron Fitzwarine, and 
husband of Isabella Hungerford, sister of the Sheriff 
of 9 Henry VIII. 

Anthony Hungerford, Knt. 

Of Down Amney. BuUder of the large Gatehouse 
there. Commissioner in 1552 for the seizure of Church 
Goods. See also 1538 and 1557. 

John Erneley, Esq. See 13 Henry VIII. 

John Horsey, Esq. 

Of Martin, Co. Wilts, a branch of Horsey, Co, Somer- 
set and Dorset, (Chalk 56). 

Thomas Yorke, Esq. See 15 Henry VIII. 

Thomas Bonham, Esq. 

Of Great "Wishford. See 6 Henry VIII. Perhaps of 
Haselbury House, Box. See vol. I, p. 144. 

John Ernley, Esq. Of Cannings. See 20 Hen. VIII. 

Walter Hungerford, Knt. 

Of Farley Castle. Son of the Sheriff 9 Heni-y VIII. 
AfteiTvards Lord Hungerford of Hey tesbury : beheaded 

Robert Baynard, Esq. 

Of Lackham: great grandson of the Sheriff of 28 
Henry VI. 

Thomas Yorke, Esq. See 22 Henry VIII. 

Henry Longe, Knt. Same as 17 Henry VIII. 

John Bruges or Bridges, Knt. 

Eldest son of Sir Giles Bruges of Coberley, Co. Glouc. 
Patron of Blunsdon St. Andi-cws 1546. Afterwards 
Ist Baron Chandos of Sudeley 1554. 

Anthony Hungerford, Knt. Same as 19 Henry VIII. 

John Erneley, Esq. Of Cannings. See 24 Henry VIII. 



S/uriff's of WilMire. 



A. D. 

























Edward Mompesson, Esq. 

Son of the SheriiF of 24 Hem-y Y II. 

Henry Longe, Knt. Same as IT Henry VIII. 

John Mervyn, Esq. Of Fonthill Giflard (Dnnworth 20). 

Jolin Erneley, Esq. 

Of Cannings. See 31 Henry VIII. Patron of Yates- 
bixry 1545, (W.I.) 

Robert Hungerford, Esq. 

Of Cadenham. Married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
Henry Long of Draycote. Buiied at BremhUl 1558. 

Charles Biilkeley, Esq. 

Richard Scrope, Esq. 

Of Castle Combe. Son of the Sheriff of 7 Henry VIII. 
Died 1572. 

Edward VI. From 28th January, 1547. 

Richard Scrope, Esq. 

Silvester Dauvers, Esq. 

Of Dauntscy. Grandson of the Sheriff of 5 Henry 
VIII. Died 1552. 

Ambrose Daimtesey, Esq. Of West Lavington. 

John Bonham, Esq. 

See 23 Henry VIII. According to this list, Mr. Bon- 
ham woidd be Sheriff from 25th March, 1549, to 24th 
March, 1550. But in the History of Dunworth, p. 3, 
a wi'it signed by him as Sheriff is dated 13th August, 
1550. Presented to Box 1550. 

John Mervyn, Esq. Same as 34 Henry VIII. 

James Stumpe, Knt. 

Of Charlton. Son of WUliara Stumpe the rich clothier 
who purchased ]\Ialmsbury Abbey at the Dissolution. 
Sii' James's daughter aud heir married Su- Henry 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 







A. D. 


6 to 17 






"William Slierington, Knt. 

Of Lacock Abbey, which he purchased at the Disso- 

1553 Edward Bayriard, Esq. 

Of Lackham. Son of the Sheriff of 26 Heniy VIII. 


Edward Baynard. 

In the Rolls Chapel Office is a signed Bill of the Lady 
Jane Grey, for the Patent ajipoiuting Edward Baynard 
(of Lackham), Sheriff of Wilts, in the place of Sir W. 
Sherington, signed, "JANE THE OUENE," without 
date : to which is prefixed a ^vait relating to the ap- 
pointment of the same Sheriff, signed, " MARY THE 
QUENE," dated at Framliugham, 6th Jidy, 1553, 
the first day of her reign. 

[7th Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Records, 

p. 9, 1845]. 

Mary. From 6th July, 1553. 

Edward Baynard. 

John Erneley, Esq. Of Cannings. See 35 Hen. VIII. 

Philip and Mauy. From 25th July, Ib^'^: 

the day of their marriage. 

Henry Hungerford, Esq. 

Q. of Latton. Son of Sir Anthony of Do'mi Amney. 

John St. John, Esq. Of Lydiard Tregoz. 

Anthony Hungerford, Knt. 

Same as 30 Henry VIII. The Sheriff who refused to 
burn Hunt and White at Salisbury: (see Fox's Acts 
and Mon.) : and wlio officially attended the execution 
of Lord Stourton, Marcli, 1556-7. 

Walter Hungerford, Esq. 

Sir Walter of Farley Castlo ; son of Loi-d Hungerford 
of Ileytesbury. (Sheriff 25 Henry VIII.) Buried at 
Farley 1590. 

Henry Brounckcr, Esq. Of Melksham. 


Sheri^'s of Wiltshire. 




A. D. 







Elizabeth. From nth November, 1558. 







John Zouche, Knt. 

Of Calstonc near Calne ; (of which Hundred the Zouchcs 
were Lords temp. Edward II.) Puichased the manor 
of Ansty, (Dunworth 62). 

James Stumpe, Knt. Same as 5 Edward VI. 

John Mervyn, Eoit. 

Same as 4 Edward VI. Of Pertwood and ronthiU. 

George Penruddock, Esq. 

Son of Edward Penruddock of Arkleby, Co. Cumb, 
Afterwards Knighted. Of Ivy Chm-ch, Laverstock, 
and Compton Chamberlain. His picture at Compton. 

John Emeley, Esq. 

See 1 Mary. No Michajlmas Term being kept at 
Westminster, on account of a Plague, the queen for 
this turn appoints the Sheriff of her own authority. 

Thomas Button, Esq. 

Probably of the family at Alton Priors : but the name 
of Thomas, of this date, is not in the Pedigree, Wilts 
Visit. 1623. Arms: Erm., fess gules. 

John Eyre, Esq. Of Great Chalfield. 

Nicholas Snell, Esq. 

Of Kington St. Michael : where his father, Richard 
Snell, pm'chased the estate formerly belonging to 
Glastonbuiy Abbey, to whom this family had been 
Reeves for many years. N.S. was M.P. for Chippen- 
ham, for the County, and for Malmsbury. Buried at 
Kington 1577. He also held the Manor of Chesinbiuy. 
(Amesb. 170). Presented to Yatton Keynell 1560. 

Henry Sherington, Esq. 

Of Lacock Abbey. Brother of the Sheriff of 6 Edward 
VI. Died without issue male. 

George Ludlow, Esq. Of Hill Deverill. 

John Thynne, Esq. 

Sir John, the Secretary to the Protector Somerset, the 
purchaser of Longlcat Priory, and builder of Longleat 
House. Died 1580. 

William Button, Esq. 

Of Alton Priors and Stowell. 

See 6 Elizabeth. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jack 




A. D. 




















1582 ' 

Edward Bayntun, Esq. 

Sir Edward of Rowdon. Second son of the Sheriff of 
14 Henry VIII., and M.P. for Co. Wilts. 

John St. John, Esq. 

Of Lydiard Tregoz. Same as 2 Philip and Mary. 

Walter Hungerford, Knt. Same as 4 & 5 P. and M. 

John Danvers, Knt. 

Of Daiintsey. Son of the Sheriff of 1 Edward VI. 
Had Danby, Co. York, in right of his wife Elizabeth 
Nevill, daughter of Lord Latimer. Bur. at Dauntsev 
1594. ^ 

Robert Long, Esq. 

Sir R. L. of Wraxhall and Draycote. Son of Sir 
Henry, Sheriff 33 Hem-y VIII. Died 1581. 

Thomas Wroughton, Knt. 

Of Broad Hinton. Married Anne, coheiress of John 
Barwick of Wilcot. Died 1597. 

John Hungerford, Knt. 

Of Down Amney. Son of the Sheriff of a.d. 1556. 

Henry Knyvett, Knt. 

Of Charlton: (see 5 Edward VI.) His daughter and 
heiress married the Earl of Suffolk. His monument 
in Charlton Church. 

Nicholas St. John, Esq. 

Of Lydiard Tregoz. Son of the Sheriff of 14 Elizabeth. 

Michael Erneley. 

Of Burton, in Cannings and Whetham. Son of the 
Sheriff of 5 Elizabeth. 

"William Brouncker, Esq. 

Of Melksham. Son of the Sheriff of 1558. Patron of 
Great Chcvcrcll 1582. 

Walter Hungerford, Esq. Same as 15 Elizabeth. 

Jasper Moore, Esq. 

Of Iloytesbury, (the manor liaving been forfeited by 
the Ilungerfords temp. Henry VI II.) The Moores 
were from the Priory, Tauutou, (Heyts. 118). 


Shcrifs of Wi/fs/iirc. 



































Jolm Snell, Esq. 

Of Kington St. Miclitel. Son of Nicholas S., Sheriff 
8 Elizabeth, 

John Danvers, Knt. Same as 16 Elizabeth. 

Edward Ludlow, Esq. Of Hill Devcrill. Sec 10 Eliz. 

Ricliard Moody, Esq. 

Of Garsden near IMalmsbury. Also of Foxley. 

Walter Hungerford, Knt. Same as 24 Elizabeth. 

Henry Willouo^liby, Esq. 

Of Knoyle Odierne or West Knoyle. 

John Warneford, Esq. 

Of Sevenhampton near Highworth. 

William Eyre, Esq. 

Of Great Chalfield. Son of the Sheriff 7 Elizabeth. 

John Hnngerford, Knt. Same as 19 Elizabeth. 

John Thynne, Esq. Son of the Sheriff of 1 1 Elizabeth. 

John Hungerford, Esq. 

Of Stoke near Great BedwjTi. Grandson of Sir Jolm 
34 Elizabeth. 

Henry Sadler, Knt. 

Of Everley. Third son of Sir Raliih Sadler, the pur- 
chaser of that estate. 

John Dauntesey, Esq. Of West Lavington. 

James Mervyn, Knt. 

Of Fonthill. Son of the Sheriff of 3 Elizabeth. 

Edward Penruddock, Esq. 

Of Compton Chamberlain. Son of Sir George, Sheriff 
4 Elizabeth. Afterwards Knighted. His portrait at 
Compton, where he built the present house. 

Walter Vaughan, Esq. 

Of Falstono, wliicli his father Thos. V. had purchased. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 











A. D. 

1699 I Thomas SneU, Esq. 

^nh™erm- o Jtr^f \f ^T*°° ^*- ^^'^^^- Son 









Henry Bayntim, Knt. 

?3lS'eth"- ^•^- ^- ^^-es. Son of the Sheriff 

Sir Walter Long, Knt. 

o? fo-7f ^Tn " and Draycote. Son of the Sheriff 
SnJ I W "^ "l^^"' ^'■°^'^^^ °^ Henry Long who wS 
shot by Henry Danvers in 1594. (See vol. I./ SooJ. 

Sir Jasper Moore. 

Of Heytesbury. Same as 25 Elizabeth. 

James I. From 24(h March, 1603. 
Sir Jasper Moore. 
Sir Alexander Tutt, Knt 

John Hungerford, Esq. 

Of Cadenham, or of Stoke near Great Bedwyn. 

Gabriel Pile, Esq. Buried at Collingbonrne Kingston. 

Sir Thomas Thynne, Knt. 

Of Longleat. Son of the Sheriff of 35 Elizabeth. 

Richard Goddard, Esq. Of Standen Hussey. 
John Ayliffe, Esq. Of Brinkworth and Grittenham. 
Sir Giles Wroughton, Knt. 

Sheets Sb'th.'""^'^ '"'^ °' ''' ^^--^^•. 

Sir William Button, Knt. 

Of Alton Priors and Tockcuham in Lynoham His 
house was plundered by the Parliamenfary forces in 
1044. Buried at North Wraxludl i,i U;:,u 



Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 































Francis Popham, Esq. 

Of Littlecote. Son of Sir John, tlie purcliaser of that 
estate. See 12 Elizabeth. 

Sir WUKam Pawlett, Knt. 

Of Edington. Eldest natural son of "William, third 
Marquis of Winchester. 

Henry Mervyn, Esq. Of Pertwood. Sec 3 Elizabeth. 

Thomas Moore, Esq. 

Of Heji;esbury. Nephew and heir of Sir Jasper Moore, 
1 James I. 

Sir Richard Grobham, Knt. 

Of Great "Wishford, Berwick St. Leonard, and Nettle- 
ton. See plate of his moniiment, History of Branch 
and Dole, p. 49. 

Sir John Horton, Knt. 

Of Iford, Westwood, and Chalfield. 

Sir Henry Moody, Knt. Of Garsden. Baronet 1621. 

Sir Henry Poole, Knt. Of Oaksey. 

Sir Charles Pleydell, Knt. 

Of MidgehaU, near Lydiard Tregoz. 

William Pawlett, Esq. 

Eldest son of Sir William, 1 1 James I. , 

Sir John Lambe, Knt. 

Of Coulston. See Pedigree by Rev. E. Wilton, supr^ 
p. 104. 

Giffard Long, Esq. 

Of Rood Ashton. Son of Edward Long of Monkton, 
a younger branch of Long of Whaddon. 

Edward Reade, Esq. Of Corsham. 

[The 23rd of James woxild be only three days ; from the 
24th to the 27th of March. The new Sheritt' would enter 
on the 2oth]. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 



A. D. 








Charles I. From 21th March, 1625. 

[All the Slieriifs of Charles the First were chosen a few 
days before the Regnal year began]. 

Sir Francis Seymour, Knt. 

Great grandson of the Protector Somerset : afterwards 
Baron Seymour of Trowbridge. 

Sir Griles Estcourt, Knt. OfNewnton. Baronet 1626. 

Walter Longe, Esq.i OfWhaddon. Baronet 1661. 

John Duckett, Esq. Of Hartham near Corsham. 

Sir Robert Baynard, Knt. 

Of Lackham, Son of the Sheriff 1 Mary. 

John Topp, Esq. 

Of Stockton. Believed to have been the builder 
Stockton house. [Heyts, 242]. 


Sir Edward Hungerford, K.B. 

Of Corsham and Farley Castle. The Commander of 
the Parliamentary Forces in Wilts; against whom 
Wardour Castle was defended by Lady Arundel. 

Sir John St. John, Knt. 

Of Lydiard Tregoz. The second Baronet. 
Oliver St. John, Esq. 

Son of 

1 Walter Longe was one of those members of the House of Commons, who, in 
the third Parliament of Charles I., for "undutiful carriage" on the question of 
Tonnage and Poundage, were committed to the Tower. All refused to find 
sureties except Walter Longe, who was bailed, but afterwai'ds desii'ed like the 
rest to be discharged from any recognizance, and so was committed to the King's 

In Hilary Term the same year, 1628, an information of perjury and neglect 
of his office was exhibited in the Star Chamber against Longe, for that he, being 
Sheriff of Wilts, procured himself to be elected a Burgess for Bath in Somerset, 
whereas there was a clause in the writ that no SherilF should be elected. He 
confessed himself to be Sheriff; had taken the oath ; was elected and attended 
Parliament: tliat he had written two letters, unto two friends in Bath, and 
conferred with iive otliers ; but does not admit having laboured liis election or 
against it. His Counsel argued that the writ did not forbid. But Longe was 
fined 2, ()()() marks, to be imprisoned at the pleasure of the kiug in the Tower, 
and to make his Hubniission to the king with acknowledgement of liis oflencc. 

Autobiography of Sir Jolin Bram.stou, p, 60. 

2 k2 


Sheriffs of WiUshirc. 


A. D. 

























Sir Henry Ludlow, Knt. 

Of Maiden Bradley. Son of the Sheriff 28 Elizahctli. 

Francis Goddard, Esq. 
Of Stauden Hussey a 
the Shipmoney in Co-Wilts. 

Sir George A^^iffe, Knt. Of Foxley and Grittenham 

Of Stauden Hussej' and Cliff Pypard. Collector of 
■' -^^ ■ ■ Co. 

Sir Nevil Poole, Knt. 

Of Oaksey. An Officer for the Parliament ; defended 
Marlborough. (See Waylen's Marlborough, p. 157). 

Sir Edward Bayntun, Knt. 

Of Bromham. Son of the Sheriff 43 Elizabeth. 

Jolin Grubbe, Esq. Of Potterne and Cherhill. 

John Duke, Esq. 

Of Lake. Narrowly escaped execution after the 
Penruddocke rising, (see Amesb. 138). 

Giles Eyre, Esq. 

Of Brickworth. 2nd son of Thomas Eyre of New Sarum. 

Robert Cbivers, Esq. 

Of Cable, Quemerford, and Leigh Delamere. 
" Chivers, a great clothier at Quemerford near Calne, 
where the rack doth yet remain, (1680) ; left an estate 
of at least £1,000 a year. They say they are derived 
from Chivers of the Mount in Ireland, whose coat 
they give." (Aubrey's MSS.) (Argent a chevron 
engrailed gules). 

Sir George Vaugban, Knt. 

Of Fallersdon. Died fi'om the blow of a poleaxe at 
the battle of Lansdown. 

Sir Jobn Penruddock. 

Of Compton Chamberlayne. Son of the Sheriff of 
1599, and father of Col. John Penruddock. 

Sir James Long, Bart. (By the King). 

Of Draycote. Col. of horse for the Crown. Aubrey's 
friend and patron. "Tarn Marti q^uam Mercui-io," 
(Natural History of Wilts, p. 33.) 

1 Fuller gives no names for the four years from 1643, but accounts for the 
blank by the Civil War. " Ingratuni bello debemus inane." 

Bi/ the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 




A. D. 
























Edmund Ludlow. (By the Parliament) . 

Of Hill Devciill. The Parliamentary General. Son 
of Sir Henry, see 1633. 

Alexander Thistlethwaite, Esq. (By the Parlia- 
Of Winterslow. A Parliament man : taken prisoner 
at Marlborough. (Waylen's Marlborough, p. 232). 

Sir Henry Chalk. (? Choke). (By the King). 

Six Anthony Ashley Cooper, Bart. (By the 
Parliament) . Afterwards first Earl of Shaftesbury. 

Edward Tooker, Esq. 

Of Maddington. See pedigree B. and D. 37. 

Charles II. From ZQth January, 1G48-9. 

William Calley, Esq. 

Of Biu-derop, (see Waylen's Marlborough 247). 

Thomas Bond, Esq. 

Of Ogbourne St. George : afterwards Knighted. Se- 
cretary to Lord Chancellor Egerton. (See Bui-ke's 
Extinct Baronets). 

Lawrence Washington, Esq. 

Of Garsden near Malmsbury. Son of Sii" Lawrence 
Washington purchaser of that estate. Pedigree in 
Baker's Northamptonshire, p. 514. 

Sir Henry Clerk, Knt. Of Enford near Amesbury. 

Thomas Long, Esq. 

Of Little Cneverell. Buried there in 1G65. 

Hugh Awdlcy, Esq. 

John Dove, Esq. 

Of Salisbury. The year of Penruddock and Grove's 
execution. (See Sir It. C. Iloare's Hundred of Evorlcy, 
p. 17, and Amesbury 138). 

Robert Hippesloy, Esq. 

Of Stautou Filzwai'ien near Highworth. 


Sherifs of WilUhire. 


A. D. 


























(? Robert) Hijjpcsley, Esq. 

John Ernie, Esq. 

Of Bourtou in Bishop's Caunings, aud of Whotliam. 
Son of the Sheriff 22 Elizabeth. 

William Burgess, Esq. 

(? Isaac. Waylen's Marlborough, p. 282). 

Edward Horton, Esq. 

Of Great Chaldfield near Bradford. 

END OF COMMONWEALTH. 29th May, 1660. 

Sir James Tliynne, Knt. 

Of Longleat. Son of the Sheriff 5 James I. Father 
of Thomas Thynne who was murdered in 1682. 

Sir Walter Ernie, Bart. 

Of Etchilhampton. Nephew of the Sheriff of 1658. 

Sir Henry Coker, Knt. 

Of Hill Deverill. Married the heiress of Ludlow. 
His portrait in the History of Heytesbuiy, p. 30. 

Sir Edward Bayntun, K.B. 

Of Bromham. Son of the Sheriff of 1637. Married 
the daughter of Sir James Thynne. 

Thomas Mompesson, Esq. 

Of Gorton in Boyton. (Pedigree Heyts. 219); see 
also Coll. Top. et Gen., V, 347, note). 

Sir John Weld, Knt. 

Of Compton Basset ; where he built the present house. 

Charles Willoughby, Esq. Of West Knoyle. 

John Long, Esq. 

Of Little Cheverell. Son of the Sheriff of 1653. 

Sir Richard Grobham Howe, Knt. 

Of Berwick St. Leonard. Grandson of the Sheriff 
14 James I. 

John Hall, Esq. Of Bradford. See vol. I, pp. 271, 275. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jaclson. 






A. D. 




















Sir Robert Button, Bart. 

Of Tockenliain Court. Second son of the Sheriff of 

Sir Walter Long, Bart. 

Of Whaddon. Son of the Sheriff of 1627. 

Walter Smith. Of Shalbourn and Great Bedwyn. 

Bernard Pawlet, Esq. 

Of Cottles near Bradford. Probably son of Giles 
Pawlett of Cottles, who was foiu'th in descent from 
William, first Marqviis of Winchester. See Wilts 
Yisitation 1623. 

Thomas Goddard, Esq. Of Swindon. 

Sir Matthew Andrews, Knt. 

Of Mere. (Hundred of Mere, p. 19). 

(Giles Earl : altered to Richard Hart : and after- 
wards to) John Hawkins, Esq. Of Ashton Keynes. 

(John Hawkins, Esq. : altered to) Henry Chivers. 
Of Calne and Quemerford. See 17 Charles I. 

John Hawkins, Esq. Of Ashton Keynes. 

Giles Earl, Esq. 

(John Jacob, Esq. : altered to) Thomas Gore, Esq. 
Tlio Jacobs were of Norton near Malmesbury, of Clap- 
cote in Grittleton, and the Kocks in Marshfield. 
Mr. Gore of Aldrington, alias Alderton, was a writer 
of some short heraldic treatises. Having incurred 
some party animadversion diu-ing his shrievalty, he 
published a defence, called, " Loyalty displayed, and 
Falsehood unmasked, in a Letter to a Friend, 1681." 
Died 1684, and buried at Alderton. 

1682 j Richard Lewis, Esq. 
Of Edington. Son of Sir Edward Lewis of the Van, 
Co. Glamorgan. Buiicd at Corsbam 1706. 

1683 Sir Edmund Warneford, Knt. 

i Of Sevcnhampton near Jlighworth. M.P. for Great 

I Bedwyn 1688. 


Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 


A. D. 
























George Willougliby, Esq. Q. of "West Knoylc. 
James II. From Qth Felruary, 1685. 

(Jolin Davenant : altered to) William Chafyn, 
Esq. Of Zeals. 

John Davenant, Esq. 

Of Landlord in Frustfield Hundred. 

Rictard Chaundler, Esq. { ? Of Idmiston.) 

Sir Jeremy Craye, Knt. 

A person of this name founded a Charity at Horn- 
ingsham in 1698 ; probably the Clothier there, who 
made a large fortune by the inyention of an ingenious 
machine for beating wool. (Aubrey's MSS.) Craye 
of Ibsley, Co. Soiithampton, presented in 1729 and 
1737 to the Rectory of Sutton Mandeville. (W.I.) 

Sir William Pynsent, Bart. [By King James : 
altered by W. and Mary to John Wyndham]. 
The builder of Urchfont Manor House. 

WrLLl.\3l AND Maky. From \Zth Feb., 1689. 

John Wyndham, Esq. 

Of Norrington. Diuton was purchased in this year 
by his family. (Dunworth 107). 

(James Blatch : altered to) Stephen Blatch, Esq. 
Of Westbury; and in 1693 of Brooke House. 

Henry WaUis, Esq. Of Trowbridge. 

Henry Nourse, Esq. : (altered to Sir William Pyn- 
sent, Bart. ; and again to H. Nourse). 
Of Woodlands in Mere. His daiighter and heiress 
married Charles Ftach, third Earl of Winchelsea, and 
was authoress of some poetry. 

Sir Thomas Estcourt, Knt. 

Of Pinkncy. Master in Chancery. 

Sir William P\Tisont, Bart. 
Of Urchfont. Sec 5 James II. 


By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 



A. D. 





























William III. From 28fh December, 1694. 

GifFord Yerbury, Esq. 

This family was of Trowbridge, Eamsbury, Coulston, 
and Chirton. 

Joseph Houlton, Esq. Of Trowbridge. 

John Benett, Esq. Of Norton Bavent. 

Thomas Baskerville, Esq. 

? Of Richardston near Winterbourne Basset. 

(Walter Ernie : altered to) John Curll, Esq. 

Of Turley near Bradford. Probably the founder of 
Curll's Charity, who died 1703. 

(Joseph Houlton : altered to) Francis Merewether, 
Esq. Of Easterton in Market Lavington. 

Richard Jones, Esq. Of Eamsbury. 

Anne. From 8th March, 1702. 

Richard Jones, Esq. 

(William Willoughby: altered to) Christojoher 
Willoughby, Esq. 
Of West Kuoyle, alias Knoyle Odierne. (Hundred of 
Mere, p. 40). 

Richard Long, Esq. 

Of CoUingbourne : who married Elizabeth Long, the 
heiress of Rood Ashton. 

Walter Long, Esq. Of South "Wraxhall. Died 1731. 

John Flower, Esq. 

Of Grimstead, or of Worton near Devizes. 

(Thomas Blatch : altered to) Andrew Dulvc, Esq. 
Of Bulford. 

Sir James Ashe, Bart. M.P. for Do^vnton in 1701. 

Francis Kenton, Esq. Sometime M.P. for Now Sarum. 

2 o 


Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 


A. B. 
















■ 3 
















(Oliver Galley: altered to) Walter Ernie, Esq. 
Of Conock. Son of the Shoriif of 14 Cliailes II. 

"William Benson, Esq. 

Builder of Wilbury House, Newton Toney. 

Daniel "Webb, Esq. 

Of Monkton Farley. His only daughter married the 
eighth Dvike of Somerset. 

John Cox, Esq. Of Kemble near Malmshixry. 

John Smith, Esq. Of Alton Priors. Buried there. 

Richard Goddard, Esq. Of Swindon. 

George. I. From 1st August, 1714. 

Richard Goddard, Esq. 
Matthew Pitts, Esq. Of Salisbury. 
John Eyles, Esq. Of Devizes. 

(Robert Houlton of Trowbridge : altered to Cal- 

thorpe Parker Long: and again to) 
Thomas Bennett, Esq. 

Of Steeple Ashton. Buried there in 1728. 

George Speke Petty, Esq. 

Of Cheney Court and Haselbury House, Box. Buiied 
at Box 27th March, 1719. 

John Askew, Esq. Q. of Lydiard Millicent. 

(Caleb Bayley, Esq., of Berwick : altered to) 
John Yilett, Esq. Of S^vindon. 

Ilenry Read, Esq. Of Crowood. 

Edward Hill, Esq, Of Wanborough. 

Ralph Freke, Esq. Of Hannington near Highworth. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 




A. D. 






























Joseph Houlton, Esq. 

Of Farleigli Hungeiforcl, Co. Somerset, -which he pur- 
chased ; and of Grittleton, Wilts, by marriage with the 
heiress of White. 

John Hippesley, Esq. 

Of Stanton Fitzwarren. (See 165G). 

Henry Long, Esq. 

Of Melksham. Grandson of the Sheriff of 1703. 
Buried at North Bradley 1727. 

John Mills, Esq. Of Cherhill, Calne. 

George 11. From \lth June, 1121. 

John Mills, Esq. 

Walter Hungerford, Esq. 

Of Studley, Cahie. Son of Sir George Hungerford of 

Henry Hungerford, Esq. 

Of Fyfield in Milton Lislebonne. Son of Edmund 
Hungerford of Chisbury. Died 1780. 

Ezekiel Wallis, Esq. 

Of Lucknam. Buried at North Wraxhall, Jan., 1736. 

Henry Skilling, Esq. Of Draycote Foliot. (See 1520). 

John Smith, Esq. Of Whitley, Calne. 

Job Polden, Esq. Of Imber. Buried there in 1750. 

Thomas Phipps, Esq. 

Of Westbury Leigh and Chalford. Died 1747. 

"William Vilett, Esq. Of Swindon. 

Edward Mortimer, Esq. Of Trowbridge. 

William Hedges, Esq. 

Of Coinptou Basset ; then of Alderton by maniago 
with the heiress of the Gores of that place. Buried 
tiitre ill 17.57. 



Sheriffs of WiltsJiire. 


A. D. 



Isaac "NYarriner, Esq. 

Of Conock ; by marriage with the heiress of Ernie. 



William Wyndham, Esq. 

Of Dinton. Son of the purchaser. Died 1762. 



Edward Mortimer, Esq. Of Trowbridge. (See 1736) 



Anthony Guy, Esq.^ Of Chippenham. 



William Batt, Esq. Of Salisbury. 



Jolin Hippesley, Esq. 

Of Stanton Fitzwarren. (See 1725). 

1 The Sheeut of Wilts Impeisoned at Devizes. — This outrage was actually 
committed in 1741, by the partizans of Sir Edmund Thomas and EdwardBayntun 
Rolt, Esq., at a contested election for the borough of Chippenham ; the object 
being to neutralize the hostUe influence of Anthony Guy, Esq., not, of course, 
in his capacity of High Sheriff of the county, but as being the principal man in 
Chippenham, and the oldest of the twelve burgesses who claimed the manage- 
ment of the affairs of that town. The offence, however, was equally great, and 
it is surprising that no reprisals were made by the injured party. 

Ml'. Guy having declared himself favorable to two other candidates, Alexander 
Hume and John Frederick, Esquires, it was resolved to get him out of the way, 
under pretence of an attachment for his Under-Sheriff's omitting to make return 
of a writ against one Thomas Brown, for the small sum of £27, (an omission 
owing to the Under-Sheriff's illness) : and Richard Smith, a coroner of the 
county, actually proceeded to take Mr. Guy into custody, though that gentleman 
offered him £10,000 bail for his appearance. At the instigation of John Norris, 
Adam Tuck, and William Johnson the then bailiff' or mayor, the coroner kept 
Mr. Guy all night in one of the Chippenham inns under a guard of armed men, 
and the next morning conveyed him with the same convoy to the iovm of Devizes, 
where he remained in custody till the election was over ; after which they had 
the courtesey to carry him back to his own house and set him at liberty. 

It is hardly necessary to add, that a petition from the unsuccessful candidates 
appealed against a retiirn effected by such means ; but though the Sheriff's party 
were iinaUy defeated by a small majority in the House, it does not appear that 
anj- attempt was made by their adversaries to disprove the above facts. They 
simply constitute an additional illustration of the mimerous irregularities which, 
at the period in question, characterised the management of the boroughs and 
society in general in the provinces, arising out of the balance of the Hanoverian 
and Jacobite factions. J.Waylen. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 






( Jolin W alters of Titherley : altered to) 
FnlVe Greville, Esq. 

Of Wilbury House, Newton Toney, 1740-1780, 



"Walter Long, Esq. Of Salisbury and Preshaw, Hants. 



Godfrey Huckle Kneller, Esq. 

Illegitimate grandson of the Painter, Of Donhead 
Hall, Donhead St. Mary. 



William i'hipps, Esq. Of Haywood. 



Thomas Phipps, Jun. 

Of Westbuiy Leigh. Son of the Sheriff of 1734, 
Receiver General. 



Thomas Cooper, Esq. Of Salisbmy. 



James Bartlett, Esq. Of Salisbury. 



Charles Penruddocke, Esq. 

Of Compton Chamberlayne. Fourth in descent fi-om 
the Sheriff of 1643. 

New Style, January 1st, 1752.^ 



Thomas Cooper, Esq. Of CumberweU near Bradford. 



Edward Polhill, Esq. 

Of Heale House, Woodford, near Salisbury. 



VViUiam Phipps, Esq. 

Of Westbury Leigh. Nephew of the Sheriff of 1734. 



Arthur Evans, Esq. Of the Close, Salisbury. 



John Jacob, Esq. 

Of Toekenham wick House. Grandson of the Sheriff of 
1G81. Died s.p. 1765. His sister and heiress married 
John Buxton, Esq., of Shadwell, Norfolk. 



William Coles, Esq. Of the Close, Salisbury. 



Thomas Bcnett, Esq. Of Pyt House. 

The day of Nomination of Sheriffs altered to November the 12th. 


Sheriffs of Wilttshirc. 


A. D. 





































WiUiam Norris, Esq. Of Nonesucli House, Bromham. 
George Flower, Esq. Of Devizes. 

George III. From 2oth of October, 1760. 

George Flower, Esq. 

Scroop Egerton, Esq. Of Salisbury. 

Prince Sutton, Esq. Of Devizes. 

John Talbot, Esq. Of Lacock Abbey. 

Walter Long, Esq. 

Of Soutli Wraxhall : afterwards of "WTiaddon. Died 

Benjamin Adamson, Esq. Of Kemble. 

Edward Medlicott. Of Wanniuster. 

Edward Goddard, Esq. Of Cliff Pyimrd. 

Edmund Lambert, Esq. Of Boyton. 

WnKam Talk, Esq. 

Alderman of Salisbury. Buried at Damerham 1797. 
Left £3,000 to the Parish of St. Martin, Sarum. 

Thomas Maundrell, Esq. Of Blacklands near Calne. 

William Langham, Esq. 

Of Kamsbmy Manor, by marriage with the coheii'ess 
of W. Jones, Esq. Took the name of Jones. Baronet 
1774. Died s.p. 1791. 

Henry Penruddocke Wjmdliam, Esq. 

Of the College, Salisbury. 

Edward Poore, Esq. Of Rushall, which he pm-chased. 

Thomas Estcourt, Esq. Of Newnton. 

Francis Dugdale Astley, Esq. Of Everley. Died 1818. 

By the Ret. J. E. Jackson. 



A. D. 





































William Norttey, Esq. Of tlie Ivy House, CMppenliam. 

Josepli Colborne, Esq. Of Hardenlimsh, Chippenham. 

William Beach, Esq. 

Of Nether Avon House. Buried at Fittleton, June, 

Robert Cooper, Esq. Of Salisbury. (See 1749). 

Paul Cobb Metbuen, Esq. 

Of Corsham House. M.P. for Great Bed%vyn. Buried 
at North Wraxhall, September, 1816. 

William Hay ter, Esq. Of Newton Toney. 

William Bowles, Esq. Of Heale House. Died 1826. 

Thomas Hussey, Esq. Of Salisbury. 

William Chafyn Grove, Esq. Of Zeals House, Mere. 

John Sutton, Esq. Of Roundway, Devizes. 

Seymour Wroughton, Esq. Of Eastcott. 

Isaac William Webb Horlock, Esq. 
Of Ashwick, Marshfield, Co. Gloucester. 

Robert Ashe, Esq. Of Langley Burrell. 

Thomas Grove, Esq. Of Feme. 

GifFordWarrinor, Esq. 

Of Conock. Grandson of the Sheriff of 1738. Died 

John Awdry, Esq. Of Notton, Lacock. 

Matthew Humphries, Esq. 

Of the Ivy House, Chippenham. 

John Gaisford, Esq. 

Of Ifoid ITouso ticiir Rradford. Fatlior of Dr. Thomas 
(iiiinfurd, Dean of Cliiist Chuich. Biuiod at Wostbury 


Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 


A. D. 



























Richard Godolplim Long, Esq. 

Of Rood Ashtou. M.P. for Wilts. Died 1835. 

James Montagu, Esq. Of Alderton and Lackham. 

Gilbert Trew Beckett Turner, Esq. 
Of Penley House, Westbuiy. Died 1809. 

Sir John Methuen Poore, Bart. 

Of EiishaU. Second son of the Sheriff of 1773. Died 
s.p. 1820. 

John Benett, Esq. 

Of Pyt House. M.P. for Wilts from 1819 to 1852. 
Son of the Sheriff of 1758. 

Edward Hinxman, Esq. 

Of Little Durnford; purchased by him in 1795. 

George Yalden Forte, Esq. Of Alderbury. 

Thomas Bush, Esq. Of Bradford. 

Sir Andrew Bayntun, Bart. Of Spy Park. Died 1816. 

Thomas Henry Hele Phipps, Esq. 

Of Leighton House, Westbury. Grandson of the 
Sherift'of 1748. 

Wadham Locke, Esq. Of Pvowde near Devizes. 

Sir Richard Colt Hoare, Bart. 

Of Stourhead. The Historian of South Wilts. Died 
19th May, 1838. 

John Paul Paul, Esq. Of Ashton Keynes. 

Thomas Galley, Esq. Of Burderop Park. 

John Houlton, Esq. 

Of Grittleton, Wilts, and Farley Castle, Co. Somerset. 
Lt.-Col. of Somerset Militia. Died 1839. 

Sir Charles Warre Malet, Bart. Of Wilbuiy House. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 



A. D. 




































Abraham Ludlow, Esq. 

Of Heywood House, Westbuiy. Died at Rouen 1822. 

Harry Biggs, Esq. Of Stockton. Died 1856. 

Sir WilKam Pierce Ashe A' Court, Bart. 
Of Heytesbury House. 

William Fowle, Esq. Of Chute. 

"William Wyndham, Esq. 

Of Dinton. Grandson of the Sheiiff of 1 739. 

George Eyre, Esq. Of Bramshaw. 

John Hussey, Esq. Of Salisbury. 

John Hungerford Penruddocke, Esq. 

Of Compton Chamberlayne. Grandson of the Sheriff 
of 1753. M.P. for Wilton. 

Alexander Powell, Esq. Of Hurdcott. 

John Long, Esq. 

Of Monkton Farleigh. Brother of the Sheriff of 1 794. 
Died 1833. 

George IV. From 2^th January, 1820. 

John Long, Esq. 

Ambrose Goddard, Esq. Of Swindon. 

Ambrose Awdry, Esq. Of Seend near Devizes. 

Edward Phillips, Esq. Of Melksham. 

John Fuller, Esq. Of Neston Park in Corsham. 

Sir Edward Poorc, Bart. Of Rushall. 

Emlo Warrincr, Esq. Of Conock. See 12 George II. 

Thomas Clutlorbuck, Esq. Of naidouhuish. 

2 II 


Sheriffs of Wiltshire. 

































Thomas Baskerville Mynors Baskerville, Esq. 

Of Rockley House near Marlborough. Took the name 
of Baskerville 1817. M.P. for Herefordshire. 

George Wroughton Wrougliton, Esq. 
Of Wilcot House near Pewsey. 

George Heneage Walker Heneage, Esq. 
Of Compton Basset, 

Edward William Leybourne PojDliam, Esq. 

Of Littlecote House. 

William IY. From 26<A June, 1830. 

E. W. L. Popham, Esq. 

Paul Methuen, Esq. Of Corsham House. 

Sir Edmund William Antrobus, Bart. Of Amesbury. 

William Temple, Esq. Of Bishopstro-w,"Warminster. 

Thomas Bolton, Esq. 

Of Brickworth. Afterwards thii'd Baron and second 
Earl Nelson. 

Henry Seymour, Esq. Of Knoyle. 

Sir John Dugdale Astley, Bart. Of Everley. 

Sir Frederick Hutchison Harvey Bathurst, Bart. 
Of Clarendon. 

Victoria. From 20th June, 1837. 

Sir F. H. H. Bathurst, Bart. 

Thomas Assheton Smith, Esq. 

Of Tidworth House near Ludgershall. 

Charles Lewis Phipps, Esq. 

Of "Wans House. Brother to the Sheriff of 1803. 

William Henry Fox Talbot, Esq. Of Lacock Abbey. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 



A. B. 

































Ambrose Hussey, Esq. Of Salisbury. 

Frederick William Rooke, Esq. 

Of Lackham, by purchase from tbe Montagu family. 
Captain ll.N. Died 1856. 

Henry Stephen Olivier, Esq. Of Potterne. 

George Edward Eyre, Esq. Of "Warrens, Bramshaw. 

"Wade Browne, Esq. Of Monkton Farleigh. 

The Honorable Jacob Pleydell Bouverie,Yiscount 
Folkstone. Of Longford Castle. 

Wadham Locke, Esq. 

Of Ashton Giffard. Eldest son of tbe Sheriff of 1804. 

John Henry Campbell Wyndham, Esq. 
Of the Close, Salisbury. 

Robert Parry Nisbet, Esq. 

Of South Broom House, Devizes. M.P. for Chippenham 

Henry Gaisford Gibbs Ludlow, Esq. 

Of Heywood, Westburj\ Son of the Slieriff of 1810. 

Graham Moore Michell Esmeade, Esq. 
Of Monkton, Chippenham. 

John Bird Fuller, Esq. 

Of Neston Park, Corsham. Son of the Sheriff of 1823. 

Francis Lcybourne Popham, Esq. 

Of Littlecote. Second son of the Sheriff of 1830. 

Edmund Lewis Clutterbuck, Esq. 

Of Hardcnhuish. Eldest son of the Sheriff of 1 826. 

Simon Watson Taylor, Esq 
Of Urchfont. Eldest sou ( 

Taylor, Es(i. of Erlestoke. 

of the late George Watson 

Charles William Miles, Esq. 

Of Burton Hill IIuuno, Maliiisbury. 

2 n 2 


Sm}m $uk. 

The annexed plate exhibits the ancient and present Seals of the 
Burgesses, and the Seal of the Mayor of Devizes. 

No. 1. This Seal is two-and-a-half inches in diameter, and 
appears to have been engraved in the fifteenth century. 
The device is a Castle, having in the outer wall a high 
portal or gateway between two small circular turrets, each 
surmounted with a conical capping : the gateway has a 
semicircular arch, and is defended by a portcullis. An 
embattled tower rising in the centre of the inner court 
represents the keep, and on either side of it is a star of 
six points. 

The legend is in black letter:— ""ii ^tsinum tBmunc 
fiurscfum Jjiu 2tlcflt;S tsibi^ax." 

No. 2. A Seal of much smaller proportions than that above 
described, but bearing the device of a Castle similarly 
represented. Its date may be referred to the early part 
of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Legend : — 
"* SIGILL' . OFFICII . MAldl . BVEGI . B'^E . 

No. 3. The present Seal of the Mayor and Burgesses of Devizes. 
It is of the same size as the earlier Seal, No. 1, but is far 
inferior to it in point of design. The form of the Castle 
also varies very considerably ; beneath is the date "1608" 
(6 James I.) 

Legend : — 
WILT.' " 

The Rev. James Dallaway in "An attempt to describe the first 
Common Seal used by the Burgesses of Bristol," printed in vol. 

^empjejsr ^jealjaT- 


9. Present Seal or Mayor and Buroessbs. 

Edw. Kit*, del. 

Det-^izes Sea/s. 237 

XXI of the "Arcliseologia," and also in the "Antiquities of Bristow," 

1834, has the following remarks relative to the device of a castle, 

as borne on each of the Devizes Seals. 

" Upon an inspection of the more ancient Borough Seals, I believe it ■will be 
found that the device of a Castle is peculiar, in a great degree, to those which 
were under the jurisdiction of a feudal lord, from whom they derived all their 
municipal privileges, and that the representation of a Castle was retained upon 
those seals, as evidence of their original dependauce, long after their liberties 
were confirmed." 

The device thus borne by the early Burgesses of Devizes on 
their common seal, (in reference to the fortress of that place, erected, 
or rather re-edified, by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, temp. Henry I.), 
was afterwards adopted as the armorial bearing of the town, and 
confirmed to the Mayor and Burgesses by the Heralds at their 
several Visitations of the County. 

The following memorandum, copied from the Wilts Visitation of 

1565 in the Library of the British Museum, (MS. Harl. No. 1443), 

accompanies a sketch of the arms of Devizes. 

" These Armes are apperteining and belonging to the Mayor, Aldermen, and 
Burgesses of the Towne and Borough of the Denises, in the Coimty of Wilts. 
Which Armes I Clarenceiix, King of Armes, haue not oneley Ratified and Con- 
finned to the said Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgisses, and their successors, but 
also recorded the same in thisVisitacon, made in the Countie of WUton. At which 
tyme Edward Haynes was Mayor ; Thomas Hull, Coroner ; Richard Bayle, 
Robert Lcwyn, John Blanford, Henry Morrys, Anthony Cley, John Burd, and 
JohnWytts, Aldermen ; Henry Grubb and Nicholas AUeyne, Constables ; Richard 
Gifford and Henry Smith, Bayleiffs ; John Hoductt, Recorder and Townclark ; 
Christopher Jones and William Smith, Vnder Aldermen of the said Towne and 

Another memorandum which follows, is taken from the Wilts 

Visitation of 1623, (MS. Harl. No. 1165).i 

" These are the Armes and comon Scale of the Towne and Borough of the 
Devises in the Countie of Wilts, which hath bene incorporated by the aunciont 
Kings of this Land, as, namely, by Maude the Emprcsse, and confirmed by the 
sucoecdinge Kings, as Ilcn. 2, Kinge John, Hen. 3, Edw. 3, Richard 2, Henr. 
5, Hen. 6, Hen. 8, Edw. 6, Ciuecne Elizabetli, with divers Privilidges and grcate 
Imunities, by the name of Major and Burgesses of the Borough of the Devises, 
all which privilidges and Imunities were ratified and confinned by our Soveraigne 
Lord King James, the 10 day of Julio, in the 3 yeare of his Higlmess Raigne. 
And at tliis present Visitacon tlic 4 daye of October, 1623, was John Allen, 

* A drawing and description of tlio Seal of 1608, with this memorandum 
annexed, will be found iu the British Museum, Additional MS., No. 0832, p. 171. 

238 Devizes Seals. 

Major ; Robert Drew, Esq., and Jolm Kent, Towne Clarke, all 3 Justices of the 
Peace witi^in the saide Boi-ongh ; Sir Edw. Bainton, Sir Hen. Ley, Knighte ; 
Rich. Fflower, Thos. Whitacre, Nicholas Barret, John Kicholas, Edw. Northey, 
Edw. Lewes, John Thurman, Robt. Fflower, Edw. Hope, Thomas Lewen, 
Cha-istopher Clarke, Richard Dernford, Stephen Fflower, and Thomas Potter, 
Cheift'e Biu-gesses and Coiin cello'"'' of the sayd Borough ; Edward Northey and 
Thomas Lewen, Chamberlins; George Morris and Nicholas Sanford, Constables; 
John Watts and Richard Peirse, Baileifles of the said Towne and Borough." 

A question may arise whether the building delineated on the 
earlier seal is merely an invention, or intended to represent the 
original fabric of Devizes Castle, as extant at the period when the 
seal was engraved. The semicircular arch of the gateway seems 
certainly to be suggestive of a building of Norman date ; and as 
the castle, for instance, engraved upon the early seal of Norwich 
will be found to bear a striking resemblance in its outline to the 
ancient and still remaining fortress of that city, so it may, perhaps, 
be reasonably inferred, in tlie absence of any positive proof, that a 
similar representation of the Castle of Devizes was intended by 
the engraver of the ancient Seal of that borough. 

The Seals, Nos. 2 and 3, both appear to be of a date subsequent 
to the existence of Devizes Castle in its original state, the former 
is an exact copy of No. 1, and the latter, although it retains the 
principal features of the castle as represented on the earKer seals, 
must necessarily be regarded as displaying a certain amount of 
more recent invention. 

One of the occasional uses of Borough Seals may be seen in the 
foUo-nong mandate, issued 14th Richard II. [1390], abbreviated. 

"The King to the Sheriff of Wilts, Greeting: — Whereas by the statute lately 
made at Cambridge, it was ordained, among other things, that no servant or 
labourer, whether man or woman, should quit the hundred, rape, or wapentake 
where he dwells, before the end of his term, to serve or abide elsewhere, unless 
he carry with him a letter-patent under our seal, stating the cause of his going 
and the time of his return : — We command you vdth aU the authority we possess, 
that, all excuses set aside, you cause that oirr seal for this purpose shall be 
forth-n-ith made for each hundred, wapentake, rape, city and borough within 
your bailiwick, and delivered into the hands of such person in each place as 
the local Justice of the peace shall deem fit and trustworthy: — such seal to be 
executed in latten metal, and to have the name of your county engraven round 
its edge, and the name of the himdred or town across its field. 2'este Hege 
apud Westm. VIII die 3Iarcii. 

Edward Kite. 

Devizes, October \st, 1856. 


Wl CTS ■ A R.C H «o u . MAC. 1856. 

^'^ T fTflT n'S^ffflTlTia ^Jr.tgfaai 

Edw Kite. del. 

^Dut . ^* ®eovQe , ijSitFsrijutfjftmtltX. 


jFuiit ill tjie Cljiirrti nf §t itnrge, ^itsjjute, 

The Font represented in tlie annexed plate has been for several 
centuries preserved in the Church of Preshute near Marlborough, 
and is, perhaps, more generally known in connection with an 
ancient and somewhat common tradition, than as an architectural 
relic, affording an interesting example of early art. 

Camden has described it as being in his day one of the principal 
boasts of the Inhabitants of Marlborough. " They brag of nothing 
more than of the Font, probably of touch-stone, (Lapis obsidianus) 
in the neighbouring Church of Preshut, in which, as the tradition 
goes, several Princes were heretofore baptised."^ 

Camden is, however, incorrect in his conjecture as to its material, 
which will be found upon inspection to be black marble, and, unlike 
touch-stone, easily acted upon by the application of an acid. The 
tradition which he alludes to is, that either King John, or some 
members of his family, were baptized in the Font ; and that this 
story is not without probability, may, perhaps, appear from the 
following circumstances. 

The Font is of Norman date, and may be referred to the early 
half of the 12th century. Mr. Waylen, in his "History of Marl- 
borough," p. 31, expresses an opinion that it originally stood in 
the Chapel of St. Nicholas, within the walls of Marlborough Castle, 
and, that on the dismantling of that fortress in after years, was 
transferred to the neighbouring Church of Preshute, in which 
parish the greater portion of the Castle grounds lay. 

From the same work, p. 30, it also appears that Henry II., soon 
after his accession to the throne, granted to his son John, Earl of 

' Oough, in his "Additions to Camden's Britannia" remarks that "the 
present luliahitants seem to have forjfot tlie tradition that prevailed in Camden's 
time ahout tlieir Font, which is a plain bason of dark grey marble, two feet and 
a lialf diameter at top, ending in an inverted cone." 

240 Font in the Church of St. George, Preshute, Wilts. 

Mortagne, (afterwards King John), the Castle and Manor of Marl- 
borough, the former of which was selected by the Prince at a later 
date (1189), as the scene of his marriage with the heiress of the Earl 
of Gloucester. It seems, therefore, very probable, in accordance with 
the tradition, that the rite of Baptism may have been administered 
to some member, or members, of his family, at the Font in the Castle 

About two years ago, when the Church of Preshute was partially 
rebuilt, the Font was repaired. It is proposed, therefore, briefly 
to notice some of its more remarkable features, as well as the steps 
which were at that time taken for its preservation. 

Its form, as will be seen from the drawing, is circular ; the shaft 
is quite plain, the bowl and base exhibit various moiddings of the 
Norman style, consisting chiefly of rounds, hollows, and fillets. 
The following are some of its principal measurements : — 

ft. in. ft. in. 

Height of Bowl 1 1\. ) 

„ n Sliaft 7i 2 92 

„ ,, Base 7 J 

Greatest diameter of Bowl 3 6 

„ „ Shaft 2 

„ „ Base 3 OJ 

Diameter of interior of Bowl 2 9| 

Depth of Bowl 1 3 

The size of the bowl, as will be seen by its measurement, con- 
siderably exceeds that of an ordinary Font. It was, together with 
the shaft, originally polished within as well as without, and does 
not appear to have been lined with lead, this, owing to the hardness 
of the material, not being required. In the centre is a drain. The 
edges bear some traces of the staples by means of which the cover 
was formerly fastened. 

The bowl, owing to the partial decay of its material, had become 
cracked and divided into two or three separate portions. This was 
remedied by affixing a narrow band of brass, about an inch in width, 
around the circumference of the bowl, on a flat surface between 
the mouldings, near its upper edge. A considerable quantity of 
the base had also been chipped ofi", and, no doubt carried away by 
persons anxious to possess some memento of their visit. The whole 

Pilgrims to Rome from Co. Wilts and Diocese of Sarum. 241 

has now been firmly fastened together, the decayed and broken 
portions filled in with cement, containing a sufficient quantity of 
finely powdered black marble to give it the exact appearance of the 
Font itself; a flat cover of oak, ornamented with iron- work, has 
been substituted for a former one, long since lost or destroyed, and 
the entire surface of the exterior, as well as the interior, re-polished, 
thus preserving it as nearly as possible in its original state. 

E. K. 

Devizes, October Ist, 1856. 

pilgrims ta %nmt frnm tlje Cnimhj nf JBilts an& 
Skmt nf Inrum, 

IN THE YEARS 1504-1507, 1581-1587. 

The following names have been selected from a list printed in 
" Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica," vol. Y., p. 62, and 
extracted from the Records of the English College at Rome. 

The Hospital of the English at Rome, now the English College, 
is said to have been founded in 1531, by John Shepherd, and the 
letters of Gregory XIII., by which he authorized the change, both 
in the name and character of the building, are dated 1st May, 
1579. On the 29th December, 1580, the College took possession 
of the Hosj^ital and its property, charged, however, with the duty 
of continuing to entertain the English coming to the Holy City, 
the poor for eight, and the gentry for three days. 

The list above-mentioned, (which is written in Latin), contains 
the names of 579 English Pilgrims entertained at the Hospital from 
November 4th, 1504, to May 4th, 1507, of which number the nine 
individuals only whose names are annexed, belonged either to the 
County of Wilts or Diocese of Sarum. 

From November 4th, 1504, to May 4th, 1505 : — 

Gentry. None. 

Poor. Thomas "Williams of Stipleaston in tho County of 
Wilts, came on the 20th of April, and died in the 

2 I 

242 The Office of Aicahener. 

Hospital on the 24th following : having been, before liia 

admission, brought to Death's door by an incurable 


From May 4th, 1505, to May 4th, 1506 :— 
Gentry. January 4th. Sir Richard Hilley, Treasurer of 


April 5th. Sir Thomas Luddam, Vicar of WuUe,'- in 

the Diocese of Sarum. 
Poor. None. 

From May 4th, 1506, to May 4th, 1507:— 
Gentry. None. 
Poor. Richard Alway of Colorne near Bath, came on 8th 

May, and was in the Hospital from illness 24 days. 

John Ruthbey, of Malmysbury in Co. AVilts, came on 

24th May. 

October 23rd. Lionel Holden, a monk of Malmysbury. 

Henry Wulley of Amysbury in the Diocese of Sarum. 

April 28th. Robert Bocbery of Sarum, glover. 

29 th. John Marys of Heytisbury in the Dioc. of 

In a second list of nearly three hundred Pilgrims who visited 
the College between 1581 and 1587, the two following names only 
of Wiltshire persons occur. 

1583. 21st September. "William Staverton of Salisbury. 
1585. 19th September. Daniel Gages of Salisbury. 

E. K. 

t (iDffire nf imakeiier. 

I find that in two instances the office of Awakener (during divine 
service) was held together with the office of Dog-rapper, and it 
appears from the following extracts from the reports of the Charity 
Commissioners, ihat in these instances the joint office had an 

1 Richard Hilley was Treasurer of Sarum from 1505 to 1533. See the list in 
Dodsworth's " Salisbury Cathedral," Appendix III, p. 235. 

3 Perhaps the Chapclry of Wool iu Combe Keynes, Co. Dorset. 

Tlie Office of Aicakener. 243 

" Parist of Claverly, County of Salop : — 

" Richard Dovey of Farmcote in this Parish, by feoffinent dated 23rd Angust, 
1659, gave a house and land situate at Claverly and Alverley, to John Saunders 
and others their heirs and assigns in trust (inter aUa), 'to jmy yearly the sum 
of eight shillings to a i)oor man of the said parish, who should undertake to 
awaken sleepers, and to whip the dogs from the Church of Claverley during 
divine service.' " Char. Com. Rep. IV., p. 248. 

" Parish of Trysull, County of Stafford :— 

" John Rudge, by his will dated 17th April, 1725, charges his lands at Seisdon 
with an Annuity of £7 10s. : viz. 30s. to each of three alms houses ; £2 to the 
poor; and the fui-ther sum of 20s., being the remainder of the said Annuity, he 
gave, payable at live shillings a quarter, to a poor man to go about the Parish 
Chiirch of Trysull during sermon, to keep people awake and to keep the dogs 
out of the Church. 

" The present owner is Cornelius Cartwright, Esq., by whom the Annuity is 
duly paid, in sums of 30s. each to the three alms houses ; £1 to a poor man for 
awakening sleepers in the church and keeping out dogs; and £2 to the Trustees 
for the use of the Poor." Id.V., p. 634. 

It should not be forgotten, that in the time of the Puritans the 
sermons were of much greater length than at present, and from 
the Reformation, and in particular during the Commonwealth, an 
hour-glass was placed in a frame near the pulpit, which the clergy- 
man set running at the commencement of his sermon, and when it 
had run the hour, turned it for a second hour. In many places 
these hour-glasses, or at least their stands, remain to this day. 

In the Churchwardens accounts of Ogbourne St. George in this 
county, (which have been recently mis-laid), there are, between 
the years 1622 and 1657, several entries of 

" Paid for a hower-glass x<i-> i8-> or \\\\^- " 

Mr. Rushworth, the Secretary of the Lord General Fairfax, in 
his Collections, (vol. VII, p. 772), gives the following statement as 
to two Puritanical sermons being preached before the House of 
Commons, one immediately after the other. 

" 1647, August 11th. Ordered by both Houses, that the two Sermons to be 
preached before the Houses to-morrow, being Thanksgiving Day, should bo 
immediately one after the other without intermission." 

Ilere the services of an awakener might possibly have been 
required. Did such an office ever exist in Wiltshire, or in the 
Diocese of Sarum ? F. A. Cakuington. 

2 I 2 


^m\n nf Blnrllinrnngjj. 

As a somewliat inaccurate account of Sir Michael Foster's family 
was published in Mr. Waylen's " History of Marlborough," page 
392, the following pedigree has been compiled from authentic 
soiirces, and may, perhaps, be sufficiently interesting to deserA^e a 
place in the Wiltshire Magazine. 

Little else is required to complete Mr. Waylen's account except 

that the following letter, written to one of Sir Michael's executors 

by Hugh, Earl of Northumberland, at that time Lord Lieutenant 

of Ireland, will corroborate the historian's testimony as to the 

Judge's eminence in public life, and his general uprightness of 

character. It had been announced to the Earl, that Sir Michael 

had left him a legacy of one hundred guineas in these terms : " I 

desire the Eight Honourable, The Earl of Northumberland, to 

accept of a Legacy of One Hundred Guineas, which I give him as 

a Testimony of the high Honour I have for him, and the most 

Noble House to which he is happily allied." 

Dublin Castle, March eth, 1764. 
It was a very sincere concern to me to hear of the death of Mr. Justice Foster; 
a man of his Abilities and Integrity is as great a loss to the Public as to his 
Family and Friends. The obliging mark he has left me of his kind Remem- 
brance I set a true and sincere value upon, as being a Testimony of the Regard 
of so worthy a man, whose character and person I truly rever'd. I sincerely 
condole with you for the loss of so estimable a Relation and Friend, and at the 
same time return you my best thanks for your obliging Expressions of Attach- 
ment to me, which I should have done much sooner, but that a severe fit of the 
Gout has deprived me of the use of my right hand for near two months. 
I am, with great truth and Esteem, 
Sr Your most faith full 

Humble Servant, 


Mr. Waylen has mentioned an engraved portrait of the Judge 

by James Basire, at page 397. There are three excellent paintings, 

St. Peter's 26th January, 1691-2. 

Saeah, d^tap, C'heistophee, Kathaeixe, John, 

^•V^Jiary truly, born 25th Jau. bap. 11 Apr. buried 

^i , It 'ti'- at 1668-9, bui-. 1673, bur. at at St. 

26th Janu's 16 at St. Peter's St. Peter's 26 Peter's 

buried at 167. 2 Jan., 1683-4. Oct., 1692. 5 Jan., 

December, 1674-5. 

1^°^^ ^^^T.rn DoDSON Hak nah= 

eldest son, I y an-ingdou, F o s t e e , 

|"igle, bxu^^ married born 1694, 

St. Peter s g^^ Peter's died 2ud 

August, Ijjj^jne, 1729, May, 1768 

i 17th April, biuied at 

'5, aged 65, St.Peter's. 

ied at St. 


Wixliam Hawkes 
of Marlborough, 
Clerk of the Peace 
for the Count}' of 
WUts, son of Sam. 
Hawkes, buried at 
St. Peter's 4 Feb., 


±iT' ljornl727, 
''K^^^J'^' married & 
had issue 
2 daurs. 

I I I J,. I i 

Michael Saeah and Elizabeth 

FosTEE, died in infancy. 

ob. ca;l. Maev, marr. Benjamin 

12 June, Merriman of Marlbo- 

1761. rough. 

Elizabeth, mar. John 

Rogers of London, 


Haxxah, marr. John 

Da vies of Calno. 

hall, Co. Stafford, and 
Ogbourn St. Andrew, 
of tlie Rev. Francis 

ford, Co. Notts., Ijora 

;d 13th Ai)ril, 1829, 



^^jig_ ^Ermine, on a ChevTon, Vert, between three Bugles strmged, Sable, an Escallop, Or 

Michael Fostee of Marlborough, buried at St. Peter's 4th May, 1692.= . 

. dauffbter of. 

John Fostee 

of Marlborough, an attorney, buried at St. Peter's 1st January, l-02-3.=KATiiAEraE, daughter of 

buried at St. Peter's 26th January, 1691-2. 

Sae»h, dau. of Richard: 
and Mary Coleman, bom 
5th April, 1657; married 
2fith January, 1679-80, 
buried at .St. Peter's 26 
December, 1697. 


of Marlborough, 
an attorney, born 
8th Nov., 1658, 
died in 1720. 

John Fostee, 
eldest son, died 
single, bur. at 
St. Peter's 9th 
August, 1717. 

=Ann, widow of 
Robert Butcher, 
run., married at 
Preshute, 6th 
June, 1699, bur. 
at St. Mary's 12 
May, 1712, s.p. 

James, bur. 

18th July, 


A child not 

named, bur. 

26 January, 


James, bapt. 
19th March, 
1660-61, bur. 
at St. Peter's 

RoBEET, bapt. 
30 September, 
1662, bur. at 
St. Peter's, 30 
October, 1683. 

Thomas, bap. 
5th August, 
1664, bur. at 
St. Peter's 19 
August, 1664. 

29 May, 

Samtjel, bap, 
17th of July, 
1667, bur. at 
St. Petei's 16 
Sept., 1067. 


born 25th Jan. 
1668-9, bui-. 
at St. Peter's 
2 Jan., 1683-4. 

bap. 11 Apr. 
1673, bm'. at 
St. Peter's 26 
Oct, 1692. 

at St 
5 Jan., 

SiE Michael rosTEE= 
of Stanton Drew, Co. 
Somerset, Knt., born 
16th December, 1689. 
Of Exeter CoU.,Oxon, 
Recorder of Bristol 

1735, Scrjeant-at-law 

1736, Puisne Judge of 
the Court of King's 
Bench 22 April, 1745, 
died s.p. 7th Nov., 
1703, bur. at Stanton 
Drew. Will & Codicil 
dated 16 and 27 May, 
1763, proved in Lon- 
don 7th Jan., 1764. 

iMaetha, dau. 
and coheiress 
of James Lyde 
Co. Somerset, 
Esq., married 
May, 1758, 
aged 57 years, 
bur. at Stan- 
ton Drew. 


of Dray cot born 1683, died 2nd husband, s.p. Fostee, brn 

Foliot near 22nd February, 1686, died 

Swindon.mar. 1775, buried at single, bur. 

at Ogbourn Milton Lislebon atSt.Peter's 

St.Andrew 16 Co. Wilts. 31 January, 

Sept., 1718, 1722-3. 

died 17 Oct., 
bur. at Swin- 

E LI ZAB eth= Joseph Donsos 
Fostee, brn of Favringdon, 

1692, bur. 
at St.Mai'y's 
24th Sept., 

M. A., married 
at St. Peter's 
30th June, 1729, 
died 17th April, 
1755, aged 65, 
buried at St. 

Hak NAn= 
born 1694, 
died 2nd 
May, 17G8 
bui'ied at 

William Hawkes 
of Marlborough, 
Clerk of the Peace 
for the County of 
Wilts, son of Sam. 
Hawkes, buried at 
St. Peter's 4 Feb., 

RogeeEwen, Mich,iel Ewen of Draycot=PEisciLLA, dau. 

ob. June, 1724 Foliot and of Milton Lisle- and coheii-ess of 

aged 5 years. bon, Co. Wilts, Clerk of the John Smitb of 

Peace for the Counties of Alton Priors, Co. 

Wilts and Somerset, died Wilts, Esq., born 

without issue 5th October, 3rd June, 1720, 

1782, and was buried at mar. at Alton, 6 

Milton, Dec, 1744, bur. 

at Milton, 31st 

March, 1766. 

Michael DoDsoN,=ELizAEETn, Maetha 

Barrister-at -Law, 
born 21st of Sept., 
1732, man-ied at 
St. Peter's 31st of 
December, 1778, 
died 13th of Nov., 
1799, s.p. 

daughter & 
coheiress of 


ob. sin- 
gle, 23rd 
1794, ait. 
60 years. 

Samuel Hawkes: 
of Ogboum St. 
Andrew and of 
born 2ud March, 
1726-7, married 
at Overttm, Co. 
Wilts, 2 August, 
1753, died 17th 
February, 1785, 
bur. at St. Peter's. 

I I I I I I I 

:ELizABETn, William, Michael Saeah and Elizabeth 
dau.ofEdw. borul727, Fostee, died in infancy. 
Grinfield, married & ob. erel. Maev, marr. Benjamin 
born 21st, had issue 12 June, Merriman of Marlbo- 
Sept. 1727, 2 daurs. 1761. rough, 
ob. 23 July, Elizabeth, mar. John 

1794, bur. Rogers of London, 

atSt.Peter's ISanker. 

Hannah, marr. John 
Davies of Culno. 

Elizabeth Hawkes, daughter 
and coheiress, born 15th Nov., 
1756, mar. her cousin Michael 
Dodson, 31st December, 1778, 
died in London Uth August, 
1811, s.p. 

Maey Hawkes, 
died an infant 
in 1761, buried 
at St. Peter's 8 

Hannah Hawkes, eventually sole heir=JonN Waed of Stramshall, Co. Stafford, and 

to Sir Michael Foster, Micliael Ewen, 
and Samuel Hawkes, born 3 January, 
1764, married at St. Peter's 14 Januiirv, 
1784, died 24th April, 1843, buried at 
St. Mary's, Marlborough. 

of Draycot Foliot and Ogbourn St. Andrew, 
Co. W'ilts, oldest sou of the Rev. Francis 
Ward, Rector of Stanford, Co. Notts., bom 
30th June, 1756, died 13th AprU, 1829, 
buried at St. Mary's, Marlborougli. 


The Despencers* Estates in Wilts. 245 

all of which have been engraved. The earliest is a beautiful min- 
iature in enamel, used by Lady Foster as an ornament, and supposed 
to have been painted about the time of their marriage in 1725. A 
private plate of this was executed in 1831, by E. Scriven, in his 
best manner. A three-quarter length painting of Sir Michael, in 
his judicial robes, with a companion picture of Lady Foster, was 
taken by T. "Wills, between the years 1745 and 1748. There is a 
very good mezzotint of the former, executed by Faber in 1748, 
and another engraving of the same by an inferior artist. Another 
excellent portrait, a half-length, painted in after life, probably by 
Wills. This is the picture engraved by James Basire in 1811, but 
the plate is not held in much estimation, either as a work of art, 
or as expressing the extreme benevolence of the Judge's features, 
depicted in the original. These portraits are now in the possession 
of Thomas Rawdon Ward, Esq. 

John "Ward. 

Without inflicting on our readers the long story of the rule of 
the two Despencers in the Court of Edward II. ; of their short 
banishment and recall; how Queen Isabella took the affair into her 
ovra. hands, and, with the assistance of her favorite knights, drove 
the King into Wales, and his advisers into other places of refuge ; 
how she stormed the city of Bristol and hung up the elder Despen- 
cer in his coat of armour ; how she pursued the younger Despencer 
to Jlereford, and in like manner suspended him upon a gibbet fifty 
feet high ; how she procured the abdication of her husband and the 
accession of her youthful son Edward III. ; all which belongs to 
the general history of England : we may, nevertheless, regard the 
traces left by the belligerent parties in this county, as falling within 
our legitimate limits, and discover in them additional evidence of 
the despotism which a court favourite could exercise in the I'lan- 
tagenet age, 

Edward III. being now placed on the throne, the Queen Mother, 
Isabella, wielded for a lirief period an empire almost equal to that 

246 The Despencers* Estates in Wilts, 

of her son. In conjunction with her paramour, Roger Mortimer, 
she maintained in Nottingham Castle a retinue (so Speed tells us), 
of a hundred and fourscore knights beside esquires and gentlemen. 
To give one example of her power; — it must have been through 
her influence that the unjust detention of Sir William de la Zouch 
and Eleanor his wife in Devizes Castle occurred, even while the 
King and his council were sitting at "Windsor. From this harassing 
duresse, Roger Mortimer threatened the captives that they should 
purchase deliverance only by the surrender of their lands in Gla- 
morganshire, of the Manor of Tewkesbury, and of other their lands 
in Wales, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire. "JFor the salvation 
of their lives, and for doubt of death," they did indeed make over 
the Castle of Halle, and the chaces of Malvern and Cors, but of 
course petitioned for restitution as soon as Mortimer in his turn 
was slain, and Devizes Castle taken out of Isabella's hands. [See 
the Zouch petition, on the Rolls 4th Edward III.] To return now 
to the Despencers : — 

Though the estates of the elder Hugh le Despencer lay in several 
counties, the greater part were in Wilts, and his favorite residence 
appears to have been in the Manor of Fasterne, a spot still distin- 
guished by the remains of a mansion, where the Englefields, in a 
subsequent age, lived and died, and where Dryden no doubt spent 
many a holiday with the Howards. (It is now the property of 
Lord Clarendon). In addition to his various Wiltshire manors, the 
names of which will occur in the following memoranda, the elder 
Despencer was also warden of the forests of Clarendon and Bradcn, 
and Constable of the Castles of Devizes and Marlborough, with 
their valuable appendages. The title of the elder Despencer was 
Earl of Winchester, that of his son was Earl of Gloucester. 

The fall of the two favorites was, as might be expected, imme- 
diately followed by the cry for reparation issuing from the victims 
of their oppression. The first audible utterances from this county 
emanate from the Abbat and Convent of Stanley, touching the 
Manor of 

Berwick Basset. The Abbat reminds the King and council 
that in the previous year, 1327, he, and his brethren, had sought 

Btj Mr. J. Waylen. 247 

by petition the recovery of Berwick Basset and the presentation 
to the church there, ravished from them by Hugh le Despencer 
the elder ; but, though the petition was duly enrolled, no one would 
move in the aifair, because the manor in question was in the 
Queen's hands. Resjwnse '.Jjet the Inquisition come into Chancery. 

Five years later, unable to obtain justice, the Abbat makes a 
more lengthy appeal, detailing all his efforts and their fruitless 
results. The Response this time is an order to Master Geoffrey 
Scrope, who it appears held the record and process in his hand, to 
surrender the same, in order that the affair might receive a renewed 
hearing before the Court. Rolls of Parliament, 2ncl and 1th Edward 

Sherrington. Juliana, Isabella, and Emma, heiresses of John 
Ken of Sherrington, come before the King and council and make 
the following appeal : — That, whereas their ancestors were seised of 
a messuage and forty acres of land with appurtenances at Sher- 
rington, yet Hugh le Despencer, Earl of Winchester, by his great 
lordliness and power had dispossessed the petitioners, so that neither 
by law nor by favor could they approach their possessions. There- 
fore they pray remed}', in consideration of their poverty and long 
disinherison. Response: Let the muniments of Sir Hugh be 
searched, and if nothing appear to bar the petition, the King will 
grant them right. Ibid anno incerto. 

Bkaden Forest. The Guardians and Brethren of the Hospital 
of St. John at Cricklade, aver that by royal charter they have 
ever enjoyed free cheminage, going or coming, in Braden Forest, 
for the transport of firewood, charcoal, or sand ; which right Hugh 
le Despencer has disturbed. Granted. Ibid. 

Lediard Tregoz. Henry at Hok having purchased a messuage 
and plough-land at Lediard Tregoz, and two rent-charges (southo 
de rente) in Cricklade, Master Hugh le Despencer the elder came, 
with force and arms to his residence, and on no other plea than 
that the lands so purchased were contiguous to his (Dcspenccr's) 
Manor of Fasterne, took the petitioner prisoner, tied his hands 
behind him, and caused him to be led to his prison at Fasterne, 
where he kept him a whole week, till he induced him to make a 

248 The Despencers' Estates in Witts. 

quit-claim of the said property. Hespouse]: If the fact was before 
the exile of the Despencers, let the process sue according to statute. 
Ibid. [" Henry at Hok," means Henry who lived at Hook farna 
near Lediard Tregoz.] 

Morton Meysey. John of Meysey complains that Hugh le 
Despencer took from him his Manor of Morton Meysey, simply 
because it was adjoining to the said Hugh's Manor of Fasterne. 
HespoHse: Let certain persons be assigned in the Chancery to 
enquire. Ibid. This case, which is the only one in our list couched 
in English, ends thus. — There are many petitions of this nature 
for wrongs done by Hugh Spencer father and son." 

Chiseldon. John le Ferrour, (iron-smith), of Chiseldon, having 
lain long in the Marshalsea prison, prays deliverance on the ground 
that judgment was never given on the alleged felonies and tres- 
passes for which his enemies indicted him before the itinerant 
Justices in Wilts. Besponse: The Marshall and Seneschalls are 
directed by Chancery brief to take bail if the case be bailable. Ibid. 

Sheperugge. John, son of Raljjh Berd of Sheperugge, prays 
recovery of a pasture called Forlesse, a meadow called Westmead, 
and a fishery in the river Loddon there, leased to the elder 
Despencer, but now in the King's hands by forfeiture. Ibid a.d. 
1347. Sir John Blount makes a similar claim in respect of other 
lands at Sheperugge. [Sheperugge or Sheep-ridge, now spelt 
Sheep Bridge, lay in a detached part of the county, between 
Reading and Strathfieldsaye, and is now included in the County 
of Berks.] 

Many years afterwards, when parties were altogether changed, 
and Thomas le Despencer, the heir, petitioned for a reversal of 
attainder, in 1397, 21st Richard II., various documents were put 
in evidence before the King and council, to illustrate on the other 
hand, the oppressions practised by Queen Isabella's adherents, 
while the Despencers were in exile. As some of these point to 
Wiltshire, we must needs make a further extract. 

It was now remembered, among other things, how the Earl of 
Hereford, Roger Mortimer the nephew, Roger Mortimer the uncle, 
Roger Damory, John de Mowbray, Hugh Audley the father, Hugh 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries. 249 

Audley the son, Roger Clifford of Brimsfeld, Maurice Berkeley, 
Henry Tyeis, and John Mautravers, with their adherents, came, on 
a certain occasion, with force and arms, to the Manor of Fasterne, 
belonging to the said Hugh le Despencer the elder, and notoriously 
entered upon not only this manor, but all these following in Wilts: 
Wotton Basset, Tockenham, Brotetoune (Braden), Compton, Win- 
terbourne, Berwick, Send-Uphaven, Nether-Uphaven, Mershton, 
Chelesworth, Marden, Somerford, Hampton, Eton Beaumys (now 
in Berks), with their members and appurtenances; the said persons 
possessing themselves of the entire live and dead stock there found ; 
taking from the houses furniture, arms, armour, and lead ; rifling 
and pillaging the inmates ; taking the rents and debts of the tenants ; 
destroying the parks, hedges, and fishponds, and hunting the deer : 
and at Compton and some other places, even burning the houses, 
to the damage to the said Hugh (including ravages in other parts), 
of at least £30,000. On the same occasion the said persons entered 
the Abbey of Stanley in Wilts, and there breaking open the said 
Hugh's coffers, carried off one thousand pounds in money, together 
with his charters and other muniments, letters obligatory, cups of 
gold and silver, a vessel of silver, and other jewels, to the value of 
one thousand pounds. They then entered into our lord the King's 
Castle of Marlborough with force and arms, and there possessed 
themselves of the following articles belonging to the said Hugh ; 
that is to say, thirty-six sacks of wool, six pair of rich vestments, 
a library, a cup of gold for containing the body of our Lord (the 
Host), a cross of gold, a cross of ivory and ebony, and other 
ornaments appendant to his chapel there : to wit, cloth of gold, 
tapestry, coverlids, and other articles of the wardrobe, altogether 
amounting to £6,000. J. Waylen. 

By Thomas Beuoks Flowku, M.K.C.S., F.L.S., &c. 

At the General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archocological and 
Natural History Society, held at Warminster in August last, a 

2 K 

250 Wiltshire Notes and Queries. 

considerable degree of interest was manifested by the exhibition in 
the temporary museum, of a living plant of the rare " Cardnus 
fuberosus," (Linn), which had been presented to Mr. Wheeler many 
years since by the late Aylmer Bourke Lambert, Esq., who origi- 
nally discovered it in August, 1818, growing profusely in a truly 
wild thicket of brush- wood, called Great Ridge, on the "VViltshii-e 
doAvns, between Boj'ton House and Fonthill, as a species new to 
the British Flora. This thistle not having been found for some 
years in the above locality, which is the only one at present known 
for it in England, induces me to di-aw up a short description of 
this species, in order that it may not escape the observation of 
those Botanists resident in the county, who may feel desirous of 
visiting its locality during the ensuing summer. 

The " Carduus tuberosus." Circium of Koch and Decandolle. 

Tuberosus Plume Thistle, or Boyton Thistle as it is more frequently 
called in the neighbourhood, maj' readily be known by its woody 
creeping root, sending down perpendicularly many elliptical, taper- 
ing, flesh J' knobs, externally blackish. Stem about two feet high, 
erect straight, nearly solid, round furrowed, hairy, leafy, not at all 
winged, either quite simple and single flowered, or dividing with a 
branch or two near the top. Leaves green, and downy above, pale 
and cottony beneath ; all deeply pinnatified with divided spinous 
pointed lobes, fringed with fine prickles, the lower ones on long, 
slightly winged footstalks, upper nearly sessile; none decurrent. 
Flowers solitary at the summit of the stem or branch, erect, bright 
purple, twice the size of " Carduus palustris " or arvemis, and more 
resembling "heterojihyllus," but smaller; Calyx ovate, with spreading 
leafy scales, a little cottony, several of the outermost tipped with 
small spines. Seeds short, obovate, with long, slender, feathery 
down. It is Perennial, flowering in August. 

Such is the excellent description drawn up for this species, by 
my late valued friend Professor Don, who gathered the plant in 
company with Mr. Lambert, for many succsssive seasons. 

Two other localities were published some few years since, for 
this supposed species, one by Mr. Westcombe, in the first volume 
of the " Phytologist," p. 780, between St. Bonat's and Dunraven, 

Wiltshire Notes and Queries. 251 

Glamorganshire : the other by Mr. S. P.Woodward, on the farm of 
Mr. Thomas Arkell at Penh ill, about two miles from Swindon. 
From both these stations I have been favoured with specimens, 
which are now considered to be referable to very luxuriant examples 
of " C. jyratensis " rather than " C. tuberosiis." I may add that 
luxuriant states of " C. jii'atensis" differs from the ordinary form by 
its much more pinnatified and lobed leaves, and its heads of flowers 
often two or three, almost close together, but each one single on a 
long peduncle, the root has fleshy fusiform fibres or tubers, and is 
also stoloniferous. Thus it will be seen, that as yet no other 
habitat is certainly known for this very local plant, which has been 
found by so few English Botanists, besides the original one in this 
County, (Wilts). Should this slight sketch afibrd any gratification 
to those who may be pursuing their botanical researches in the 
county, or lead any to visit the locality and explore it for them- 
selves, it will have fulfilled one object which I have had in view; 
the other being to express my gratification at the distinguished 
success which the " Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society " has met with since its formation. 
September 26th, 1856. 

Family of Noyes. — A gentleman who has made considerable 
collections towards the illustration of the Genealogy of the Family 
of Noyes, which was settled at Erchfont, and intermarried with 
many of the oldest county families, the Erneleys, Eyres, Longs, 
Duckets, Kellaways, &c., early in the 16th century; and possessed 
considerable estates there and elsewhere in the county, from which 
it spread into the adjoining counties of Hants and Berks, would be 
extremely obliged by a communication from any members of the 
Wilts Society, who may be able to favour him with any information 
from early court rolls of manors, title deeds, or parish registers. 

The neighbourhood of All Cannings, Erchfont, Calne, Chal- 
fielf], Marlborough, Manningford, Devizes, Long Parish, Chute, 
Chesingbury, and Ramsbury in Wilts, and Andover in Hants, 
must possess information which would be of great value to the 
Subscriber. A Member of the Sussex Archwoloyical Society. 

2 K 2 



The Committee feel great pleasure in acknowledging the receipt of the following 
articles, presented to the Society: — 

By Rev. Canon Jackson, Leigh Delamere. — The History and Description 
of St. George's Church', Doncaster, destroyed by iire February the 28th, 1853. 
1 vol.. Imperial quarto, illustrated with numerous woodcuts and lithographs. By 
the donor. — Nichols and Sons, London, 1855. 

Bt J. Y. Akerman, Esq., F.S.A. — A Fine between Richard and Henry 
Rutter, and Daniel Champernoun and Mary his wife, of lands and tenements in 
Cricklade, 34 Elizabeth. 

By Rev. James Heney Hughes, M.A., Chaplain H.E.I.C.S. at Surat. — 
Laing's descriptive catalogue of Impressions from ancient Scottish Seals. Quarto 
numerous woodcuts and engravings. — Edinburgh, 1850. 

By Peofessoe Buckman, Cirencester. — Stone Celt, found near Stonehenge. 
Pamphlet on the removal and re-laying of Roman Tesselated floors. 

By the Associated AECHixECTtrEAL Societies of Noethampton, Yoek, 
Lincoln, "Woecestee, and Bedfoeshiee. — Reports and Papers read at their 
Meetings during the years 1854-5. 

By William Gaisfoed, Esq., Worton. — Medal struck to commemorate the 
capture of Porto Bello by Admiral Vernon in 1739 — found at "Worton. 

By R. Beotheehood, Esq., Chijjpenhain. — Fossil Mammalian Remains from 
the neighbourhood of Chippenham. 

By Rev. G. Ashe Goddaed, Clyffe Pypard. — Fossil Bones from the Kim- 
meridge Clay. 

By Me. Cunnington, F. G. S., Devizes. — Fossil Bones from the Drift and 
Alluvial Deposits near Chippenham. 

By the Essex Aech^ological Society. — Their proceedings for the years 

By Alfred J. Dunkin, Esq., Dartford, Kent. — The works of Ralph, Abbot 
of Coggeshal, edited by the donor. 1 vol., octavo, 1856. Sundry numbers of 
the Archaeological Mine, containing a History of Kent by the donor. 

By Me. W. F. Paesons, Wotton Basset. — Specimens of Romanised British 
Pottery, from a Pottery at "Wotton Basset. Drawing of a Chimney Piece at 
Fasterne House. Engraving of "Wotton Basset Church. 

By Miss "Wickens, Salisbury. — Dravring of the Seal of the "Weavers of the 
city of New Sarum. 

By Lovell Reeve, Esq., Wandsworth, Surrey. — The Literary Gazette (New 
Series) from the commencement to the present time, published by the donor. 

By R. Cowaed, Esq., Roundway. — Two bone ornaments, a pointed instrument 
of deer's horn, a flint arrow-head, two grooved whetstones, a larger whetstone, 
flint knife and quartz, pebble, found with an interment of biu-nt bones in the 
long barrow on Roundway HiU, September, 1856. 

By Me. Howitt, Devites. — Model of the Font in Preshute Church. 

By Me. Eyles, Winterbourne Monkton. — Ring, and two ornaments of jet, 
flint knife, portions of four urns, curiously wrought pebble, and disc of pottery, 
from an interment beneath a large sarsen stone at "Winterbourne Monkton ; also 
a large whetstone from another similar interment. 

H. Bull, Printer, St. John's Street, Devices. 



Irrlitpnlngiral nni Untiirnl listnri} 

No. IX. FEBRUARY, 1857. Vol. III. 



Account of the Fourth Geneeal Meeting, at Waeminstee, 

5th, 6th, and 7th August, 1857 253 

Articles exhibited at the Temporary Museum 266 

An Address on Archfeology: By the Rev. J. 0. Picton 271-280 

Draycot Foliot Church, (Destroyed :) By F. A. Carrington, Esq .... 280 

The History of Longleat : By the Rev. J. E. Jackson 281-312 

On the Music of the Middle Ages : By John Lambert, Esq 313-336 

On the Ornithology of Wilts (FalconidcB) : By the Rev. A. G. Smith 337-357 

An Account of Coleme Church : By E. "W. Godwin, Esq 358-366 

Notice of the Botany of Wiltshire : By T. B. Flower, Esq 366 

Mysterious Death of a Lord-Lieutenant of Wilts ; By J. Watlen, Esq. 367-376 
WiXTSHiEE Notes and Queries : By J. Watlen, Esq. : — 
Wiltshire during the Civil Wars ; Accident to Charles Dry den at 

Charlton Park, near Malmsbury 376 

Clothmaking temp : Henry VIII 378 

Birthplace of W. Pitt, First Earl of Chatham 379 

Noyes Family 380 



Longleat House ". 281 

Seal of the Priory of Longleat 283 

Murder of Thos. Thynne, Esq., in Pail-Mall 298 

Illustrations of Mediajval Music 336 

Colerne Church, 1, Ground Plan 358 

2, East End , exterior do. 

3, Section through Chancel looking Nortli 

(restored) do. 

4, Sediliu in Chancel do. 

Accident to Charles Dryden at Charlton Park 377 


Henby Bull, Saint John Street. 


JJki.i, &. D.vLDY, 18G, Fleet Street; J. R. Smith, 36, Sono Square. 









3Eilts!)ire ^rdjajological antr i^atural Historg ^ocietg, 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, 5th, 6th, and 7th of August, 



The Most Honourable the Marquis of Bath. 

The Fourth Anniversary Meeting of the Society commenced at 
one o'clock on Tuesday, 5th August, with a public assembly in the 
Town Hall, "Warminster ; the chair being taken, in the temporary 
absence of the President, the Marquis of Bath, by the vicar, the 
Rev. Prebendary Fane, who opened the proceedings with the 
following address : — Ladies and gentlemen : I feel considerable 
difl&culty in assuming the chair upon this occasion ; but my apology 
is that it is the wish of the Council, and particularly of the noble 
President, that I should do so in his absence. The occupations 
which almost ceaselessly devolve upon me, render me, however, 
unfit for such a post ; but, if an earnest and hearty desire to promote 
the objects of the Society, and the satisfaction which I feel in 
seeing the members of it assembled in my parish — if this be any 
claim to my occupying the chair, as deputy, all I can say is, that 
it gives me sincere pleasure to do so. The custom has hitherto 
been — and it is a custom which I am now desired to continue — for 
the President or Vice-President, for the time being, to explain to 

VOL. in. — NO. IX. 2 L 

254 Fourth General Meeting. 

the members who may be present what the real objects of these 
meetings are, and what the chief object of the Society is, in visiting 
different parts of the county — first one corner, then another. First 
of all, then, the principal purpose of the Wiltshire Archaeological 
Society, is to preserve objects of local curiosity — whether ecclesias- 
tical, domestic, or of remote antiquity — by a sort of fostering hand, 
a superintending care, an eye in fact which shall overlook every 
kind of curiosity in this county : to preserve the interesting remains 
of ecclesiastical and of domestic architecture — in fact, to promote 
a taste for ecclesiastical and domestic archaeology. But we felt, 
when the Society was established, that we required more than this, 
and we added — and in my opinion added wisely — the study of 
Natural History. Therefore you are not to look upon us as mere 
seekers after dry bones, as men whose only purpose is to dig among 
bricks and mortar, and endeavour to ferret out of old hiUs objects 
of curiosity ; but you are to regard us as persons whose endeavour 
is to promote, to the utmost of our power, a taste, not only for Ar- 
chaeology, but a taste for Natural History. There is another object 
which, I confess, influences me very largely in undertaking as I have, 
a considerable share in the troubles and labours attendant upon the 
present meeting — and it is this. There is always a difficulty in this 
country, in drawing together all classes of people for one common 
object, without what are called in geology the "faults" and "breaks," 
which so frequently occur in the peculiar social condition of society 
in England. It is therefore, in my opinion, a great thing to intro- 
duce any object like the present in which a common interest may 
be excited — any object in which all classes may combine, as we see 
them combined on this occasion, from the noble Marquis who has 
so kindly undertaken to act as our President, down to those who 
labour in the sweat of their brow — and who I may truly say have 
laboured in the sweat of their brow, in adorning the room in which 
I hope we shall all of us presently eat a good dinner. It is, I repeat, 
this object especially — viz. : the uniting of all classes in mutual 
harmony and goodwill — so that Devizes may have a day's honey- 
moon with AVarminster, and Warminster may have a day's honey- 
moon with Salisbury — and Devizes and Salisbury and Warminster 

The Rev. Prebendary Fane's Address. 255 

may spend a day's honeymoon together — town with town, village 
with village, exchanging what I take to be a high part of our 
oflFice — viz. : those offices of hospitality and good- will which, believe 
me, are an integral part of our system, and without which I am 
convinced the social frame can never hold securely together. It is 
this, I repeat, which especially commends the Society to my feelings 
and which induces me, and will continue to induce me, to give it 
my warmest and most cordial support. 

And now having set before you the class of objects which the 
Society has in view, it will be my duty (for the information of those 
who have never attended one of these meetings before), to explain 
the causes of the Society being instituted in this county. It was 
felt, then, from the first, that very few counties in England ought 
to have a stronger and more abiding claim upon archaeologists than 
Wiltshire ; because there are few counties which present so complete 
a series of antiquities from more remote to later periods of oxir 
history. For instance, within a short distance of this town where 
we are met, we have on one of our hill-tops — which I hope some 
of you will inspect before you leave — the first encampment of the 
ancient Belgic warriors, where from their fastnesses they looked 
down on the valley beneath. Again, hard by, we have the more 
fiinished — the more accomplished, if I may call it so — fortifications 
of Battlesbury, where the emblems of that military power which 
so long possessed our land may still be traced. And, still again 
within easy reach, we have our full share of later antiquities. We 
may find, for instance, in our churches, many signs of mediaeval 
times — of those times when the crusader went forth, carrying with 
him the love of his God (however mistaken his notions may have 
been according to our more modem views). Thus, our cathedral 
contains the noble Longespee ; and in some of our parish churches 
close by — in one of which I have myself a strong interest — may be 
seen the still-existing effigies of the crusaders of the middle ages. 
Again, coming down to yet later times, may be found various 
remains of extreme interest. Need I remind you that Wiltshire 
contains that magnificent house, which represents a sort of dark 
interval between the middle ages and the later times. When I 

2 L 2 

256 Fourth General Meeting. 

speak of Littlecote — the representative of which house is here to-day, 
in the person of Mr. Prebendary Popham — and recollect the various 
incidents and romances connected with it, and which give it such 
an abiding interest — I say, when I refer to Littlecote — a house 
which Macaulay has perpetuated in his pages — I feel that I am not 
wrong in selecting it as one of the great points of Wiltshire 
archaeological attraction. Again, need I — standing under the 
picture which hangs over my head^ — remind you that close in the 
vicinity of this town stands the most splendid specimen of the 
later Tudor times that is perhaps to be found in England — a man- 
sion which, in the days of Camden, was remarkable in its way, but 
which is now far more remarkable, and will be more remarkable 
still before we leave this neighbourhood. — That house is thus 
described by Camden : — 

" The west limit of this shire goeth down directly from hence 
southward, by Longleat, the dwelling-place of the Thins, a very 
faire, neate, and elegante house, in a foule soile, which although 
once or twice it hath been burnt, hath risen eftsones more faire." 

I will at once say that, much as I respect Camden, I believe that 
"the foule soile" which he describes as surrounding this "neate 
and elegante" house, and which brought upon it the sharp asperity 
of our friend, consisted of nothing more than a pond, which has 
long since been emptied. As to the house itself a more interesting 
specimen of the later Tudor times, as I have before said, does not 
perhaps exist. It was here, (as Macaulay, I thiok, mentions) that 
Monmouth entertained the peasantry of those periods, who met in 
admiration of his person — here that he gathered together "the 
hearts and loves of this western part of England." Here again 
it was, in later times, that the venerable Ken sighed out his weary 
pilgrimage, submitting with perfect contentment of soul to the 
cross he had to bear — yes, here, beneath the shades of Longleat, 
it was that he whose memory will live as long as the English 
tongue remains, and as long as the praises of God are sung in 
morning and evening hjinns — here it was that Ken found a rest 

1 Thomas, Marqiiis of Bath, grandfather of the present Marquis. 

The Rev. Prebendary Fane's Address. 257 

from the disturbances of his times, and amidst the hospitable repose 
of Longleat was enabled gradually to prepare himself for that 
passage to another world, which was so easy and so holy, that it 
seemed, I may say, more like the shifting from one scene to another, 
than like the rapid shock of a passage from timie to eternity ! 
Again I might remind you that in this part of Wiltshire is collected 
together the finest collection of ancient British remains that is to 
be found in the world. I allude to the collection at Stourhead, in 
the possession of the present Sir Hugh Hoare. 

After stating that the Bishop of the diocese woiild be presently 
among them, and that nothing but iUness prevented the Dean also 
from being present, the Rev. Chairman proceeded : — I was last week 
privileged to see the completion of the greatest work in ecclesiology 
that this county has presented within the recollection of any human 
being. That magnificent building, the Chapter-house at Salisbury — 
which was left, as it were, mouldering away under the neglect and 
contempt of past ages — I have lived to see restored, not only to its 
pristine, but something more than its pristine beauty, by the energy 
of the cathedral body — by the energy of the Bishop and the Dean, 
acting upon the laity and the clergy, on the strongest of all grounds 
on which they could base their appeal — viz., that of respect to the 
memory of our late diocesan. I say, I have seen that magnificent 
building restored to its pristine beauty ; and if this Society had 
done no other work than this — if its members had done no more 
than call the attention of the clergy and laity — as at the meeting 
at Salisbury was especially the case — to that most interesting 
building, I should feel perfectly satisfied, and amply rewarded for 
any exertion that I have ever made in its behalf. Perhaps a better 
contrast between the times which are past and the times which are 
present could hardly be foimd than in this restoration of the 
Chapter-house. In times past — say 150 years ago — the Chapter- 
house at Salisbury might have been seen very much in the position — 
I say it without irreverence — of a man who is intoxicated. It was 
reeling on its legs, and the wind had blown it round to a position 
from which a little more would have blown it over altogether. 
What did they do ? You may suppose that they all assembled, 

258 Fourth General Meeting. 

and subscribed largely to put the building to rights. But no ; I'll 
tell you what they did. They found the middle pillar in a most 
uncertain and tottering position — in such a state that it was indeed 
a mercy it did not fall; and — what do you suppose they did? 
They got together all the blacksmiths in Salisbury, if not all the 
blacksmiths in the county, and they welded together a number of 
things, something like the splints which are used to mend mens' 
legs when they are broken, and with these they tied and buckled 
all the loose members of the Chapter-house to the loosest member 
of all — the pillar in the middle ; so that when you entered the 
building it gave you the idea of a spider's web of iron. That was 
their idea of restoration ! But a fresh spirit came over the land ; 
archaeology, directed by religion, and warmed by a right sense of 
the honour due to the temples of God, revived, and the result has 
been, that you cannot now see in all England — and I know some- 
thing of the majesty of York, and of the elegance of Lincoln — 
I say, as an adopted Wiltshireman, that you cannot now see 
throughout the length and breadth of our land, a building so 
peculiar in its character, and at the same time so beautiful, as the 
restored Chapter-house of our glorious Cathedral. 

The rev. gentleman in conclusion said, the Society, he thought, 
might safely appeal to the sympathies of the clergy in reference 
to the restoration of ecclesiastical edifices. He referred to the 
clergy because they were, by their oflB.ce, the guardians of these 
ancient magnificent temples of God. How grateful ought they 
to be when a Society like this came forward, and, drawing together 
the energy, muscle, and strength of difierent members of society, 
all thrown into one common stock, said — " Let us guard these 
buildings — let us promote their restoration as a society — let us 
kindle in the minds of the public a reverence for these monuments 
of our forefathers. Up to the present time, the meetings of this 
Society had been most successful. — The first was held at Devizes, 
but that was only of a preliminary character. There were, however, 
plain indications of the way in which this Society would take root 
in the county. They saw the Noble Marquis of Lansdowne taking 
a large and active interest in the subject. They saw, again, one 

The Rev. Prebendary Fane's Address. 259 

whose absence he particularly regretted, Mr. Poulett Scrope, giving 
all the energies of his cultivated mind to carry out their views. — 
But he must be allowed to say that the gentlemen who formed the 
backbone of the Society — the real vertebrae — ^were present. The 
first of these was his reverend friend, Mr. Lukis, who, if there 
were a barrow to be opened, a Roman pillar to be picked out, or a 
bell to be rung, was present ready to proceed. Next in order came 
an old school-fellow of his, the Rev. Canon Jackson, who, when 
there was an old parchment which nobody could make out, or a 
musty record of an old farm house which nobody could decipher, 
was ready at once to unfold its contents. The third gentleman was 
his reverend friend, Mr. Smith, who identified himself with the 
winged creation. The fourth gentleman he should describe was 
the resurrection-man of the Mammoth and the Boar — a man who, 
leaving the ancient Briton and his ancestors to repose in peace, 
devoted himself to the primaeval records of the world, and thereby 
rendered himself a kind of absolute peer in Archaeology — he meant 
Mr. Cunnington of Devizes. If the members of the Society thought 
that the Noble Marquis of Lansdowne, the Noble Marquis of Bath, 
Mr. Poulett Scrope, or any other gentleman, had a higher claim to 
their gratitude than the gentlemen whose names he had mentioned, 
he would tell them that they made a mistake precisely similar to 
that which would suppose that the legs, arms, eyes, or ears, could 
do their office without the spinal marrow which passed through the 
back bone, represented by the vertebrae he had referred to. Having 
announced in detail the various proceedings which had been arranged 
for the present meeting, the Chairman, in conclusion, expressed, 
on behalf of his fellow-townsmen, the great pleasure they expe- 
rienced at the meeting of the Society in Warminster. 

Mr. Ravenhill said he believed it had been arranged that the 
Bishop of the diocese should preside at the conversazione in the 
evening. He was sorry therefore to be the unwelcome informant 
that his lordship, who had come into the neighbourhood the previous 
evening, had been taken so unwc^ll in the middle of the night that 
he had been oblig(3d to lotuni to Salisbury. With respect to the 
Dean, he wua glad to say that the cause which prevented him from 

260 Fourth Oeneral Meeting. 

being present, was not indisposition, but an engagement in London, 
which he was obliged to keep. 

At the request of the Chairman, the Rev. Mr. Lukis (one of the 
Secretaries), then read 


The Committee of the Wilts Archaeological and Natural History- 
Society have little to add to their Report of last year. They are 
happy in being able to state that many new members have been 
added to the list ; and that the Society is making that gradual and 
steady progress in the coim^ty which was anticipated. 

We have to regret the loss by decease of two life members, 
Joseph Neeld, Esq., Thomas Poynder, Esq.: and of one annual 
subscriber, Mr. Woodman ; and the withdrawal, or removal from 
the county, of nine members. 

The cash account of the Society, up to the end of the year 1855, 
has been published in the latest number issued (No. YII). of the 
Society's Magazine. It need not therefore be further adverted to 
now, except to state the gratifying fact that there then remained 
in the hands of the Treasurer and Local Secretaries, a balance of 
£287 2s. lO^d., of which £200 has been invested in exchequer 
biUs, bearing interest. 

The Committee are sorry that the publication of the Report of 
last year's General Meeting at Chippenham should have been so 
long delayed ; but it was owing to several unavoidable circimistances. 
At the period of that Meeting the previous number of the Magazine 
(No. VI). had only just been placed in the hands of the printer, 
and was not completed so speedily as the Committee had wished. 
Another reason may be found in the long and serious illness of 
our printer. But we would especially desire to be understood 
by the members of the Society that no inconsiderable part of the 
delay arises from their own diffident and retiring dispositions which 
80 long continue to withhold those valuable original communications, 
which our Magazine especially courts. In default, however, of a 
regular supply of such original communication, other resources are 
available to which it may be desirable to call your attention. 

Society's Re^wrt. 261 

It will he in your recollection that the Society was formed " for 
the promotion of all objects connected with the elucidation and 
study of the general Topography of the county of Wilts," or in 
other words, " to coUect materials for a County History." 

It has been suggested by Mr. Scrope, and others, that the Com- 
mittee should issue, from time to time, in the Magazine, reprints, 
either literally or in abstract, of parts of large, expensive, and 
inaccessible works already published on Wiltshire, as well as curious 
pamphlets relating to the county, which may be out of print. 
These would be found most useful by all who desire to furnish 
the Society with communications respecting their own localities, 
but who have no means of reference to many of these expensive 
and comparatively scarce works. 

By way of explaining their meaning your Committee would 
particularize the kind of auxiliary publications to which they allude. 

Abstracts or Extracts: 

1. From Sir R. C. Hoare's Ancient and Modern Wilts. 

2. „ The Wiltshire Institutions, from the Salisbury Registers. 

3. ,, The account of Religious Houses in the County, in Dug- 

dale's Monasticon, Tanner's Notitia, and the Monas- 
ticon Wiltonense. 

4. „ Aubrey's unpublished works. 

5. „ The Heralds' Visitations of Wilts. 

6. „ The large volumes of Public Records, as: — The Yalor 

Ecclesiasticus, The Inquisitions Post Mortem, Hun- 
dred Rolls, &c. 

7. „ Curious notes from Parish Registers, copies of Monu- 

mental Inscriptions in Churches. 

8. „ Miscellaneous Collections or Notices about Wilts, in 

various Archajological and Topographical works, 
such as : — The Collectanea Topographica, Brajdey's 
Graphic Illustrator, Collinson, I*cnruddock Wynd- 
ham, Waagcn's Account of Wiltshire Pictures, The 
ArchBeological Journals, &c. 

2 M 

262 Fourth General Meeting. 

9. From Manuscripts in the British Museum and other Public 

Libraries, College Libraries, The Collections alluded 
to in the Stourhead Catalogue, Copies of Curious 
Deeds or Charters in private hands. Charters of 
Forests, &c. 

10. ,, Biographies of Eminent "Wiltshire Men, Local Mono- 

graphs, or descriptions of particular objects, houses, 
churches, and the like, which may have appeared in 
other publications. 

The general object of the Society is, in short, to bring together, 
and to one point if possible, whatever bears upon, or is likely to 
illustrate Wiltshire History. 

The Committee have not been altogether immindful of the other 
interesting and important branch of the Society's pursuits, viz. : 
Natural Histor3^ A series of papers on Ornithology have been 
published in the Magazine, and we are to be favoured with another 
on the "Flora" of the county, scientifically arranged, by a gentleman 
who has been for some years engaged in preparing them. And the 
subject of Wiltshire Geology will, we hope, receive some elucidation 
at our present meeting. 

Another subject which has occupied the attention of your Com- 
mittee has been the propriety of taking some steps for the more 
permanent establishment of a County Museum, but they are not at 
this moment prepared to lay any distinct project before you." 

The Report was ordered to be printed. 

The Chaikman then moved that the Right Hon. Sidney Herbert 
be requested to accept the office of President of the Society for the 
next three years, in the place of Mr. Poulett Scrope, which was 
unanimously agreed to. 

The Rev. J. 0. Picton, curate of Rowde, then delivered an 
address on "Archaeology," which ^411 be found in a subsequent 

The Dinner took place in the large National School-room in 
West-street, which under the superintendence of the Rev. A. Fane, 
had been decorated with an endless variety of illustrations bearing 
upon Archaeology, interspersed with appropriate scriptural texts in 

Fourth General Meeting^ 263 

illuminated characters, and witli mottoes inculcating piety, patriot- 
ism, and good fellowship. The chair was occupied by the Marquis of 
Bath, and the company numbered about 230, including a large 
proportion of ladies. 

An evening meeting was held at the Town Hall, under the 
presidency of Archdeacon Macdonald. The papers read were 
"On the Fossil Mammalia of "Wiltshire," by Mr. William 
Cunnington; and a lecture by Mr. Lambert, of Salisbury, on 
"Ancient Music," with vocal illustrations by the lecturer to a 
piano-forte accompaniment. 


In the morning an Excursion party, under the direction of the 
Rev. J. Baron, Rector of Upton Scudamore, visited the camps of 
Battlebury and Scratchbury, two of the most celebrated ancient 
military positions in Wiltshire, and immediately commanding the 
town of Warminster. 

In the afternoon the Society was received at Longleat, by the 
noble President of the meeting. About 600 persons were present, 
including his lordship and several members of his family, the 
principal gentry and clergy of the neighbourhood, both in Wilts 
and Somerset. The company were welcomed by the noble Marquis 
at the entrance to the gardens, with a courteous attention which 
was unremittingly continued throughout the day, and added largely 
to the gratification of his numerous visitors. The weather was of 
the finest. The house was liberally thrown open to inspection ; and 
about half-past three o'clock the summons was given to an enter- 
tainment in the Great Hall. This, it will be scarcely necessary to 
say, was provided upon a scale of the most generous and princely 
hospitality, involving, it is to be feared, a much greater amount of 
trouble and cost in the needful arrangements than the Society would 
at all desire to impose upon those noblemen and gentlemen who are 
disposed to honour them with encouragement. In this particular 
kind of reception, it has had to acknowledge upon former occasions, 
at Bowood, Wilton house, the Episcopal Palace at Salisbury, and 
elsewhere, similar marks of attention. It will bo very long before 

2 M 2 

264 Fourth General Meeting. 

its members forget the day and manner of their welcome to 

The festivities in the hall being over, the company adjourned to 
the flower-garden, to listen to an "open air" address from the 
Rev. Canon Jackson, of Leigh Delamere, upon the history of the 
house, and the family of Thynne. It was delivered from the 
terrace, the audience finding places, some on seats, others on the 
lawn. At its conclusion, Captain Gladstone, of Bowden-park, 
called upon the company to thank the noble Marquis for his hospi- 
tality, and the Rev. Canon for his history ; after which the evening 
was pleasantly spent in various ways, until their return to War- 

On the route back, Woodhouse Castle and Horningsham Church 
were visited. A paper on the history of the Castle, by W. Wansey, 
Esq., will be found in the present number of the Magazine. 

At a conversazione, held at a later hour at the Town Hall, 
lectures were given : — ^by the Rev. J. Baron, " On Anglo-Saxon 
Derivations" ; by the Rev. D. Malcolm Clerk, of "Kingston DeveriU, 
on "Coins"; and by the Rev. A. C. Smith, of Yatesbury, on that 
long-lost but lately recovered inhabitant of Wiltshire, "The 
Bustard." Mr. Fane concluded by an address on the subject of 
" St. Lawrence's Chapel," at Warminster, now in course of 


The proceedings began with a Public Breakfast at the Bath 
Arms, Warminster ; after which Mr. Cunnington read, at the 
Town Hall, a paper on some Barrows recently opened on Roundway 
down. Excursions were then made ; one to Crockerton and the 
Deverills, the Rev. W. Barnes kindly acting as guide, the Rev. 
W. D. Morrice as caterer : another, to Heytesbury, tJpton-Lovell, 
Stockton house, and Boyton. 

Boyton Church was examined under the direction of the pro- 
prietor of the estate, the Rev. Prebendary Fane : whose account 
of its ancient owner, the Giffards, and their interesting chapel on 
the south side, wiU be found in vol. I., page 233, of this publication. 

Fourth General Meeting. 265 

The Rev. Prebendary then entertained the company with a luncheon 
under a marquee, in a meadow near Boy ton house ; after which 
they walked to Sherrington, about a mile off, to examine the site 
of its ancient castle, and to hear an interesting account of it, 
likewise kindly given by Mr. Fane. Sherrington church was then 
visited, and the day's proceedings closed with further hospitality 
supplied at the rectory, by the Rev. M. Anderson. Under the 
directions of Dr. Thurnam of Devizes, a Barrow was opened this 
afternoon on Boyton Down; but without yielding any thing of 
material novelty. 

During the excursion to Boyton, a botanical party found one of 
the rarest British plants, the cyperus longus. Specimens of the 
carduus tuberosus were also exhibited at Warminster. These plants 
are only to be found in this neighbourhood. Among the latter 
party was Mr. T. B. Flower, of Bath, who is preparing a Flora of 
the covmty of Wilts, at the request of the Society. 

H. A. Merewether, Esq. and Mr. Sergeant Wrangham were 
added to the list of Yice-Presidents, in the place of the late Joseph 
Neeld, Esq. and W. Salmon, Esq. 

The Society is under great obligation to the Rev. the Vicar of 
Warminster, the Rev. Charles Paul, and Mr. J. C. Fussell, of 
the same place, for their assiduity in making the arrangements for 
this agreeable anniversary. 


The large room on the ground floor of the Town Hall was used 
for this purpose : containing specimens of geology, ornithology, and 
mediaeval relics. Subjoined is a list of the articles exhibited. It 
is to be hoped that all who have the means of forwarding this object 
of the Society wiU not hesitate to do so, year after year ; the museum 
being one of the most interesting and instructive adjuncts to the 
anniversary meeting, and presenting the real and visible history of 
times and manners. 


% %ml nf 5lrtirk0 feliiliiteit 



August 5th, 1856. 

[Those marked with an Asterisk have been presented to the Society.] 

By Sir Chaeies Barbt: — 

Part of an ancient Lachrymatory, or tear bottle, and sixteen Roman coins, 
foiind in excavating for the new Houses of Parliament at Westminster. 
Bt J. T. Akerman, Esq., F.S.A., London: — 

• Silver Penny of WUliam the Conqueror, struck at Cricklade. 
Bt W. Wansey, Esq., F.S.A.:— 

A parchment scroll inscribed with the "Passio Christi," in old English 
quaint verse, and adorned with many drawings, coloured and gilt — supposed 
date: 15th century. 

Twelve Clay Moulds for Roman Coins (the coin in one of them) found at 
Lingwell Gate, near Wakefield. 
By J. Britton, Esq., Burton Street, London: — 

Drawings of Longleat House and Gardens, Charlton House, Corsham 
House, Font in Stanton Fitz- Warren Church, &c. 
By J. B. Nichols, Esq., F.S.A., Parliament Street, London: — 

Copy of Sir R. C. Hoare's " Modern Wiltshire," (Hundred of Westbury), 
and plates from " Ancient Wiltshire," by the same author. 
By F. a. Carrington, Esq., Ogbourne St. George: — 

Officer's Helmet and Gauntlet, temp. Civil Wars ; Pikeman's Helmet, 
Officer's Half Pike, 1745; Sword of Marlborough Yeomanry, 1794; Gry- 
phite from North Wilts; Photographs from an Anglo-Saxon MS.; an 
Indulgence, date 1479, and note of H. Pollock, Esq. ; Book of Antiquities 
in the Royal Museum of Copenhagen, &c., &c 
By Mrs. Seymottb, Knoyle House: — 

Two specimens from the Tombs of the Caliphs, (Cairo). Two ancient 
Athenian Mirrors. Piece of a Tomb from Thebes, with Paintings and 
Hieroglyphics. Model of Tomb with figures fitting into it, (Thebes). 
Ancient Mirror, (Cairo). Two Abyssinian War Clubs. Mummy Snake 
and Ibis. Tile dug up at Glastonbury. Byzantine Picture, representing 
SS. Peter and Paul, taken from Sebastopol, 1855. Block of Malachite 
from Siberia. 

TIw Museum. 267 

Br H. J. F. SwATNE, Esq., Netherhampton House: — 

A circular Silver Seal, of decorated date, with the arms of Giffard — three 
lions passant in pale, borne on a lozenge in the centre, legend " *S, Mab- 
GAEETi Gttfard " ; found at Codford. 
By G. Alexandek, Esq., Westrop House, Highworth : — 

A large Map of the neighbourhood of Warminster, showing the Chxirches, 
Encampments, and other objects of interest proposed to be visited by the 
members of the Society dviring the Meeting. 
By Miss Bennett : — 

A round Shield, apparently of Norman date, discovered at Berwick St. 
Leonard. Roman Urn, found at Norton. 
By Rev. J. Baeon, Upton Scudamore : — 

Models of York Minster, Canterbury Cathedral, and Salisbury Cathedral. 
By Rev. G. T. Mabsh, Sutton Benger : — 

Male specimen of the Great Bustard, captured near Hungerford in 
January, 1856. See "Wilts Magazine," vol. III. p. 139. 
Bi' Rev. E. Wilton, Weit Lavington: — 

Saxon Knife, found with skeletons at Elston ; Fibula, from West Laving- 
ton Downs ; Spring of Romano British Lock ; and Gutta Percha impression 
of Secretum of William of Edington, Bishop of Winchester. 
By Rev. W. Beunton, Wartuinster : — 

A series of rubbings from Monumental Brasses, many of them belonging 
to the county of Wilts. 
By Rev. J. Knight, Heyteshury : — 

Impressions from the two Seals of Heytesbury Hospital, in use before and 
since the year 1633. The former bears a cross bottonee, with the legend 
"l^lSiGiLL.' Doir. ELiMO. Waxt. & RoB. DD. HvNG. & DE. Heitsbebi"; 
the latter a female figure, crowned, holding in her right hand a sword, and 
in the left a spiked wheel, legend "jji Sigillvm . Hospitalis . ijr be . 
Haytesbeei." Both are engraved in Hoare's " Modern Wilts," Hundred 
of Heytesbury, p. 128. 
By Rev. G. Powell, Sutton Veney : — 

Thirty-two cases of stuffed birds, including many Wiltshire specimens. 
By Rev. D. Malcolm Cleek, Kingston Deverell : — 

A large collection of Coins, containing examples of all ages, from the 
most ancient mintages of JEgina, Persia, and Lydia, to the milled money 
of Charles II. of England. Among the number was included the famous 
Petition Crown, produced by Simon, the celebrated die-sinker, as a trial- 
piece against an artist who was employed by Charles. The obverse has a 
bust of the King of most exquisite workmanship, and round the edge of the 
coin is the following petition in two lines : — 

" Thomas . Simon . most humbly prays your Majesty to compare 

this, his tryal piece, with the Dutch, and, if more truly drawn, and 

embossed, more gracefully ordered, and more accurately engraven, to 

relieve him." 

The whole of these examples were referred to and explained by the 

exhibitor, in a short notice of the monies of Great Britain, read by him 

during the meeting. 

268 The Mimum. 

By Rev. H. Mato Gunx, Warminster: — 
Box containing a variety of Minerals. 
By Rev. C. Paul, Warminster: — 

A white damask cloth, of foreign manufactiire, with ecclesiastical figures 
and inscription. — date 17th century. 
By Mr. Vekxon W. Aenold, Architect, Dulte Street, Adelphi, London ; — 
A series of seventeen drawings of the Collegiate Church of Edington, 
comprising exterior and interior views, plans, elevations, sections, and 
details, accurately drawn to scale, and intended for publication, by sub- 
scription, in imperial folio. 
Bt Mk. CimNrNGTON, F.G.S., Devizes: — 

Fossils from the Upper Green Sand of Wiltshire, including specimens of 
Nautilus simplex, of very large size, and a series of smaller individuals. 
Nautilus elegans. Seventeen species of Pecten. Large specimens of Dian- 
chora. Seven species of Lima-Astacus (from Potterne). Cidaris insignis. 
Cidaris velifer, with spines. 

TurrUites from the Chalk Marl of North Wilts, Elephants' grinders and 
bones. Teeth of Rhinoceros tichorhinus (from Bulford and Bradford). 
Bones of Bos primigenius, Cervus elephas, and other Wiltshire Mammals. 
By Majob Geove, Zeals: — 

An interesting collection of personal objects connected with the history of 
the Grove family dtiring the civil wars. A more full account of these 
articles will be found in vol. II. p. 29 — 30. 
By T. N. Lewis, Esq., Wedhampton : — 

Pass granted by Oliver Cromwell to Sir William Godolphin, with the 
Protector's Autograph. 
By Me. W. Snelgeove, Corsley ; — 

Two cases of Fossils, and Fossil Horn of Deer, from the Chalk. 
By Me. W. Seagram, Warminster: — 

Specimen of Polypothecia expansa, var. 2., from the Green Sand of 
By Me. G. Vicaey, Warminster: — 

An ancient Seal of lead, found on Battlesbury. It is of circular form, 
and bears a fleur-de-lis, the central leaf of which terminates in a star, 
legend : — " * S' Tome Stiwarb." Also several specimens of Irish Marbles, 
polished and unpolished. 
By Mr. R. E, Vardy, Warminster: — 

Roman Urn, found at Orcheston, Wilts ; with fragments of two others of 
a similar kind. Portions of the hair of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, 
from the va\ilt beneath his monument in St. Alban's Abbey, opened in the 
year 1703. 
By the Warminstee Literary and Scientific Institution : — 

A large collection of Shells, Minerals, and Fossils, the latter from the 
various strata of the neighbourhood. A fine preserved specimen of the 
Great Bustard, captured on Salisbury Plain. A piece of Carved Oak, of 
Perpendicular date, from the Chapel of St. Lawrence. 

The Museum. 269 

By Mr, Howitt, Devizes: — 

Chart Compass, engraved with name of " CW/^/ J'.'p Kcmjdhorne" ; also 
his Arms and Crest. Supposed to be the Rear Admiral Sir- John Kempthorne 
of 16G5. 
By Mr, Wheeler, Warminster: — 

A living plant of the " Carduits fttberosus," or Boyton Thistle. See 
"Wilts Magazine," vol. III. p. 249. 
By Mr. Baker, Warminster : — 

A collection of Fossils, from the Upper Green Sand and Chalk of the 

In addition to the above list, many other articles of considerable interest were 
contributed by the Society from the Museum at Devizes. Amongst these a 
a series of casts and impressions from the Seals of the various Monastic and 
other bodies, formerly existing in the county, of -nhich a list is here appended, 
deserves especial notice. Many of these casts are from the collection of the late 
John Caley, Esq., and were presented to the Society by the Rev. John Ward, 
rector of Wath, Yorkshii-e. 

Seal of liichard Beauchamp, Bishop of Sarum, from a deed of a.d. 1470, 
by which the Vicar of Steeple Ashton is to have the Tythes of Semyngton. 
Seal of the Vicar-General of Sarum, in red wax. 
Seal of the Cathedral Church of St. Mary, Sarum, in red wax. 
Seal of the Vicars Choral of Sarum. 

Seal of the Treasui'cr of Sarxim, from an impression attached to a deed 
of A.D. 1274. — Chapter House, Westminster. 

Seal and Coiuiterseal of Robert Bingham, Bishop of Sarum, [1228 — 46] 
from an impression in the Duchy of Lancaster Office. 

Counterseal of the Dean and Chapter of Sarum, from the same. 
Seals of Rob* de Doryngton, Rector* of Lacock, and of Richard de Bello, 
Canon of Sarum, from impressions in the Chapter House, Westminster. 

Seal of the Hospital of St. jS'icholas, Sarum, from an impression in the 
Duchy of Lancaster Office. 

Seal of the College of St. Edmund, Sarum, I'rom a Matrix on red wax in 
the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Seal of the Weavers of the City of New Sarum. 

Seal of the Official of the Archdeacon of Wilts, a.d. 14G6. Probate. 
Chapter House, Westminster. 

Seal of the office of Alnager Co. Wilts, 17 Edw. III.: "S.' Subs: 
Pan.norum i.\ Com : Wii/rs." 

Seal of the Priory of Bradcnstoke, Wilts, from an impression attached 
to the Surrtuder, dated Jan. K, lO.'iJ), [;30 lieu. Vlll.] in the Augmentation 

Seal and Counterseal of the Priory of Bradeustokc, from the Augmentation 

*'rhlii numc dom not occur in the lint of I^ucoclc incumbcntit, printcci in BowIch nnd Nicliols' 
" Uintury of Ijicix'k .Vljljcy," p. 2i)'J-301, wWcli includes only tUe Viiura uommeucluK a.u, 1l'20. 

2 N 

270 The Museum. 

Seal of the Priory of Pulton, Wilts, from the Sun-ender in the Aug- 
mentation Office. 

Seal of the Priory of Longleat, "Wilts, from the Archives of the Marquis 
of Bath. 

Seal of the Priory of Ederose," Wilts, from the Aiigmentation Office — 
date 1 Hen. VI. 

Seal of the Priory of Wilton, from the Surrender in the Augmentation 

Seal of the Nunnery of Wilton, from a Conventual Lease, 29 Hen. VIII., 
in the Augmentation Office. 

Seal of William, Abbot of Kingswood, Wilts, from the Augmentation 

Seal of the Abbey of Kingswood, from the Surrender in the Augmentation 

Counterseal of Kingswood Abbey. 

Another impression of the same, from the Tower of London, 

Seal of the Abbot of Kingswood, fi-om the Tower. 

Seal and Counterseal of the Priory of Kingswood, from a Conventual 
Lease, temp. Hen. VIII. , in the Augmentation Office. 

Seal of the Hospital at Heytesbury, Wilts, in use since a.d. 1633. 

Seal of the Prior of the Carmelites at Marlborough, from a Matrix in the 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Seal of Frampton, Abbot of Malmesbury, temp. Hen. VIII. 

Seal of the Abbey of Lacock, from the Chapter House, Westminster. 

Another impression of the same, from ditto. 

Seal and Coimterseal of Lacock, from ditto. 

Seal of Lacock Abbey — an original impression, in red wax. 

Seal of Stanlegh Abbey, from the Chapter House, Westminster. 

Two other impressions of the same, from the Augmentation Office. 

Seal of Stanley Abbey (Abbot William) from the Augmentation Office, 
date 28 Edw. III. 

Seal of the Priory of Edingdon, Wilts, from the Augmentation Office, 
30 Hen. VIII. 

An impression of the same in red wax. 

Seal of the Priory of Maiden Bradley, from the Augmentation Office. 

Another Seal of the Priory of Maiden Bradley, from the Augmentation 

An impression of the same in yellow wax. 

Ancient Seal of the Borough of Marlborough — an original impression in 
red wax. 

• Or Iry-Church, a Priory of Black Canons, founded by King Henry II., and dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin. See Tanner's Not. Mon. 


%u Siikm m Slrrjiipnlngii. 

By the Rev. J. 0. Picton. 

I H.\VE been requested by your Committee to make some general 
observations on Archaeological pursuits. In complying witb tbat 
request I cannot hold out a hope that I shall be able to bring 
forward any original matter in reference to a subject which may 
be considered to be well nigh exhausted, and which of late years 
has been investigated and discussed, both directly and incidentally, 
with a fullness and a freedom, which would seem to leave no room 
for adducing anything further to interest or instruct. There is, 
however, a remark of Coleridge's to this effect : that many truths 
have but little weight owing to the circimistance of their universal 
admission, and in this particidar instance the same may be aflBrmed. 
And although novelty of treatment be not to be expected in hand- 
ling topics which have commanded the widest and most careful 
attention, yet as none can make peculiarly his own and enunciate 
the conclusions which have been arrived at by others, vtdthout at 
the same time imparting to them somewhat of a modifjdng hue, so 
I trust that what I shall now lay before you, if deficient in imagi- 
nation and force, may at least possess, in some degree, the freshness of 
individual character. Premising this, I will at once apply myself 
to my task. I need scarcely remark at the outset, how important it 
is when a number of persons combine to prosecute any mental 
enquiry, that they should have a clear understanding of the object 
of tlieir pursuit. Of almost every branch of intellectual study 
there is a popular view, which while it expresses some one or other 
of its aims, still fails to define the strict and legitimate purport. 
The temptation to acquiesce in such inaccurate estimates is very 
powerful, inasmuch as wo are thereby spared the effort of thought, 
and we are ever ready to take our notions of things from what 
Lord Bacon terms the idola fori, or those loose acceptations of 

2 X 2 

272 An Address on Archcpoht/i/. 

words, which are current in society. ITence it arises that erroneous 
judgments are often formed of a science, and many imputations 
thrown upon it, which in reality are attributable to the onesided 
and partial conceptions of those who regard it from a popular view. 
In like manner has it fared with Archaeology. The ordinary notion 
of an antiquary is that of an easj', goodnatured it may be, yet 
certainly of an eccentric and credulous personage, who is little 
interested about the present, and expends all his energies in an 
extravagant admiration of the past. Not only is he supposed to 
partake of that incapacity for practical life, which is alleged 
against men of studious habits, biit the utility of his labours is 
questioned, and they are looked upon as conducive to hardly any 
other end than the satisfaction of mere curiositJ^ It cannot be 
denied, that in many cases the charge has been deservedly made, 
I mean where antiquarian efforts have been limited to an unin- 
telligent collecting of relics, or where the enquirer, in an overweening 
respect for his own occupations, has been betrayed into expressions 
of contempt or indifference with regard to those of his contempo- 
raries. But such men are of a kindred nature to those, in whose 
opinion history is a bare chronological record, nothing but an old 
almanack ; they cannot with justice challenge to themselves the 
title they assume, nor is their claim to be ranked as archaeological 
students much better founded than that of the ignorant, noisy 
declaimer on liberty, taxes, and education, to a credit for political 
knowledge and insight. They are either worthy to be placed in the 
same category with those of whom Horace Walpole is the appro- 
priate type, and whose intellectual standard is so sarcastically 
described by Macaulay. Some of you may remember his words. 
They are as follows : — " After the labours of the auction room and 
the print shop, he unbent his mind in the House of Commons, and 
having indulged in the recreation of making laws and voting 
millions, he returned to more important pursuits, to researches 
after Queen Mary's cowl, Wolsey's red hat, the pipe with which 
Van Tromp smoked in his last sea fight, and the spur which King 
William struck into the flank of Sorrel." Or if they can demand 
an exemption from this class, they are possessed by a spirit of what 

By the Rev. J. O. Picton. 273 

an eminent writer lias called antiquarianism, or the spirit which 
leads men to investigate what has gone by without any reference 
to what is in being. I contend that the true archsDologist is 
actuated by a wholly different impulse — that he is neither a mere 
constructor of curiositj' shops, nor a self-complacent despiser of the 
problems and questions which agitate his own age. His is a more 
catholic and liberal spirit, for what is Archaeology ? It is the study 
of the past in the most comprehensive sense, imj)lying thereby an 
examination of all existing remains, whether in the shape of 
architectural erections, written records, spoken dialects, and the 
implements of warlike, civil and domestic use. And it is the rigid 
examination of these, with the one purpose of furnishing accredited 
materials for history. We are not to gaze on the wrecks of time 
in gaping wonderment, as if, to use Carlyle's words, " all the Titans 
had written upon them, dry rubbish shot here." No ! the mediajval 
temple and the ruined fortress, the dusty charter and the defaced 
coin, obsolete words and ancient customs, are all to be interrogated 
as to their several meanings — are all to be compelled to put in 
evidence, as to how far they are significant symbols of the wants, 
the habits and institutions which characterised preceding genera- 
tions. In fine, the ultimate aim of this science is to supply such 
data as will enable us to draw fair inferences as to the state of those 
who have gone before us, to present us with a vantage ground from 
which we may discern, as in a bright and well defined prospect, 
the complexity of life and action which signalised those who are 
no longer upon earth. And, I would ask, is it possible for a man 
to enter on such studies ariglit, who is dead to what is being trans- 
acted in his own day ? There cannot be an intelligent apprehension 
of the past, unless in some way or other a comparison can be 
instituted, and an analogy sought for, in antecedent and existing 
conditions. It is difficult to separate a book from the writer — the 
present is but the ever increasing past, — and no book that was ever 
written about the past was worth the reading, if it did not exhibit 
a manifest sympathy with living actors and present interests. In 
this view Dr. Arnold has well observed, that one of the falsest and 
and most inaccurate historicB of Greece, that of Mitford, is never- 

274 -^n Address on Archceology. 

theless a very readable and instructive one, simply because it was 
written with all tbe strong party feelings and prejudices of an 
Englisb country gentleman in the reign of George the third. This 
consideration too meets the objection, that this kind of study 
indisposes men to the active duties of life ; for how can that be 
said to impair energy, or to superinduce any mental or social 
infirmity, which requires for its successful cultivation all the lessons 
of experience, the keenest observation, the strictest reasoning, and 
the most impartial accuracy? Take as an example Dr. Arnold 
himself, whose mind was intrinsically archaeological in its cast, and 
who than he has exercised in this country a more lasting and moral 
influence? I may cite more appropriate instances and nearer 
home. We do not find that the acquisitions in this science of Mr. 
Poulett Scrope have at all lessened the sense of the responsibility 
which attaches to him as a landowner and magistrate, or have 
detracted from his efficiency as a member of the legislature. I am 
sure that the painstaking, the diKgence and assiduity in this 
department of my friend Mr. Jackson have been perfectly com- 
patible with the scrupulous fulfilment of his duties, as parish priest 
and adviser of his Diocesan. I repeat, therefore, that there is no 
valid ground for the supposition that the study of the past, if 
pursued under the direction of rational principles, is likely to be 
attended by any incapacitating results. Having striven to remove 
these misconceptions, I would now contract my remarks within a 
narrower sphere, and beg your forbearance, whilst I endeavour to 
point out how Archaeology, viewed as an educational means, is 
adapted to further moral and intellectual advancement. Of course 
in speaking of it as an educational means, I do not refer to any 
degree in which it may become an appliance of rudimentary 
instruction, but only to its tendencies to elevate and improve. In 
an intellectual aspect, whatever mental discipline can be brought 
about by inductive habits, holds good of Archaeology. Safe conclu- 
sions on this head can no more be deduced, if unsupported by a 
well ordered array of facts, than in geology or any other cognate 
science. Hasty assumptions, and superficial generalisations, are 
are alike alien from its proper spirit and fatal to its progress. It 

By the Rev. J. 0. Picton. 275 

will not give up the truth on the first demand, but must be patiently 
and unceasingly questioned, ere it will return a satisfying answer. 
Perhaps, in some respects, the training it ensures is severer than 
any wliich is to be attained elsewhere, since the evidence on which 
it rests is often fragmentary and detached, offering but little of 
what is congrous or systematic. Not that the objects with which 
it is conversant are not suggestive, but the recurrence in them of 
certain common types, testifying to their ends, is less frequent than 
in the natural sciences. A single bone may discover for the com- 
parative anatomist the entire skeleton to which it belonged ; and 
thus he may mount up to a consideration of the habits of the 
animal itself. But the archaeologist has rarely this advantage. 
The round tower and rude tumulus may be referred to others of 
the same class, but beyond this they are seldom explanatory, and 
the knowledge of their specific purpose must be gained from 
remoter sources, by the industrious collection of shreds and scraps 
of information, not obviously bearing on each other. It would be 
superfluous to remark how exacting in its requirements is such a 
mental process. Call to mind, too, how all-embracing in their 
range, how encyclopaedic, as it were, are these pursuits. The mature 
student of Archaeology must of all men be the most accomplished, 
for what province of knowledge is there into which it is not requi- 
site for him to descend ? Whatever reflections he has garnered out 
of his professional life, whatever penetration he has acquired into 
the springs and motives of action, whatever powers of critical 
analysis or aesthetic skill, here there is need of all. He must have 
an intimate acquaintance with ancient literature, and physical 
science. He must be no stranger to the history of the fine, the 
useful, and the destructive arts, to the several facts which are 
yielded by political and jurisprudential inquiries, by geography, 
ethnology, and numismatics. Nor will this suffice. He must not 
overlook old traditions, philosophic systems, and the numerous 
forms in which, from time to time, the religious idea has been 
embodied, in short, nothing that tends to elucidate the constituent 
factions of nationality. Surely then, here there is scope for the 
employment of the most vigorous mind — every facility for unfolding. 

276 An Address on Archeology . 

correcting, and invigorating all the faculties of perception and 
thought. Surely here every capacity is tested and called into action, 
which may fit a man to succeed in life — which may prepare him 
for a career of usefulness and honour. But I will now pass on to 
the moral side of the question ; and if I mistake not, the position I 
have already laid down will be seen to be as plain and incontrover- 
tible in this, as in the former case. AYhenever a want is universally 
felt to exist in himian nature, it will not be denied that it was the 
design of creative wisdom that it should be fully satisfied. I^ow 
the wish to know something of those who have passed away is as 
instinctive in us as the desire to be acquainted with that which is 
daily happening. We are antiquaries by nature. We are connected 
with the past, and however we may disavow that connection, or 
strive to put it out of sight, we cannot ged rid of the fact. Asso- 
ciations of our earliest homes, of our childhood, companions and 
friends, firmly cling to us, and, amidst the the turmoils of business 
and strife, while all romantic impressions are being gradualh^ 
effaced, will occasionally flash across our minds, redolent of joy and 
youth, and bringing with them a gladdening sense of refreshment. 
I believe that the oftener these associations recur, the better men 
are we likely to be. I believe that he who is altogether estranged 
from them, is living without purpose or aim. We are not ignorant 
how these reminiscences are apt to be evoked at the sight of a 
common-place object, — a ti'ee, a cottage, a stream, or of some other- 
wise worthless relic, or even at the sound of a familiar strain. 
Merge this individual in the general past ; extend these associations 
to musings on the whole cycle of human action, as previously 
existing, and Archaeology starts up at once. Still the same principle 
is at work, the same law of suggestion prevails. The ruins of time 
require an explanation : we cannot stop short at the records of 
time, but long to have them identified with that which is tangible 
and real. It is not enough for us to know " res gestce regiimque 
ducumqite" ; we would also behold " nwnumcnta regis, templaqm." 
What the human body is to the quickening spirit, such are outward 
forms in reference to antiquity — that which causes it to assume for 
us an objective existence. " A Gothic cathedral," says Coleridge, 

By the Rev. J. 0. Picton. 277 

" is the petrifaction of our religion." " A collection of antiquities," 
says Mr. Scrope, " is history made palpable to the senses." It is 
the substantial expression of our imperfect conceptions — the ma- 
chinery by which we essay to dramatise, and to array in life and 
shape, and a befitting vesture, the agents of the antique world. As, 
therefore, the area for reflection is wider, and the associations num- 
berless by which we are surrounded, if we extend our vision to the 
distant expanse which lies buried in death, so a healthier tone is 
thereby imparted to our moral life, and we have a greater accession 
of warmth, as well as of light. " The man is little to be envied," 
exclaims Dr. Johnson, " whose patriotism would not gain force on 
the plains of Marathon, and whose piety would not grow warmer 
among the ruins of lona." We cannot tread on an empire's 
dust without a solemn thought about those, who were once buoyant 
with hope and strength, who plotted and schemed and indulged in 
the wildest dreams, and whose plots and dreams have all followed 
their owners into the silent night, leaving behind them but a shadow 
" to point a moral and adorn a tale." "We cannot wander over the 
spots consecrated to freedom, without feeling a generous emotion — 
without sharing in the poet's sentiment — 

" Standing on the Persians' grave, 
I could not deem myself a slave." 

The grassy hillock, thrown up to commemorate a victory or a chief- 
tain's death ; the sacrificial altar, with its bloody rites ; the grim 
castle, an emblem of rapacity and lawless domination ; the hallowed 
sanctuary, with storied windows richly dight ; the stately mansion 
of the baron, and the yeoman's picturesque abode, are fraught with 
lessons, from the attentive perusal of which we cannot fail to rise 
up chastened, elevated, and subdued. I do not see how any man, 
of average reading and acquirements, can walk through the rooms 
at Wilton House without peopling it in imagination with that star 
of serenest brilliance of the constellation of Elizabeth's court, Sir 
Philip Sidney, and the host of chivalrous worthies to whom that 
age gave birth. Can we assemble to-morrow at Longlcat, without 
reverting in thought to the saintly Ken, whoso life glided gently 
away imder its hospitable roof, soothed by the kind attentions of 

2 o 

278 An Address on Archcpology. 

the illustrious family, whose noble representative presides over our 
deliberations. Thus, in every way, may the contemplation of that 
which bears witness to past transactions, conduce to the formation 
of the heroic sentiment, the lofty thought, and the high resolve. 
A few days ago, in an account of the proceedings of the British 
Archaeological Society in the North of England, I read a report of 
a happily conceived speech, in which, with much humour and feli- 
citous turn, the speaker sought to show that we might have been 
spared many of the late Crimean disasters, had her Majesty's 
ministers enjoyed but an inkling of antiquarian knowledge. I would 
not undertake to prove quite so much, but I would cheerfully hazard 
the assertion, that a reflective and discriminate participation in 
archaeological research, will be of no small service to us for good, 
whatever our callings may be. I will advert to one instance as an 
exemplification. A modern poet, whose utterances have found an 
echo in the hearts of thousands, has these lines — 

" In the elder days of art 
Builders WTOught with greatest care, 
Each minute and unseen part, 
For the gods are everywhere." 

Now this is strictly true; it is an archaeological fact. Examine any 
one of our cathedrals, and you will find that those parts of it which 
are removed from sight, have been as elaborately constructed and 
as carefully finished as the rest. Does not this indicate that the 
central idea in the minds of those who erected it was, that purity 
of life and manners ought to be as predicable of us in private as 
well as in pubKc ? And may not the constant meeting with this, 
and other facts of the same description, beneficially afiect us, 
whether we know it or not ? We are creatures of habit ; we are 
easily susceptible of impressions, whether for good or evil ; and if 
our converse be commonly with that which is ennobling and in- 
structive, it is not unreasonable to expect that the bent of our 
inclinations may be towards that which is lovely and of good report. 
On these grounds I maintain that Archaeology claims to be ranked 
as a science of the highest order, seeing that it investigates the past 
conditions of humanity with an intelligent aim and a worthy purpose. 

By the Rev. J. 0. Picton. 279 

It does not come before us as merely a pursuit whicli may be taken 
up by way of amusement, or to gratify a temporary curiosity ; but 
is rather a mine which, if skilfully explored, will surrender up the 
richest treasures, and is a never faiHng source of interest to every 
one who seeks to trace on the widest scale the operation of the laws 
which relate to his kind. It is not a mere subject for the exercise 
of frivolous dilettantism, or only a graceful accomplishment of the 
man of letters, but is a department of knowledge, of which none 
who aspires to be deemed an educated person, can affect with im- 
punity to be wholly ignorant ; nay, I would venture to add, that 
without some intimacy with its leading results, it is not practicable 
to entertain sound views in reference to the changes which are 
rendered indispensable by modifying circumstances and the lapse 
of time. It speaks to us of nations which have long since disap- 
peared from the face of the earth, some of which have left scarcely 
a vestige behind them, whilst others have extended their influence 
to our own day ; and of nations which, having achieved the work 
they were destined to perform, gave way in their turn to others, 
who were to develope to higher extent those elements of civilization 
which they had received from their forerunners. With all its 
wearisome researches it yet has power to elevate the mind, expand 
the intellect, and purify the heart. Under its cheering guidance, 
to us it is permitted to dwell with sober delight on the past, to 
travel far back into the remote ages of mankind, and to realize the 
truth that the mighty spirits of old were not a different class of 
beings, but partakers of the same flesh and blood with ourselves, 
toiling, rejoicing, sorrowing, swayed by passions, hopes, and desires, 
by whatever stirs this mortal frame, in like manner as we are. In 
the prosecution of our efforts wo must neither be so destitute of 
manly convictions as to value any thing that is old, simply becauge 
it is old, and not for its intrinsic worth and meaning ; neither on 
the other hand, must we wrap up ourselves in the shallow conceit of 
the immeasurable superiority in every respect of the present age to 
all previous conditions. lie would read antiquity rightly must 
have a heart as well as head ; social feelings as well as critical acu- 
men ; feed on the past and live in the present ; and thus will he 

2 o 2 


An Address on Archceology. 

engender hopes of real progress, real advancement ; hopes, as it has 
been beautifully said, plucked Hke Avild flowers from the ruined 
tombs which border the highways of antiquity, to make garlands 
for living foreheads. Then will he have studied profitably, then 
will his experience of the present be illumined by the sparkling 
light shed upon it from ancient precedents, and he will be strength- 
ened to act his part, by the conciousness that he is not an isolated 
fragment of humanity, but a member of the one great family of 
man, with high endowments, grave responsibilities, and formed for 
the noblest destinies. 

Sriitjrut l^nlint Cjiurrlj; 


20 feet 


40 feet 



15 feet 



This Church was demolished in the reign of Q,ueen Elizabeth, by order of 
Edmund Gheast, who became Bishop of Salisbury in 1571, and gave the order 
for demolishing it in the first year of his translation. 

The order still remains in the Registry of the Diocese of Salisbury, and at 
Bome times of the year the site of the Church can be accurately traced. It appears 
to have been about 75 feet long, by 20 broad, the chancel somewhat narrower. 

In the Book of the Church goods of Wilts seized by the Crown, under a 
Commission dated March 3rd, 1553 ; and which Book bears the signatures of 
" Antony Hungerford and WyUyam "Wroughton," two of the Commissioners, 
there is the following entry as to Draycot Foliot : — 

" Dreycott ( delirred to Thomas Weke and to Thomas Weke j cuppe 1 xiiij ovnc 

Foliat t or challis by Indentur. of xijij ovnc, & ij belles. j bells ij 

In plate to the Kings vse v ovnce " 

A few of the early Incumbents' names are preserved : — 






E, Dreycot Foliat. 

Chiselden & Draycot 
E, Dreycot Foliot 


Elizabeth R. 

Thomas Chaderton, Esq. 


Robert Stevens 

The King, by lapse . . . . 



Aristotle Webb, on death 
of Thomas Parram, 

Thomas Jones, by depri- 
vation of A. Webb. 

Meredith Morgan : onre^ 
signation of T. Jones. 

John Gallimore. 

John Gallimore. 

Thomas Twittie. 

A. Carkington, 


€\)t 33irfnri| nf Inngkat. 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson, 
Rector of Leigh-Delamere.l 

Before reading to you what I have been able, at rather short 
notice, to collect upon the subject of Longleat, I beg naost respect- 
fully, on the part of this Association, to thank the Noble Marquis 
for the opportunity he has so kindly given us of hearing its history 
on the spot. To myself the opportunity appears to be singularly 
favourable, since, after his Lordship's munificent hospitality, I may 
venture to presume that you will all be disposed to receive less 
critically the imperfections of this paper. 

Being a Topographical Society, it is our first duty to know exactly 
where we are. "We are in "Wiltshire certainly; otherwise, we should 
have no excuse for being here. But though the house stands within 
this county, the woods and grounds lie partially in Somerset, which, 
begins about three-quarters of a mile off on the way to Frome. As 
to the Hundred; so long as we followed the high road hither from 
Warminster we were within that Hundred ; but from the moment 
of entering Longleat Park, we have been, and now are, in the 
Hundred of Heytesbury. With respect to Parish, a much greater 
nicety of distinction is necessary, for I believe the case to be that 
the library, and the south front of the house, are in one parish, and 
the rest in another. When the Noble Marquis writes his morning 
letters he is in Horningsham ; when he goes to dinner, he is in 
Longbridge Deverill. 

Having taken our bearings, the next question is, what is the 
proper meaning of the name of Longleat ? It is a very peculiar 
one, perhaps unique. Sir Richard Hoare suggests that it may 
be derived from longa and lata, two Latin adjectives signifying 

• This Paper was read from the garden terrace at Longleat, after the enter- 
tainment given by the Marquis of Bath to the members of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society, on Wednesday, August 6th, 1856. 

282 The History of Longleat. 

long and hroad, as descriptive of the valley in wHch the house 
is situated. But to this explanation there are fair objections. 
First; adjectives, as we have been always taught to believe, are 
feeble parts of speech which cannot stand by themselves, but require 
something to lean upon. In the name of a place you always expect 
to find a noun substantive, either simple or in composition : as 
"Waxminster, anciently Wereminster, (the church on the Were 
rivulet), Brad/o/Y/, Trowbridge, and the like. 

In the next place, if " Longalata" was the proper Latin name, 
how does it happen that it never occurs in any of the old Latin 
documents connected with Longleat ? On the contrary, whenever 
the Latin name is used, as in a deed of 25 Edw. I.^ the word is 
Longa-fefe: and the derivation which to myself appears, without 
any doubt, the true one, is this. The word leat is an old noun, 
from the Saxon verb to lead, and signifies a watercourse or aqueduct. 
There is near Plymouth an artificial channel of this kind, a cele- 
brated piece of engineering made by Sir Francis Drake for supplying 
that town with water, which bears the name of The Leat. The word 
also occurs in old Acts of Parliament. In Scotland a mill-stream 
used to be called a vnTil-leaf^. The changes here have been so 
great that it is of course difficult to say what may have been in 
ancient times, but it is most likely that the stream from Hornings- 
ham, which supplies the present lake, was originally used by 
some channel, for turning a mill. The late Mr. Davis, steward of 
this property, used to say that he believed there had once been 
a mill near the site of the house. [The Marquis of Bath here 
stated that this was the case ; and that it stood near the old stables, 
close to the house']. His lordship's testimony came in very happily 
for the purpose : corroborating, without further question, this origin 
of the name.^ 

1 Prynne, p. 710. 

2 Lade is a Scotch word for a mill-race or trench : and BaiUie gives millead 
and milleat as used in the same sense. Lade also signified the mouth of a 
stream. At Lechlade, in Gloucestershire, the little stream called the Leach, 
discharges itself into the Isis. So also Crick-lade. Near Nismes in France 
there is the MiU of Langlade: a close approximation to the Mill of Long-leat. 

3 The MiU is marked upon an old folio plan of the gardens and plantations by 
H. Hiilsbergh. 


lEcturHTvU AcZT 

jSmI of jS^ ^a,eie^vt.n.d. ofljon^-Zete, JiD. i334-. [SUdvuHTj 

By the Rev. J. E. Jachon. 283 

The oldest document in whicli the name occurs is in Latin, dated 
A.D. 1280, (9 Edw. I.), near 600 years ago, in which the tithes of 
the church of Lullington near Frome, were granted to the Priory 
of " Lange-lete." Here therefore its regular history begins. It 
is quite certain that upon the very site of this house once stood a 
Priory of Black Canons of the Order of St. Augustine. It was 
founded about the year 1270 by Sir John Yernon, then Lord of the 
Manor of Horningsham. Very little is known about it: but it 
was dedicated to St. Radegund, a canonized French Queen, and was 
a very small establishment, consisting only of a Prior and some 
four or five brethren, maintained out of lands lying near or in 
adjoining parishes. There was a church on the spot, and in one 
part of it called the Chapel of the B.Y.M., an altar was endowed 
in the year 1408, by Sir "Walter Hungerford, of Farley Castle, with 
the Rectory of Rusthall (commonly called Eushall), near Pewsey, 
for daily masses for the souls of his family. That document is still 
preserved at this house. There were other altars in the Church, to 
St. Cyriac and St. Juliana, martyrs. The names of several Priors 
are on record. They had an official seal, of which an impression is 
attached to a deed, and an engraving is published in Sir R. C. Hoare's 
history. \_See Copy annexecl]. We have also a Latin inventory 
of their plate. Service books of various kinds, and certain vestments, 
of patterns, which, considering the profession of the wearers, seem 
remarkable enough. Amongst them is a robe of light red, figured 
over with birds in darker red ; a gown of white silk, worked in 
with birds in gold ; a third is a cowl of scarlet, powdered over with 
stags in gold; and lastly a cape of green velvet, covered with 
g^riffins. These devices may have been taken from the coats of arms 
of the donors : but though we often find altar-cloths and frontals 
bearing such figures, I do not immediately recollect having ever 
read any where of priest's dresses so adorned. The Priory stood 
here about 250 years. In 1529 the establishment was reported to 
have fallen into decay, partly from improvident waste of its means, 
partly from the diminishing number of its small Society. So by 
Letters Patent, dated 20 June, granted to Lawrence Campcggio, 
Cardinal Bishop of Sarum, and Peter Stanter, Esq., of Horniugsliam, 

284 The History of Longleat. 

it was dissolved : and its revenue, or the little that remained, trans- 
ferred to another religions Society, the Abbey of Charterhouse 
Henton, about twelve miles off, on the road to Bath. During the 
short time that it was attached to Henton, it was called the Cell of 
the Priory of Longleat. Ten years afterwards, in 1539, Henton 
Abbey itself was dissolved, its property was dispersed, and the site 
of this Cell of Longleat was sold by the Crown to Sir John Horsey, 
of Clifton Maubank, Co. Dorset; who in the following year, 1540, 
sold it to Sir John Thynne. 

That the Priory stood upon this identical spot is proved by the 
discovery a few years ago, during some alterations in the interior 
of this house, of an old wall that had formed part of it and that 
had been worked up into the frame of the present house. At the same 
time several coffins of rude workmanship, containing skeletons, were 
found under the floor near the foot of the grand staircase. These 
were removed into Horningsham churchyard. 

Until Sir John Thynne, in the year 1540, bought the old Priory, 
he was not in any way connected by property with the county of 
Wilts. His family came from Shropshire, and their name had 
anciently been Botteville. 

And here I may observe, as not impertinent to this occasion, that 
the house of Thynne, Patrons of Archaeology in the 19th century, 
were in the 16th, working archaeologists themselves. William 
Thynne, uncle to Sir John, published one of the earliest printed 
editions in folio, of our old Geoffrey Chaucer : and Francis Thynne, 
son of AVilliam, was not only Lancaster Herald and a great col- 
lector of English historical antiquities, but also a writer: though, 
as often is the case, he laboured for others to reap where he had 
sown. " Whosoever," (says Fuller) " shall peruse the voluminous 
works of Ralph Holinshed (the chronicler) will find how much 
he was assisted therein by the help of Mr. Francis Thynne, seeing 
the shoulders of Atlas himself may be weary, if not sometimes 
beholden to Hercules, to relieve him." 

Sir John turned his own abilities in a different direction, and 
one a great deal more profitable than Archaeology. One of his 
uncles had been Master of the Household to King Henry VIL, and 


By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 285 

Sir Jolin having thus some iatroduction to Court, rose to fill the 
office of Secretary to the Earl of Hertford, who was afterwards 
Duke of Somerset, and Protector of the realm. In protecting the 
realm the Duke certainly did not forget to take care of himself. He 
had, it is well known, enormous grants of confiscated church lands 
in this county, and ha\'ing satisfied himself, he rewarded with a few 
crumbs the gentleman who had the good luck to be his Secretary.^ 
A volume is, I believe, preserved in this house, which contains 
an account of all the estates successively acquired by Sir John 
Thynne. By comparing the several dates of the purchases, as they 
are given in Sir Richard Hoare's printed abstract of the deeds, I 
find that the very first purchase Sir John Thynne made in this 
county was the actual site on which we are assembled. It was then 
a very humble bargain, consisting only of the old mansion house 
with the offices of the priory, an orchard, a garden, and a few fields 
about it, not much above 100 acres in the whole. In the following 
year, 1541, he bought the outlying lands in other parishes that had 
also belonged to the ex- canons of the Cell of Longleat : and duiing the 
ten years following, ending a.d. 1550, he had succeeded in forming 
the greater part of this estate. He was knighted in 1547, after 
the battle of Musselburgh against the Scots; and in 1548 further 
improved his worldly circumstances by marrying the only daughter 
and heiress of Sir Richard Gresham,- one of the prince merchants 
of the day, a lady with a very handsome fortune in possession, and 
a great deal more in prospect as soon as the said prince merchant 
should have no longer use for it. During the reign of Queen Mary 
Sir John was made by her sister, the Lady Elizabeth (afterwards 
Queen), chief Comptroller of her household; but the times being 
awkward, and the air of courts not good for his health, he quitted 
the eminence of public life and retired into the country. His good 

1 With some part of the Glastonbury estates : to which grant tho old local 
distich refers; 

" Horner, Pophara, Wyndham, and Thynne, 
When the Abbot came out, then they came in." 

2 The picture at Longleat commonly called that of Sir Thomas Oresham, (which 
it certainly is not) is probably that of Sir Richard. 

2 1' 

286 The Ilisfoyy of Longleat. 

fortune created considerable jealousy : and was more particularly 
an object of discomfort to the mind of one of bis neighbours (whose 
name is not given), a great Earl and a Privy Counsellor, which 
ill-conditioned gentleman actually caused Sir John to be brought up 
before the Council Table, to show how he became so rich in so short 
a time. Some expected to hear that he had found a treasure, others 
were sure that he could never have got it honestly. But the knight 
quickly made answer that his wife's large fortune accounted for the 
chief part of it ; the rest he had gained by industry and frugality: 
and he ended his statement by a sharp home-thrust at his accuser, 
saying, that " as that Lord, and others beside him, were now finding 
a good mistress in the Queen, so he had formerly had a good master 
in the Dulce of Somerset" ; which words appearing to be very much 
to the purpose, and nobody having any more remarks to make. Sir 
John made his bow to the Council, and retired without further 

The country into which he retired was his newly purchased estate 
in this neighbourhood : and here towards the latter part of his life, 
after providing for two families, together amounting to sixteen 
children, he began to play with house building. A fire having 
furnished him with an excuse, in or about 1566 he sent for his 
architect, and gave the order for Longleat. 

But who was the architect that he sent for ? I am not aware that 
there is any positive written evidence of any kind, to show who he 
was. The accoimts of the building, with all items of payment, are 
carefully preserved ; but singularly enough, no architect's name 
appears in them. Tradition, it is true, names the man, and as that 
tradition has been consistent and uniform, I see no reason why it 
should be doubted. But before we try to settle that point, or rather, 
for the very purpose of helping to settle it, it may be useful to 
enquire for a few moments what style of house architecture had 
liitherto prevailed in England ; and if the new house at Longleat 
was totally unlike the country houses that had preceded it, how came 
it to be unlike ? how came this novelty of style to be adopted here ? 

Now the domestic architecture of any country in ancient times 
would take its character very much from the condition in which 

By the liei: J. E. Jacknoii. 287 

that country might be, especially with regard to the personal safety 
of the inhabitants. When England was torn in pieces by baronial 
jealousies, and one noble lord went to make a morning call upon 
another, not to leave a card and ask him to dinner, but to batter 
his house down about his ears ; in such precarious circumstances, 
the thicker the walls of the house were, the better for the gentleman 
on whom the call was made. A man's house is still his castle, 
de jure, in the eye of the law ; but in those days his house was a 
castle, de facto. The houses of the nobility were nothing else than 
fortified dungeons, of which you have some very good examples at 
no great distance, in the ruins at War dour, and at Nunney near 
Frome. The necessity of providing for self defence became less 
and less, but the fashion lingered long after the necessity had ceased. 
Houses were next built in the form, and with much of the appear- 
ance, but without much of the real strength of castles. They had 
tower and gateway, battlement and moat ; very feudal to look at, 
but not very strong, and certainly confined and dull to live in. 
One of the most complete specimens of this kind in England, is 
Haddon Hall in Derbyshire. 

In the reign of Henry VII. these castellated houses were chiefly 
built with high ornamented gateways, and large projecting windows. 
I do not recollect any example near us ; but the front of St. James's 
Palace in London, and of Eton College, may be familiar, and will 
give an idea of the kind of house alluded to. This style may be 
described as having been, in the main, what is commonly called 
the Gothic ; namely, the pointed architecture of churches, applied 
to that of houses, in order to take off the prison-like look of the 
old English Castle. 

We have in Wiltshire the remains of several private houses of 
gentry, which will give a fair notion of what they generally were 
previous to the time of Sir John Thynne in 1540. There is, first 
of all, South Wraxhall House, near Bradford, the property of Mr. 
Long, of which the oldest parts are thoroughly ecclesiastical. Tho 
gateway is of Ilonry 8th's reign ; and other parts are of tho reign 
of Elizabeth and James, with modern alterations. Place House, 
Tisbury, a grange of the Abbess of Shaftesbury, of the 14th and 

2 r 2 

288 The History of Lonylmt. 

15tli centuries — ecclesiastical of course — most of the building 
gone — a gate-house left — the rest now a granary and dair3% 

Norrington, in the Hundred of Chalk, an old house belonging 
now to the Wyndhanis, built by the Gawens in the reign of 
Henrv IV., has ecclesiastical windows. At Woodlands, near Mere, 
and at Potterne (the latter once the occasional residence of the 
Bishops of Sarum) there are, I imderstand, vestiges of houses of 
this class. The Bishop's Palace at Salisbury has some very ancient 
portions, but it has been so frequently altered by successive prelates, 
that it is not easy to distinguish which they are. Great Chalfield 
House, near Bradford, built in the 15th century, about 1490, is as 
good a specimen as we have of the old English manor house; very 
collegiate in its appearance, yet having a vestige of the castle style 
in its moat and gate-house. The prevailing tone of house archi- 
tecture before the reign of Henry YIII. was certainly ecclesiastical. 
And this explains in some degree why it is that one is so often told 
by the farmer's wife at an old house, " they do say it was once a 
nunnery, or kind of abbey like." Not that there were such estab- 
lishments in one half the places in which they are thus supposed 
to have been, but the style of building, corresponding with that of 
nunneries and abbeys, often leads to the idea that they could have 
been nothing else. Henry VIII., who turned over many new leaves 
in England, introduced, amongst other changes, a novel style of 
house building. The style which he patronized, (and a more liberal 
or accomplished patron of the arts never existed in this country), 
was the ancient classic architecture of Greece, then lately revived 
in Italy. Upon the ecclesiastical or Gothic style, now beginning 
to expire, was engrafted the Corinthian, Ionic, or Tuscan. This is 
the way in which this kind of architecture is generally described : 
but it is considered by some, to be, after all, a distinct and inde- 
pendent style of itself, of which we have as yet no proper history. 
Of this novel mixture, Longleat is one of the purest examples. 
The house has also this peculiarity, that whereas we have upon the 
whole, very few examples remaining of any old English mansion, 
in its entire original state, this may be regarded, externally, as a 
complete specimen of its period. Most houses have been added to 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 289 

and altered : but Longleat, with very slight exception, is the same, 
as to the exterior, as when it was designed. The balustrades, the 
cupolas, and statues on the top are not original, but rather later ; 
the present hall-door is also later ; but, I believe, with these ex- 
ceptions, the house has undergone, externally, no material change 
from the day it was first built. There are the large mullioned 
windows of the earlier period of Henry YII. ; and of the three 
stories, the pilasters in the lower one are of Doric character, in the 
middle Ionic, in the highest Corinthian ; the chimnies also are in 
the form of columns. Though from its pilasters and entablatures, 
the architecture of the house, when examined, would be pronounced 
Grecian, or Italian ; still, its general effect and appearance are 
after all very much that of the old English ecclesiastical. It is 
not really ecclesiastical, because there is neither pointed window, 
nor tracery here ; all is square : but the house has the old look, 
owing to the bold projection of the windows, and the varied outline 
of the roof, produced by the turrets and lofty chimnies. Observe, 
by the way, that the eight turrets on the roof are not placed at 
regular intervals, but in some kind of disorder. Perhaps this was 
done on purpose ; the effect being to increase in the mind the idea 
of magnitude. For where every thing is in exact symmetry, and 
all parts correspond, the eye takes in the whole object, and measures 
the plan at once, but irregularity leaves the eye perplexed, and 
more is left to imagination. 

This new Italian fashion of Henry 8th's reign was, upon the 
whole, adhered to in the reign of Edward YI., and the early part 
of Elizabeth. We have of this period, in Wiltshire, Littlecotc, 
which retains much of its old character, though altered, and the 
South front of Corsham House, built in 1583 ; Longford is also of 
this date, but it is upon a somewhat eccentric model borrowed from 
an Island in Denmark. The Longleat style began to decline 
towards the reign of James I., much fantastic ornament and un- 
meaning device being introduced ; still, during the decline, some 
very beautiful houses were built, of which we have good specimens 
in Wiltshire, in the Duke's House at Bradford, Charlton Park, 
and Stockton House. 

290 The History of Longleat 

Having described to you in a few words the kind of house that 
prevailed in England, do"\vn to the time of Sir John Thynne, and 
having shown that he was one of the first to adopt the new fashion, 
we have now to answer, if possible, the question, who was the 
architect employed by him ? The tradition before alluded to, is, 
that it was built from the design of John of Padua. That has been 
the constant belief, and if nothing can be produced to the contrary, 
there is every reason for adopting it. In favour of it we certainly 
have these facts ; Holbein the painter, and John of Padua are the 
two foreigners generally understood to have been employed by 
Henry 8th, in introducing the new kind of architecture. Of 
Holbein's taste in that direction, we have a specimen in Wiltshire, 
in the very pretty Porch, formerly attached to the house, but now 
erected apart in the gardens at Wilton. But the misfortune is, 
that about this John of Padua no one is able to tell us anything at 
all. To use a term now growing much into use, John of Padua is 
a Myth. Who he really was, what his family name was, whether 
he was born or only educated at Padua, what his works were before 
he came to England, we have, I believe, not a morsel of information. 
The little that is at present known upon the subject is merely this, 
that a person of the name was sent for by Henry, was appointed on 
his arrival in 1544 to an office, the very title of which was entirely 
novel, "the deviser of his Majesty's buildings," and, that by a deed 
dated in that year, the King assigned to him a certain daily stipend 
for his services. About three years afterwards, (1547,) Henry died. 
But the pension was renewed under Edward YL, by the Duke of 
Somerset, Protector, who took the Italian by the hand. In 1549, 
the Duke employed him to design his great palace, in the Strand, 
called Somerset House ; not the present building of that name, but 
the original one. Now old Somerset House, built by John of Padua, 
is always described as having abounded in ornaments of Roman 
architecture, and as having greatly resembled Longleat.^ This 

1 Of the original Somerset House, as left by the Protector, (and before the 
alterations made by Inigo Jones, when preparing it as a residence for Q,ueen 
Henrietta Maria,) there is an engraving, but not a very effective one, in 
"Wilkinson's "Londina Illustrata." 

By the Bev. J. E. Jackson. 291 

being so, does it not in some degree strengthen the ancient tradi- 
tion as to this house ? We find the Italian, architect to the Protector ; 
Sir John Thynne, Secretary to the Protector. The Duke builds a 
palace in the Strand ; the Secretary, a few years afterwards, another 
near Warminster. Both palaces are in the newly introduced, and 
therefore highly fashionable Italian style. The ornaments of the 
one, strongly resemble those of the other. Now, in the absence of 
all positive proof upon the subject, yet with this old tradition 
asserting the fact, and with these points of coincidence to support 
it, I think it may be fairly put to you as an Archaeological jury, 
sitting as it were on the very body, does not the circumstantial 
evidence favour the tradition, that Longleat was designed by John 
of Padua? 

There is another nobleman's house in England still remaining, 
of about the same date as Longleat, and very strongly resembling 
it — WoUaton House, near Nottingham, built for Sir Francis Wil- 
loughby, and now the property of his descendant. Lord Middleton. 
Mr. Britton, in the 2nd vol. of his Architectural Antiquities, 
published in 1809, (p. 108,) observes of Wollaton, that though the 
name of its architect is not positively recorded, yet when the 
general design, in composition and detail, is carefully compared 
with Longleat, there can be no hesitation in attributing the two 
buildings to the same artist. Indeed, he adds, " The uniformity of 
proportion in the pilasters, windows, and architectural ornaments, 
would lead us to suppose that these parts of the two houses were 
executed from the same working drawings." The resemblance 
here spoken of is certainly considerable, not only in the outside, 
but within : the two halls being very much upon the same model, 
corresponding very closely in arrangement, construction of roof, 
and style of screen. 

At Wollaton House, two architects are believed to have been 
concerned. The first was John Thorpe, a person much employed 
in palatial edifices at that time. The second, his successor, .John 
Smithson, as appears by a monument in Wollaton Church. From 
the resemblance between Wollaton and Longleat, some have fancied 
John Thorpe and John of Padua may have been one and the same 

293 The History of Lon gleet t. 

person. It was not uncommon for English patrons of art to fit out 
young men for study abroad ; and it is not impossible that one who 
trudged away from his native village with a knapsack on his back 
as plain John Thorpe, may, after serving his apprenticeship to the 
Muses under the genial sun of Italy, have applied revival principles 
to his own name, and have come back to Old England a fine gen- 
tleman, to be thenceforth called Giovanni di Padova. But I am 
not aware of the slightest ground for supposing that such was the 
case in this instance. Thorpe is said to have been a native of 
Norfolk, and seems to have been always called by his English 
name. Some of his plans have been lately published by Mr. C. J. 
Richardson, in a work on Old English Mansions. He designed 
amongst others the following houses : Theobald's, Burghley, Wim- 
bledon, Holdenby, Kirby, and Old Buckhurst. 

In the meantime whilst we have been settling what style and 
what architect Sir John Thynne shall choose for his new house, we 
have left him waiting to begin it. I will therefore only add upon 
this point one thing more, which is, that finding no mention of 
name or payment, or any notice of any kind of any architect what- 
ever, some have said, that after all Sir John was his own architect. 
It is hardly probable that this should have been the case in the 
proper sense of the word : it is not unlikely that having been fur- 
nished with designs he worked them out himself, and was his own 
clerk of the works. His accounts of the building are still preserved 
here. They commence 21st January, 1567, (which according to 
modern reckoning would be called January, 1568,) and continue to 
29th March, 1578, during which time rather more than £8000 had 
been spent : a sum which, of course, requires to be multiplied con- 
siderably to give any approximate notion of the cost in money of 
our own day. 

With so many workmen about, one would fancy that Sir John 
would not be over well pleased to hear that Queen Elizabeth was 
coming to pay him a visit. Yet she came, for it is mentioned in 
the account of her progress in 1575, that she favoured him with her 
company on her way from Bristol. From Longleat she passed on 
to pay the like honour to Sir William Sharington of Lacock Abbey, 


By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 293 

and subsequently went to "Wilton. Queen Elizabeth was no builder 
of palaces herself; she had no occasion, having inherited a suffi- 
cient number from her father. It answered her piu'pose a great 
deal better to encourage her Ministers to build large houses in 
which she might go to visit, and half ruin them by the compliment. 

Sir John Thynne died in 1580, leaving the larger portion of the 
outside finished, and from the Hall to the Chapel Court inside : no 
part of the western side seems to have been finished in his time- 
As to grounds, nothing seems to have been provided, mention being 
made only of a garden, hop-yard, and orchard, which were probably 
the old ones of the Priory. 

The outer shell of a large house, 220 feet long, by 180 deep, is 
certainly something, but by no means all. It is a skeleton, which, 
to look comely, and to serve life's uses and luxuries, requires to be 
filled up, fattened, clothed, and adorned. These operations Sir 
John left to his successors. I believe that the building accounts 
were not continued after the founder's death ; but there is a short 
descriptive summary of the progress and changes which took place 
under the various succeeding owners. The oak screen and wains- 
cot of the hall were amongst the additions by his son. Sir John. 
Sir James, the fourth owner, employed Sir Christopher "Wren, by 
whom a principal staircase was made; and a hall door, which, how- 
ever, was afterwards removed to a school-house at Warminster. 
The old priory barn, which stood near the south-west corner of the 
house, was converted into stabling ; and the Priory kitchen garden 
was walled and planted. In 1663, King Charles II., accompanied 
by the Queen and Duke of York, visited Sir James Thynne. I 
have not seen any account of their reception, but they left London 
on 26th of August ; were entertained by Lord Seymour at Marl- 
borough Castle ; walked up Silbury Hill with John Aubrey as 
cicerone, dined at Lacock, and so to Bath. It was probably in 
the following month they came here, as I remember seeing some 
years ago a memorandum in the register of the neighbouring 
parish of Beckington, that on 10th Sept. (in that year) "Charles 
II., King of England, rode through that village, and Katherine, 
his Queen, whom God bless." 

2 Q 

294 The Uistonj of Lonrjleat. 

In 1670 Sir James Tliynno died, leaving no children ; and the 
house, then ninety years old, came with the estates to his nephew, 
Thomas Thynne, Esq., commonly called by his familiars, from the 
presumed estimate of his annual value, " Ton of Ten Thousand." 
This gentleman resided at Longleat, and laid out a new road to 
Frome, planting trees and making a hard way, an unusual benefit 
in those days. Amongst other apartments in the house described 
as having been finished in his time, was a new dining-room ; and 
the "hospitable treats" given here by him have found a place in 
history which they will only lose whenever Dryden's poetry ceases 
to be read. 

How Mr. Thynne's hospitality came to be alluded to in so con- 
spicuous a poem as the celebrated political satire, called " Absalom 
and Achitophel," must now be explained, as it is connected with a 
very important chapter in the annals of this house. Under the 
names of Absalom and Achitophel, Dryden, as is well known, in- 
tended the Duke of Monmouth and Lord Shaftesbury, the leaders 
of the Protestant party, which, towards the end of the reign of 
Charles II., raised the feeling of the country against the succession 
of the King's brother, James, Duke of York. The reason why 
Dryden selected those names is obvious, because the two characters 
in Scriptural History form a singular parallel to those of Mon- 
mouth and Shaftesbury ; the one a favourite but rebellious son, 
who stole the hearts of Israel and stirred up rebellion against his 
father ; the other a deep designing veteran statesman, who em- 
ployed the younger man as an instrument for purposes of his own. 
I ought, perhaps, to apologize for referring to a story so familiar as 
that of the unfortunate James Stuart, Duke of Monmouth, but 
without doing so for a few moments I could not properly set before 
you the precise occasion of his last visits to Longleat. 

The Duke was a very handsome, accomplished, and high-spirited 
young man, exceedingly popular, and utterly spoiled by the fond- 
ness of his father. King Charles loaded him with every kind of 
lucrative and honourable office ; the natural result of all which, 
was, that his head was turned, and he fell into the snare of covet- 
ing the succession to the throne, from which, by irregularity of 

By the Rev. J. E. Jachson. 295 

birth, he was lawfully debarred. A private quarrel between him- 
self and his uncle, James Duke of York, laid the foundation of a 
difference which embittered the latter years of King Charles II's. 
reign, and finally brought ruin on Monmouth himself. At Shaftes- 
bury's instigation, he took the lead of the party opposed to the 
Court. The Duke of York was banished ; a bill for excluding him 
from the succession had all but passed ; Charles fell ill, and had he 
died, Monmouth was in a very fair position to agitate his title to 
the Crown. But the King suddenly recovering, by an imaccount- 
able revolution of mind, and to everybody's utter amazement, sent 
for James back again, stripped Monmouth of his honours, and 
banished him to Holland. From Holland, under Shaftesbury's 
advice, the young man came back to England, without the King's 
leave, and commencing various progresses through the kingdom, 
gained the whole population to his side. It was in August, 1680, 
that he rode through the West, visiting the houses of the principal 
gentry who were mostly of his party. Coming first into Wiltshire 
he staid some days at Longleat. Crowds flocked to see and to 
escort him, scattering flowers in his path, and shouting for the 
King and the Protestant Duke. After having proceeded in a perfect 
triumph as far as Exeter, he returned by Longleat. His visits 
here would be, not of that ceremonious kind where nobody is very 
comfortable, but easy and familiar, for Mr. Thynne was one of his 
warmest partizans and personal friends. From him the Duke re- 
ceived his fine set of Oldenburg coach-horses. It was owing to this 
intimacy that Mr. Thynne was removed from the command of a 
Regiment of Horse of the Wilts Militia, Nov. 19th, 1681. We 
shall find them together once more under circumstances little anti- 
cipated by either party. 

And here, in lightly sketching the history of this house, I pause 
for one moment, to refer somewhat more emphatically to the re- 
markable meeting under this roof, of two men, to whose names a 
deep tragic interest belongs. The incident would of itself supply 
no bad material for a chapter of historical romance, presenting as 
it does a double example of that strange vicissitude in human 
things which sometimes makes history as marvellous as fiction. 

2 Q 2 

296 The History of Longleat. 

You can easily picture to your minds the scene whicli Longleat 
must have presented when its owner, attended by the chief gentry 
of his neighbourhood, welcomed in this very hall, the gay caval- 
cade of courtiers, headed by the popular Duke, a young host and 
young guest, to both of whom the lot seemed to have fallen on the 
fairest of grounds, both at the summit of fortune, with every 
prospect at that time before them, of continuing for years to come, 
to gather the roses without being vexed by the thorns of life. Yet 
at the banquet, and amidst the revelry of that evening, there himg 
over the head of each, the very sword of Damocles, its weight and 
edge withheld by the single hair ; that hair now strained to the 
uttermost, and on the point of giving way. The danger was in- 
visible, but it was instant : for soon after their leave-taking at this 
door, both fell by a violent and cruel death ; the host under an 
assassin, the guest on the scaffold. 

The Duke of Monmouth's fate does not belong to our subject, 
but we legitimately pursue that of Mr. Thynne, 

At the time of this visit he was unmarried, but was beginning to 
prepare Longleat for the reception of a bride. This we learn from 
the document to which I have already referred, the chronicle of the 
works done at the house. It goes on to say that besides the dining- 
room, Mr. Thynne also prepared the drawing-room, the alcove 
chamber and others, " all which he did when he married the Lady 
Ogle, as apartments for her and her servants when he thought she 
would come to live at Longleat." But, alas ! " there's many a sHp 
'twixt the cup and the lip : " the Lady Ogle never did come to 
Longleat, and now you shall hear the reason why. 

She was by birth the Lady Elizabeth Percy, surviving daughter 
and sole heiress of Jocelyn, 11th Earl of Northumberland, and was 
only four years old at her father's death in May, 1670. Her 
mother marrying again, she was removed to the care of her grand- 
mother the Dowager Countess of Northimiberland, one of the most 
tenacious and despotic of dowagers or grandmothers. The yoimg 
Lady EKzabeth was the greatest match in the kingdom, the jewel 
of an ancient house, dazzling to the eyes of beholders. Many were 
the solicitors ; but the lips that were to pronounce the decisive 

By the Rev. J. E. Jachson. 297 

monosyllable, aye or no, were by no manner of means to be those 
of the jewel herself. Lady Elizabeth could not yet boast of being 
quite thirteen when she found herself legally and irrevocably 
betrothed, with all she possessed, to Henry Earl of Ogle, heir 
apparent to the Duke of Newcastle. This was about the latter end 
of the year 1679. Lord Ogle died in November following, 1680. 
The juvenile widow was again at the disposal of the old Countess, 
who seems to have lost not a moment in securing for her one of 
the wealthiest in the land. The Duke of Monmouth interested 
himself for Mr. Thynne, and to Mr. Thynne she was betrothed, 
being not yet fifteen. 

Something seems to have occurred at this period (what it was 
will perhaps never now be known) to set her mind against this new 
marriage. Whether, as some said, she had been deceived by her 
grandmother and a coadjutor of her's, one Colonel Brett, or whether 
her own feelings had never been properly consulted ; whatever the 
real cause was, it is admitted that after the ceremony of marriage 
she obtained consent to spend a year abroad with the Lady Temple, 
wife of the celebrated Sir William, Ambassador to Holland ; and that 
her sudden departure became the talk of the town. There is reason 
to believe that proceedings were set on foot by her for dissolving 
the marriage. Another version of the story is that she had already 
seen some one whom she really preferred to either of the two to 
whom she had given her hand. One certainly there was, who, 
whatever ground he had on which to build it, did at this time con- 
ceive the hope of calling her his own. This was Charles John, 
Count Konigsmark, the head of an old and noble Swedish family, 
whose name was in those days one of renown in Europe. The 
Count was only eight years older than the Lad)-- Percy : but he had 
already distinguished himself with the fearless valour of his family, 
both by sea and land, and was a person of great accomplishment, 
dexterity in exercises, and address. He came to the Court of 
England with the highest personal introduction, took up his resi- 
dence in London, and lived in great style. It is believed that he 
followed the Lady Percy to the continent, and that he there came 

298 The History of LongUat. 

to the determination of gaining his end by the assassination of Mr. 
Thynne. For this purpose he engaged abroad a German officer, a 
gentleman of good family, one Capt. Yratz, who was given to un- 
derstand that Konigsmark had been insulted, and even assaulted by 
Mr. Thynne, and that chastisement only was intended. Captain 
Vratz hired a Lieutenant Stern, who again enlisted a further sub- 
ordinate, a common Polish soldier of the line, called Borosky. This 
man was to do the deed, and though he does not appear to have 
exactly known beforehand what he was to do, yet he professed 
himself ready for anything, on being assured that, happen what 
might, no harm could come to him, being merely a private soldier 
obeying orders. Count Konigsmark came over from the continent 
to superintend the operations, though he took no actual part in 
them. The three subordinates being in London, and having horses 
ready saddled, kept on the look out for Mr. Thynne from the win- 
dow of a house ; and on the night of Sunday, Feb. 12, 1682, about 
8 o'clock, having received information that he was likely to pass in 
his coach along PaU-mall, they immediately mounted and waylaid 
him. He was returning from the Countess of Northimiberland's 
house, in St. James's Street, and the night being dark, the coach 
was preceded by links. Pall-mall at that time was not a regular 
street as now, but the whole of the lower side was open to St. 
James's Park, with here and there a house on the upper side. On 
reaching what is now the Opera Arcade, but then a continuation 
of St. Alban's Place, Stern galloped up in front of the horses, Capt. 
Vratz rode alongside the carriage, and calling out " Hold " ! pointed 
to the gentleman inside. Borosky, the Polander, immediately fired 
and shot four or five bullets into the body of Mr. Thynne. He 
was not killed on the spot, but lingered till the next morning. 
The Duke of Monmouth had been riding with him round Hyde 
Park, and only left the carriage an hour before. He remained all 
night by the side of his dying friend, and put every instrument in 
motion, for furthering the pursuit of the murderers. His own 
narrow escape and his exertions for his friend, are alluded to in a 
Grub Street ballad written upon the event : — 




By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 299 

" But Heaven did preseiitl)- find out 

What with great care he could not do ; 
'Twas well he was the coach gone out, 

Or he might have been murdered too : 
For they who did this 'squire kill 
Would fear the blood of none to spill." 

Sir John Reresby, the chief ofl&cer at the time of the London 
police, gives us in his Memoirs, a long account of this murder. 
He says that until all circumstances were fully known, it was be- 
lieved by many that the assault upon Mr. Thynne had been really 
intended for the Duke of Monmouth, and that it was a scheme of 
the Court party to put him out of the way. There was, however, 
no foundation for this ; though Eeresby does admit that the King 
(Charles II.) was very anxious that Count Konigsmark should, if 
possible, get away out of the country. A reward of £200 was 
oflfered for his arrest, and he was taken by one Gibbons, an attend- 
ant of the Duke of Monmouth, as he was stepping in disguise 
aboard shiji. Gibbons charged him with the murder, and added, 
that he had liked to have killed his master, the Duke. "No," 
answered the Count, " they would not have killed him." All four 
were put upon their trial, but by management the Count was ac- 
quitted. The Judges, Pemberton and North, w^ould not allow the 
depositions previously taken before the Magistrate, to be read. 
Had this been done, the evidence would have directly criminated 
him. The other three were convicted, and executed in Pall Mall, 
the Duke of Monmouth attending the execution. Lieut. Stern 
protested that his was a hard case : that he had been deceived 
throughout ; and that now he was going to die for the sake of a 
man (Count Konigsmark) whom he had never spoken to ; for a 
lady whom he had never seen, and for a dead man whom he never 
had a view of ! The Polander declared he only did what, as a sol- 
dier, he was bound to do ; and as to Capt. Vratz, he treated it all 
very cavalierly. Evelyn mentions in his Memoirs (L541) under 
date of 10th March, that Vratz went to execution like an un- 
daunted hero, as one that had done a friendly office for that base 
coward, Konigsmark : ho had only beliaved like a gentleman, and 
did not value dying, of a rush. On the 24th March Evelyn went 

300 The History of Longleat. 

to see the corpse " of that obstinate creature, Vratz," the King 
having permitted that his body should be transported to his own 
country, he being of good family, and one of the first embalmed by 
a particular art invented by one William Russell. The flesh was 
florid as if the person was sleeping. He had been dead now nearly 
fifteen days, and lay exposed in a very rich coffin lined with lead, 
too magnificent (says Evelyn) for so horrid a murderer. 

In this affair, therefore, the most guilty was acquitted, the next 
most guilt}^ (Vratz) was honourably interred, and the least offenders 
were hanged in chains; something like the New England law in 
Hudibras, where an useless innocent weaver is executed instead' of 
an useful guilty cobbler. The Count had the worst cause, but the 
most money. His subsequent history was for a long time con- 
founded with that of his brother Philip Christopher, who, on sus- 
picion of being the lover of Sophia of Zell (afterwards Queen of 
George I.), was assassinated in 1694 in the palace at Hanover, and 
whose remains were found under the floor of the passage in which 
he had been despatched. But of Charles John Konigsmark, the 
murderer of Mr. Thynne, the end was this : — He entered the Ve- 
netian service, was sent into Greece as second in command of an 
expedition, and fell at the siege of Argos, August 29th, 1686, four 
years and a half after the murder. His position in society had suffered 
by that act, and he probably courted danger to redeem it; for at 
the time of the murder he had acknowledged that " it was a stain 
upon his blood, yet such as a good action in the wars, or a lodg- 
ment on the counterscarp, would easily wash out." 

And now, what became of the fair Helen of this quarrel, the 
Lady Percy ? In less than four months after Mr. Thynne's death 
she married a third husband, Charles Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset. 
She rose to great political importance at Court, and was the greatest 
favourite Queen Anne had. The Tories hated her. Dean Swift 
regarded her as his worst enemy, and in one of his fits of unscru- 
pulous rage, was rash enough to circulate in the highest society 
some verses in which he more than insinuated that in her youth, 
she had been a party to the murder of Mr. Thynne. This he ven- 
tured to do in some severe lines called " The Windsor Prophecy," 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 301 

written In ancient style, and pretending to have been found in a 
grave at Windsor. Swift's offensive sarcasm was not lessened by 
his allusion to the colour of her Ladyship's hair, which happened 
to be red. After a few introductory lines the "Prophecy" pro- 
ceeded thus: 

" And, dear England, if ought I understand, 

Beware of carrots from Northumberland, 

Carrots sown Thynn a deep root may get, 

If so they be in Somerset : 

Their Cunnings — mark thou: for I have been told, 

They assassin when yoimg, and poison when old." 

These lines were never forgiven or forgotten, as Swift found to 
his cost. The Bishoprick of Hereford becoming vacant, his friends 
made every effort for him. The Duchess of Somerset flew to Court ; 
and down upon her knees in an agony of tears, prayed the Queen 
to refuse. The Dean remained at St. Patrick's. 

On Mr. Thj'nne's monument in the South aisle of the Choir of 
"Westminster Abbey Church, there is a bas relief in white marble, 
representing the murder. It is engraved in Dart's history of 
Westminster Abbey.^ The monument was erected by Mr. Thynne's 
brother-in-law and executor, Thomas Hall, Esq., of Bradford.- 

Mr. Thynne having died without children, Longleat passed (in 
1682) to his second cousin, Thomas Thj^nne, of Kempsford, in 

1 Vol II. pp. 84 and 24o. 

2 The marriage of Mr. Thynne with the Lady Ogle has been questioned by 
some writers, who imagined that a Contract for a marriage only existed at the 
time of his death. The marriage, however, did take place, as is proved by 
reference to a curious legal report of the case in Parliament: Thomas HaU, of 
Bradford, and others. Executors of Mr. Thynne, against Mrs. Jane Potter. It 
appears that Mrs. Potter had been instriunental in promoting the marriage, and 
that during the courtship, Mr. Thynne had given her a bond, under penalty of 
£1000, to pay her £.500 within ten days after his marriage -with the Lady Ogle. 
Six years after Mr. Thynne's death, the Potters brought their action against tlio 
E.xecutors, and, having proved the marriage, obtained a verdict for the £1000 
penalty. However, after being carried about by lawyers from one coui-t to 
another, the original verdict was set aside, on the ground that the bond had been 
for an unlawful consideration. (See " Collectanea Topographiea et Genealogica," 
vol. VI., p. 282. Caaea in Parliament, Shower, fol. 7G.) Tlio liistory of the 
Lady Elizabeth Percy is given at considerable length in Craik's " Romance of 
the IVcrago," vol. IV., p. ;J27, from which some of the above particulars liavo 
been taken. 

2 u 

302 The JTisfori/ of Lomjkaf. 

Gloucestershire, who was immediately created Baron ThjTme of 
"Warminster, and first Viscount Weymouth. This nobleman held 
the property for thirty-two years, from 1682 to 1714; and from the 
chronicle of the alterations in the house, it appears that he had a 
considerable share in them. The domestic chapel was now finished. 
It was consecrated 19th August, 1684 : the sermon (from 2 Chron. 
vii. 16.) being preached by Richard Roderick, B.D., of Christ 
Church, Oxford, and Yicar of Blandford Forum, Dorset; after- 
wards printed, with a dedication to his Lordship. 

Large improvements, in the taste of the age, seem to have been 
made in the gardens. Indeed it would almost appear as if the first 
ornamental garden of any size was made at this time. The style 
adopted was the Dutch, introduced into England by William and 
Mary. Lord WejTUOuth laid out his ground according to the plan 
shown in the old engraving of the house by Kip: groves and long 
avenues, with vistas and artificial mounds, were planted; the 
original leat was widened at intervals into fish-ponds, all rigorously 
angular; flower beds were described in chequered and geometric 
figures; the very gooseberry and currant bushes in the kitchen 
garden drilled to grow in squares or parallelograms, trimmed up as 
stiff and stately as lords and ladies at the court of the Hague. 
From the front door of the house, a long raised terrace, on a level 
with the highest step, projected forward to the entrance gates. 

Lord Weymouth had been, (about 1657) at a time when he had 
no prospect of succeeding to this estate, a student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, under Dr. Hammond and Dr. Fell. A biographical notice 
in the peerage speaks of him as a person of strict piety, honour, 
and integrity. Grood qualities are unfortunately so indiscriminately 
bestowed in biographies, that the eye is apt to pass over them as 
matters of course. But we have the best groimd for believing that 
in this instance the eulogy was well deserved. For, though we had 
no other and corroborative testimony to show what manner of spirit 
he was of, stiU we should perhaps be able to form a not very erro- 
neous opinion, recollecting this one only thing. At the early age 
of eighteen or so, in the little world ever found within the precincts 
of an imiversity, Mr. Thynne was the friend and companion of 

Bij the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 303 

Thomas Ken. This solitary fact gives at once complexion to the 

whole. If George Hooper, Francis Turner, (afterwards bishops,) 

and the chosen few of their college set, are known in English 

Church history as highly accomplished, resolute, simple-minded 

men; it is but natiiral to conclude that Mr. Thynne resembled 

them. He and Ken had gone up to Oxford about the year 1656; 

Ken probably, as poor students were wont to do, on foot ; the other, 

it may be presumed, by some more aristocratic mode of conveyance. 

They found Oxford in a state of disorder. This sounds strange to 

modern ears, but it was the new reign of liberty of conscience. 

The Book of Common Prayer forbidden, CromweU Chancellor, Dr. 

Owen the Vice-Chancellor, (a dignitary usually looked upon as the 

model of propriety,) " walking about like a young scholar, with his 

hair powdered, snake-bone band-strings," (whatever were they ?) 

** with very large tassels, a huge set of ribbons pointed at his knees, 

Spanish leather boots with lawn tops, and his hat mostly cocked!" 

The Proctor, the very guardian of decorum, "was a boisterous 

fellow at cudgelling and foot-ball playing." I mention these things 

not for their own sake, but merely to enable you to conclude what 

the general state of affairs must have been, in the midst of which 

religious principle and sobriety of mind were left to find such 

nourishment as they could. No wonder that good men were amazed, 

and spake of these things one to another. 

It does not appear what degree of intimacy was kept up between 
Ken and Thynne after leaving college. Interruptions even of 
closest friendship are not uncommon at a time of life when the 
paths of duty lead in different directions. Ken's professional occu- 
pations called him to Essex, Winchester, or the Isle of "Wight. 
He was for some time a traveller in Italy; then became fixed as a 
chaplain to the Court in Holland; and in the very year i\\ which 
Mr. Thynne unexpectedly succeeded to Longleat (1082), Ken was 
tossing about on the Morocco Seas as chaplain to the Tangiers fleet. 
In 1683 he was appointed to the Bishoprick of Bath and Wells. 

I need not recite at any length particulars from a biography now 
BO well known through the labours of many admirers. It will be 
enough merely to remind you, and is in more immediate connexion 

2 H 2 

304 The History of Lonykat. 

with this place, that he was one of the seven prelates who, after 
James II. succeeded to the throne, opposed the Declaration of 
Indulgence, for which they were committed to the Tower. Notwith- 
standing this resistance to the Crown, Ken was afterwards, when 
the throne was declared vacant, one of those who refused to take 
the oath of allegiance to William and Mary, for which, by Act of 
parliament, he was deprived of his Bishoprick. 

The late Mr. Bowles of BremhiU was one of those who took in 
hand the life of Ken, and succeeded in producing a book, of which 
the Quarterly Review has said that it is about every thing else hut 
Bishop Ken. There is, however, one passage to the point, and 
fortunately to our point. It is that in which Mr. Bowles has drawn 
the picture of the Bishop's departure from the palace at Wells. 
" We can easily conceive with what prayers of the poor, and how 
beloved and regretted. Ken bade farewell to the diocese and flock 
so dear to him, to the palace, the retired garden, and the silent 
'water that surrounded them, to the towers, and to the devotional 
harmonies of his cathedral. Surely it would be no stretch of 
imagination to conceive, that, on the drawbridge as he passed, on 
leaving the abode of independence and peace, a crowd of old and 
young would be assembled with clasped hands and blessings, to bid 
him farewell. Perhaps his eye might have rested on the pale faces 
of some of the poor old men and women who had partaken their 
Sunday dinner so often, and heard his discourse, in the old hall. 
Then, and not before, we may conceive, 

" Some natural tears he dropp'd, but vriped them soon; 
The world was all before him, where to seek 
His place of rest, and Providence his guide." * 

Providence guided him to this house. " He," says a later bio- 
grapher, " put it into the heart of Viscount Wejinouth to bear to 
the good man a message of comfort — the offer of a home in his 
noble mansion of Longleat." Part of the domain is within the 
diocese of Wells, and Lord Weymouth had the happiness to 
persuade his deprived bishop to make this his final resting-place. 
Doubtless he felt that his presence would bring a blessing on his 

» Li/e of Ken, Vol. n. p. 174. 


By the Ric. J. E. Jackson. 305 

houseliold ; and Ken, whose heart was wounded with him, could 
not refuse the solace of such an asylum. Here, for twenty years, 
he experienced his lordship's untiring Idndness. Towards the close 
of his life he gave expression to his affectionate gratitude in dedi- 
cating to him two voliunes of poetry. 

" When I, my lord, crush'd by prevailing might, 
No cottage had where to dii-ect my flight, 
Kind Heav'n me with a friend illustrious blest, 
Who gives me shelter, aifluence, and rest." 

Ken's library followed him from Wells. The rooms which he 
occupied are at the top of the house ; and in that retirement he 
lived, wrote hymns, sang them to his viol, prayed, and died. His 
principal companion was probably Mr. Harbin, the family chaplain, 
of whom he often makes mention in his letters. This was the Rev. 
George Harbin, a Cambridge man, some time chaplain to Ken's 
friend, Dr, Turner, Bishop of Ely. He is mentioned by Anthony 
Wood as a non-juror, and as using a lay habit. 

" It is," continues the Layman who has last written Ken's life, 
" allowable to those who love Ken's memory to say, this upper 
chamber, and the walks and gardens, woods and glades, which he 
frequented, give a hallowed character to Longleat. He made 
occasional visits to his nephew, Isaac Walton, jun., the Rector of 
Poulshot, and other friends. Now and then he was in London, 
sometimes at Winchester, Bath, Bristol, &c. ; but Longleat was 
the principal witness of his future trials, his temptations, and his 
disquietudes. These last were to follow him wherever he might 
go ; for what refuge of peace, what stillness or solitude, what 
shades of retirement can screen us from the companionship of our 

He died here on the 19th of March, 1711, and by his own desire 
was buried in the churchyard of the nearest parish within his 
diocese. This was Frorae ; Horningsham Church being within the 
diocese of Sarum. And in Frome churcliyard, under the east 
window of the chancel, his ashes rest, guarded by a very singular 
monument, supposed to liavo been placed there by liord Weymouth ; 
an iron grating, collin-shaped, surmounted by a mitre and pastoral 

306 The Histonj of Longleat. 

staff. His library continues to be carefully preserved in this house, 
his portrait in the gallery : the odour of his name is still fragrant 
at Longleat, but Ken belongs to his country. 

It is to be lamented that we have not some more particular 
knowledge of his friend and patron, the first Lord Weymouth, 
than is to be gleaned from a few notices left of him in letters from 
Ken and others. Not only was he, as those letters describe him, 
a deeply religious and amiable man ; but it would seem that Long- 
leat must have been, during his time, a home of accomplished and 
cultivated minds. He had only one son, the Hon. Henry Thynne, 
who never came to the title, dying in his father's lifetime, in the 
year 1708, aged 33. He was of a literary turn of mind, and en- 
couraged it in others. There was living at this time, retired upon 
his own property at Frome, a Mr. Walter Singer, formerly a non- 
conformist minister at Hchester. He was the father of Elizabeth 
Singer, afterwards and now better known as Mrs. Elizabeth Rowe. 
Already at the age of twelve she showed a taste for music, painting, 
and poetry; and being of a devout and simple mind, attracted the 
notice of Bishop Ken. Longleat then became open to her, and 
Mr. Thynne himself instructed her in French and Italian. 

Mr. Thynne had two daughters, the elder of whom, Frances, 
afterwards became Countess of Hertford, of Marlborough Castle. 
She was an enthusiastic patroness of Kterature, especially poetry; 
and is known by her three volumes of correspondence with the 
Countess of Pomfret. Lady Hertford encouraged every aspirant 
to Parnassus, from Pope down to the Wiltshire Thresher, Stephen 
Duck. Mr. Waylen, in his History of Marlborough,^ has described 
the poetical coteries that used to assemble at Marlborough Castle, 
including Thomson of the Seasons, (who, nevertheless, very much 
preferred the aroma of Lord Hertford's port, to scribbling verses 
in her ladyship's grotto :) but to follow them thither would take us 
from our point, which is only to show that this literary taste of the 
Countess was fostered under her father's roof. 

Mr. Harbin, the chaplain, was wont to amuse himself in a way 
that entitles him to our respect ; if at least he is the person of that 
name, a volume of whose extracts, from the evidences in the 

1 p. 383. 

By fhe Rev. J. E. Jackson. 307 

muniment room of Longleat, is mentioned among Sir Thomas 
PhOlipps's Wiltshire Manuscripts.^ 

The Rev. Isaac Walton, of Poulshot, .Ken's nephew, and a 
frequent visitor at this time, was the son of the " Father of anglers." 

These were some of the more familiar guests during Bishop 
Ken's residence here ; but the house is described in all the bio- 
graphies of the bishop, as having been the scene of old English 
hospitality, its festivities open to all comers of fashion and quality. 

In its turn this pleasant scene dissolves, and is succeeded by 
another wholly different. The first Lord Weymouth died in 1714. 
His only son was already dead, leaving no son ; and the estate 
passed to his second cousin, Thomas Thynne, of Kempsford, in 
Gloucestershire, an infant at the time, of only four years old. 

From dates, and other circumstances, it would appear that the 
Hoiise at Longleat must now have remained without a resident 
proprietor for forty years. There was the minority of seventeen 
years, to May, 1731 ; and then, on coming, or soon after coming, 
of age, the second Lord Weymouth appears to have forsaken it, 
and to have lived in an old manor house in the village of Horn- 
ingsham. He died at the early age of forty, in 1751, and was 
buried in Horningsham churchj^ard. He was Hanger of Hyde 
Park and St. James's Park. His son, the 3rd Lord Weymouth, 
was eighteen years old at his father's death. On coming of age, 
in 1754, he found plenty to do, the garden and ornamental grounds 
in the Dutch style (as introduced by the first Lord, and as 
seen in the old print) having fallen, not only into disorder, but 
wholly out of fashion. The taste for foreign gardens had gone by. 
For the work of restoration he called in the celebrated landscape 
gardener of the day, who, from his invariable habit of pointing out 

1 This Mr. George Harbin was the real author of a book called '■ The Hered- 
itary right of the Crown of England asserted; the history of the Sueecssiou 
since the Conijuest cleared, and the true English Constitution vindicated from the 
misrepreseututions of Dr. Higdeu's View and Defence." Folio, London, 1713. 
A work for which llilkiah Bedford, (as the alleged author,) was prosecuted in 
the King's Bench, fined 100() marks, and imprisoned three years. On account 
of hift Hufl'erings Ixird Weymouth (probably at the instigalion of Mr. Harbin, 
whom Bedford's friendship thus screened,) gave him £100: without iiowever 
knowing that the real author all the time was his own Chaplain. See Chalmers' 
Biog. Diet., Ariicle "Bedford." 

308 The History of Longleat. 

to bis employers the great capability of tbeir grounds, earned for 
himself tbe name of Cajjability Brown. So great a personage de- 
serves a stately introduction : let Cowper marshal him in : — 

" Lo ! he comes : 
The omnipotent magician Brown appears. 
He speaks: the lawn in front becomes a lake; 
Woods vanish ! hills subside, and valleys rise ; 
And streams — as if created for his use, 
Pursue the track of his directing wand ; 
Sinuous or straight, now rapid and now slow, 
Now murmuring soft, now roaring in cascades, 
E'en as he bids. Th' enraptured owner smiles. 
'Tis finished: and yet, finished as it seems. 
Still wants — a mine to satisfy the cost!" 

Obedient to this magical wand, the Dutch formalities disappeared ; 
plants and trees, released from regimental discipline, were ordered 
to stand at ease, or to take up new positions more agreeable to the 
principles of English liberty. The great difficulty appears to have 
been how to manage the water ; the natural stream was by no 
means commensurate with the grandeur of Longleat. I do not 
bestow that epithet on this place without sufficient reason : because 
the impression produced upon most minds, when the whole view of 
this house, gardens and demesne, lies under the eye, surveying it 
from a height, certainl}'- is, that taking it altogether it is the very 
beau ideal of an English baronial residence. John Aubrey (not 
unhappily) calls it " the most august house in England." The na- 
tural hills and valleys, the great masses of wood with which the 
hills have been clothed, the extensive range of park, the command 
of prospect, and the style of the house itself, produce, altogether, a 
character of grandeur, which is, in this county at least, peculiar to 
Longleat. Mr. Rep ton justly observes that there is a vast difference 
between the grand and the great. For example — four thousand 
acres with a paling round them and a cotton factory in the centre, 
all in the middle of Salisbury plain, might be great ; but nobody 
would think of calling them grand. Greatness of dimension is one 
thing — greatness of character is quite another. The two are often 
confounded ; but though the difference may not, perhaps, be so 
easy to describe, the eye detects it in a moment. Therefore, to 
bring the water forward into proportion with all the other features 


By the Rev. J. E. Jachson. 309 

of Longleat was absolutely necessary. The stream itself was 
nothing but a watercourse, large enough for driving the old Priory 
mill, but insignificant in appearance, when passing through spacious 
grounds close to a spacious mansion. In the artificial Dutch garden 
the brook had been enlarged a little into a straight canal and fish- 
ponds, as seen in Kip's view ; but when these were aboKshed, the 
problem was how to give greater expansion to the water. Various 
plans were considered, and the one adopted, (at a prodigious ex- 
pense, as Cowper's introduction prognosticates,) was to produce 
the idea of a large river flowing through the demesne, widened by 
serpentine lines into a lake. 

The Viscount Weymouth, by whom this alteration was made, 
was a Lord of the Bedchamber to George III. (1760), Master of 
the Horse to Q\ieen Charlotte (1764), and Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland (1765). In 1789 he was created Marquis of Bath, and 
in September of that year he had the honour of receiving as 
guests, at Longleat, the King, Queen, and Princesses, with a 
suite of forty persons. Their Majesties arrived here on Monday 
14th, and departed Wednesday the 16th; there is a minute ac- 
count of their reception in the appendix to Sir R. C. Hoare's 
history of Warminster. The King was just recovering from one 
of his dangerous illnesses, and was on his return to London from 
sea-bathing at Weymouth. Upon this occasion 125 persons slept 
in the house; nine dinners or luncheons were provided every day, 
besides the grand one; three oxen, six fat bucks, and seventeen fat 
sheep, game, poultry, fish, fruit, and aU the good things that could 
be thought of, formed the bill of fare. 30,000 people crowded into 
the park to wave their hats and shout. His Majesty went up to the 
top of the house, and remarked of the view, that notwithstanding 
the trite description of tlie grandeur and beauty of Longleat it very 
far exceeded any idea he could possibly have formed of it. 

The first Marquis of Bath died in 1796. The nobleman who 
then succeeded, was the late Lord Lieutenant of the county of 
Somerset, the grandfather of our noble host. Before speaking of 
any clianges and improvements in house and grounds, or clsewliore, 
on the j)ropcrty over wl)ich he presided for forty-one years, it w ill 

o s 

310 The nistory of Lomjleat. 

not, I tnist, be considered unbecoming if I take tbe liberty of saying 
a few words about himself. He died in the year 1837, nineteen 
years ago, but his memory is still fresh amongst us, and well may 
it be so, for few men in his position of life lived less for themselves, 
and more for others. In the funeral sermon, preached in the parish 
chui'ch of Frome, upon the occasion of his death,^ he was pro- 
nounced to have been not only a titled but a Christian gentleman. 
Where lay the proof ? It lay in these things. To any scheme of 
public benefit he lent ready assistance : one instance of which may 
suffice, as a sample of the rest. A certain improvement in the 
neighbourhood was on foot, but before it could be completed, it was 
necessary to consult him, as the proposed line of road was to pass 
through his estate. The application was made with some natural 
apprehension as to the result. The answer was to this effect, " You 
may cut through my estate in any direction which will be most for 
the public advantage. I will give you my aid in Parliament, and 
I have directed my steward to send you £500." 

Upon his liberality to churches, charities, and the like, I will not 
dwell, for happily such bounty is not unusual amongst men of 
fortune; but two or three other features of his character, considering 
the circumstances of rank and position, are necessarily more rare, 
and will account in great measure for the peculiar respect with 
which he was regarded. One was his consideration for those in a 
lower rank of life : an example of which he showed not long before 
his death, when upon the decease of a faithful servant, he closed 
Longleat house for three days. Another was the free access which 
he afforded to all; the poorest person who considered himself 
aggrieved was welcome here to tell his tale, and then to partake of 
hospitality. The noble Lord invariably enquired personally into 
the truth of the statement, and saw justice done. " Thus was he a 
father to the poor, and the cause which he knew not he searched 
out." He was naturally silent, and the poor who were acquainted 
with his habit, when they made an application, were accustomed to 
place themselves before the steps of the house, with their request 
in writing : and their case being attested by some known signature, 

1 By the Rev. Hill Wickham, M.A., uow rector of Horsington, county of 

By the Rev. J. E. Jackson. 311 

the petitioner was soon observed, \'isited, and relieved. In the 
course of his frequent rides and walks through the villages adjoining 
his demesne it was his custom to lift the cottage latch, enter and 
look about him, and many a new thatched roof, and ancient wall 
repaired, were owing to these quiet visits. " ^Vhen the ear heard 
him, it blessed him; when the eye saw him, it gave witness to him." 
I trust this passing allusion will not be considered irrelevant to our 
subject. For though we are here to-day to inspect by kind per- 
mission the grounds and mansion of Longleat, you will, I am sure, 
feel with myself, that, after all, the noblest ornaments of a house 
are the good names that belong to it. You will feel, that in the 
review we are now taking of the various handy-works of liberality 
and taste, with which its former owners have embellished this place, 
it would have been ungraceful to omit all reference to the amiable 
qualities that may have adorned those owners themselves. 

The noble Marquis to whom I have just alluded, about the year 
1808, employed Mr. Wyatt, (afterwards Sir Jeffrey Wyatville,) in 
certain alterations within the house, principally in the construction 
of the present grand staircase and galleries. Into further details 
it is needless to enter. So many plans and accounts have been 
published of this as of other large mansions, that the very number 
and dimensions of the rooms are almost as well known to the 
public, as they are to the proprietor himself. It was during the 
repairs made by Mr. Wyatt, as appears from a memorandimi in his 
writing, that the discovery already mentioned at the beginning of 
this paper was made in excavating the ground under the staii'case; 
of a number of coffins containing the presumed skeletons of the 
ancient Priors and Canons of Longleat, — the wearers during life of 
those strange clerical costumes which were described. A second 
and rather singular discovery was made at the same time, showing 
that those reverend gentlemen, whether living or dead, were never 
allowed to have the Priory all to themselves. 

There is a bird who by his coat, 
And by the hoarseness of his nolo 

Might bo supposed a crow: 
A great frequenter of tlie chuich, 
Where cano«-like lie linds a perch, 

And dormitory t^jo. 2 .s 2 

312 The History of Lomjlccit. 

When Mr. Wyatt was erecting the north side of the house, 
which had been for many years in ruins, he found in the present 
kitchen chimney an old flue, containing 100 skeletons of jackdaws, 
and nine of some other bird, supj)osed to have fallen down the 
chimney, to the depth of sixty feet. I believe that since Sir Jefirey 
Wyatville's time nothing whatever has been done to the house. 

Of the general demesnes it is quite needless to speak. Even 
those who have never seen them before, have to-day, by the owner's 
liberal permission, a kind of free warren to examine for themselves. 
The beauty of the arboretum in the walk to Horuingsham, the 
prospect from " Heaven's gate," and the variety of scenery included 
within a park which measures its distances by milestones; of such 
things the best description is the sight. But the archaeology of 
the plantations must not be overlooked. It consists, I believe, in 
sundry venerable oaks that escaped being sawn up into wainscot 
when the house was built; and in a remnant of an original 
" "Weymouth Pine," one of the first trees of that sort, (the New 
England Larch, or white pine, of good quality as timber, but 
disrespectfully called by Mr. Gilpin, "the most formal of its bro- 
therhood,") naturalized in these woods from North America by 
the first Lord "Weymouth, about the year 1705. Its head was 
blown ofi" by a hurricane many years ago, but the rest of this 
curiosity has not yet wholly disappeared. 

I now bring to a conclusion this sketch of the History of the 
House to which we have been so hospitably invited to-day ; and in 
doing so, I will venture to use the words of Mr. Repton, speaking 
in 1803, for they happily apply with equal propriety to 1856. 
" This magnificent estate, so far from being locked up to exclude 
manldnd from partaking of its scenery, is always open, and visitors 
are allowed freely to amuse themselves; which circumstance tends 
to enliven the scene; to extend a more general knowledge of its 
beauty to strangers; and to mark the libei-ality of the noble pro- 
prietor, in thus deigning to share with others the good he enjoys." 

J. E. J. 


51 Knkn nil tjie 3\l\m nf tjie 3i\Mt Slgeif, 



Delivered at the Meetinf/ at Chippenham, Septeniher, 1855. 

By John Lajibert, Esq. 

Member of the Academy of St. Cecilia, at Eonie. 

Amongst tlie various objects of antiquarian research there is one 
which has hitherto received but little attention from the Archcc- 
ologists of this country, viz: the Music of the Middle Ages, and 
its mode of execution. 

The manners and customs of our ancestors — their costume, 
whether ecclesiastical, civil, or military — the various implements 
used by them in the pursuits of Avar and of peace — their buildin o-s, 
especially their religious edifices, have all in turn formed the 
subject of minute inquiry and investigation. Their Sculpture and 
Painting too, have not only been carefully studied, but admirably 
illustrated, and it cannot therefore, I think, be considered out of 
place if I venture to lay before you the result of some investigations 
with reference to the sister art of Music, associated as it was -with 
the Choral institutions of our Cathedrals, and entering so largely 
as it did into the religious services of the Mediajval period. 

On the Continent the Music of the Middle Ages has largely 
attracted the attention of Arclia:;ologists, and in France it may be 
said to form a leading branch of antiquarian research. In the able 
and voluminous Annalcs Arclucologiqitcs of M. Didron there are 
several very interesting papers on the subject, and the admirable 
Revue de la Musique of M. Danjou, unliappily discontinued during 
the last Revolution, was devoted almost entirely to an elucidation 
of the various questions connected with it. Still more recently wo 
have the elaborate work of M. Cou.>38cmukor, " Sur L'JIannuitic an 

314 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

Moyen Age," ^ a work honoured witli the special approbation of the 
Academy of Belles Lettres, and no less remarkable for its great 
research, than the beauty of the fac-simile engravings with which 
it is illustrated: but peculiarly interesting to us as containing a 
previously unpublished treatise on Music, hj John Hothby, an 
Englishman, who Kved at the end of the fourteenth century ; and 
during the present year M. L'Abbe Petit, of Verdun, has put forth 
a most learned treatise on the Psalmody and other parts of the 
Grefforian Chant, in their relation to Latin accentuation.^ Besides 
new works there has issued from the French press a re -print of 
Jumilliac's celebrated treatise, " Sur la Science et Pratique du Plain 
Chant," which was first pubKshed in 1673;^ and it is only a short 
time ago that I was invited to subscribe to a publication in Paris, 
which was to contain aU the Proses and Sequences of the Sarmn 

In Germany, where many of the Chorales are founded entirely 
upon the Scales of the Mediaeval Music, there is also a growing 
interest in this subject: and in 1849, I found the superintendant 
of a large training school at Briihl, near Cologne, a native of Silesia, 
and not only an accomplished musician, but a composer of con- 
siderable merit, engaged in harmonizing the old melodies, upon 
principles similar in many respects to those which, by an entirely 
independent course of study, I myself had been led to adopt. 

From Italy I have received various recent publications connected 
with the subject; and probably the most interesting disquisition on 
Gregorian Music that has ever appeared, is that by Baini, late 
Maestro di Capella of the Sistine Chapel, in his celebrated Life of 

But it is in Belgium that we find the most practical efibrts in 
elucidation of the several moot points connected with the Musical 
text of the old Liturgical books. I do not allude to the labours of 
M. Fetis, the Director of the Conservatoire at Brussels, whose 
celebrated "Biographic des Musiciem" displays such vast researches 

1 Paris : Didion, 1852. Quarto. 

2 Dissertation sur La Psalmodie, Paris: Didron, 1855. 

3 Paris: 1847. 

By John Lambert, Esq. 315 

into the numerous musical systems of antiquity, so mucli as to the 
works which have emanated from the Commission instituted by the 
Archbishop of Malines, and assisted by the Belgian Government. 
It is always difficult to estimate with impartiality the merits of 
one's friend ; but, I cannot help saying, that if I were asked to 
name the person who, in addition to a perfect knowledge of Modern 
Music, possesses the most profoimd appreciation of the tonality and 
sentiment of the Gregorian Chant, I should at once fix upon 
M. Edmond Duval, of Enghien, the principal editor of the great 
Liturgical works which have just issued from M. Hanicq's well- 
known press, at Malines. 

It may however be said that it is not to be wondered that, in the 
coimtries I have named, where Mediaeval Music still forms part of 
their religious services, such questions as those which I propose to 
lay before you on this occasion, should have an interest which they 
do not possess here, but I need not prove to you that the Archaeologist 
is not a mere utilitarian ; and if he were I should remind you that 
the Responses and some of the Chants of our Cathedrals are still 
the same as they always were, and that the great contrapuntal com- 
positions of our best masters, such as Tallis and Byrd are frequently 
founded upon the Gregorian Scales. 

What then is this Music of which I am about to treat, and what 
are its characteristics? 

In order to answer these questions it will be necessary for me to 
say something: 

1. Of its History, 

2. Its Tonality, 

3. Its Notation, 

And 4thly, its mode of Execution. 

In the short space allotted to me it would bo quite impossible to 
cuter fully into either the principles or details of a subject so com- 
prehensive as that of the Music of antiquity. All I can hope to do 
IB to excito your interest, and endeavour to induce you to enter 
upon a study, not only promising new discoveries and pleasures to 
the Arcliajologist, but offering to the modern musician a key to 

316 On ihe Music of the Middle Ages. 

innumerable combinations of sounds, of wbicb he has no idea at 

Of the secular Music of the Middle Ages we have but very few- 
examples ; and such as we have onh'^ shew that it was founded upon 
the principles of the Church Chant; the latter having the ad- 
vantage over it in every respect, just as we find our parish Churches 
and Cathedrals to be more beautiful and magnificent than the 
secular buildings of the same period. 

That Music was introduced very early into the Christian Church 
every well read person is aware. The Hymn sung on the Mount 
of Olives ; the testimony of Pliny as to the practices of the primitive 
Christians; and the distinct statement of Eusebius, "that those 
whom St. Mark the Evangelist instructed, were occupied day and 
night in singing Psalms," leave no doubt that the first period of 
Christian AVorship -n'as not destitute of the powerful aid of Mu- 
sical Art. 

Of the sources from which this Music was derived we are almost 
equally certain. 

The early Christians were not the inventors of any new system 
of Music, but the}^ adopted the art in the state in which thej'' found 
it, transferring probablj'- some of the IMelodies of the Temple itself 
to their own religious assemblies. Indeed it has been stated by 
more than one ancient author that the Gregorian Tone, peculiar to 
the Psalm, "In exihi Israel" is the same as that chanted by the 
Hebrews when they celebrated their Passover. 

We know but little, however, of the actual state and condition of 
the Christian Music of the first four centuries. No doubt it gradually 
assumed a more important and more regular form in the Services 
of the Church, up to the fifth century, when St. Ambrose estab- 
lished the Chant known as the Ambrosian Chant, in his Cathedral 
Church of Milan. 

Considerable discussion has arisen as to the origin of the Am- 
bi'osian Chant, M. Fetis contending that it was then newly introduced 
from the East, and was more elaborate and more rythmical than 
that in use in the West ; but all are agreed that the main principles 

By John Lambert, Esq. 317 

of the two were the same, both being based upon the diatonic Scale, 
common to the Greeks, and other nations of classical antiquity. 

Two centuries after St. Ambrose we come to the time of Pope 
Gregory the Great, from whom the Gregorian Chant takes its name, 
not because it was invented by him, as is commonly supposed, but 
because he reduced the Church Music to a more regular system, 
collecting and correcting the musical phrases then in use, and 
extending them to other parts of the Liturgy. 

But St. Gregory was not content with merely arranging the 
Music of the Church. He well knew that without living voices 
to execute it, it would remain a dead letter; and accordingly he 
instituted and endowed two Academies or training schools for 
singers, under his own immediate direction, giving lessons there 
himself, even when he was so feeble as to be unable to stand or sit ; 
and a writer in the ninth century tells us, that at that time, the 
couch upon which the old man reclined, as well as the rod with 
which he kept his pupils in awe, were still preserved in Rome. It 
would be well for the cause of Ecclesiastical Music, whether of the 
ancient or modern school, if those in authority made themselves 
acquainted with it, after the example of St. Gregory ; and I 
am not quite sure that some of our Choirs, even at the present day, 
might not be benefitted by the threat, if not by the application of 
the chastisement which he found so efiicacious. 

From his position Pope Gregory was enabled to diffuse his Music 
throughout Christendom ; and up to the period when modern 
Harmony became generally adopted, the Gregorian Chant was the 
only Music deserving that name in Europe. The secular Music 
of the Middle Ages was composed upon its principles, and I could 
adduce instances of Songs being adapted to some of the Melodies 
of the Hymnal. 

Of course it must not be supposed that the musical text of the 
liturgical books preserved a constant uniformity. At some periods 
the Music was more elaborate than at others, and moreover it became 
modified by national ijeculiarities ; but whether in the more simple 
forms of its first composition, or the more complicated phrases of 
ita later dcvelopement, it was essentially the same in its Scales and 

2 T 

318 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

musical progressions, resembling in this respect tlie various styles 
of Gothic Architecture, some of which are more elaborate than 
others, but all based on the same principles, and differing only in 
their ornamental details. And if the question be put, as it often 
is, which is the most correct text of any given piece of Music in 
the Liturgical books, I answer, by asking whether you prefer the 
style of the Cathedral at Salisbury, or that of Henry the Seventh's 
Chapel at Westminster ? 

The Musical Scale of the Greeks, from which that of the Middle 
Ages was taken, was founded upon certain sequences of four notes 
each, called Tetracords; each Tetracord being composed of two 
whole tones and one semitone, the extreme notes forming the in- 
terval of a fourth. These Tetracords were either joined together, 
or separated; in the former case, the last note of one Tetracord 
formed the first note of the next ; and in the other, the succeeding 
Tetracord commenced on the note above the last of the preceding 
one. The entire Scale was composed of four of these Tetracords, 
with the addition of a note at the bottom, termed Proslamhenomenon, 
which was the first note of the system, but did not form part of 
any Tetracord ; so that the whole compass of the Scale was limited 
to two octaves, commencing with the A in the first space of the 
Bass Clef, and terminating with the A in the second space of the 

Treble Clef. 





diezeugmenon. \ c Tetracord 

-. : — ; \ b natural synnemenon. 






By John Lambert, Esq. 319 

The intervals of tlie Diatonic Scale, whether subdivided into 
Tetracords, according to the earlier system of the Greeks; into 
Hexacords, as afterwards was the case; or into Octaves, as at the 
present day, are aU founded upon certain laws of vibration, known 
to the Greeks no less than to the Musicians of the Middle Age ; and 
the only difference between the Scales of the two consisted in this : 
that the latter added another note to the Scale below the A, which 
they designated by the Greek T, or Gamma, from which the Scale 
came to be termed Gamut, just as the word Alphabet is derived 
from the two first Greek letters. Alpha and Beta. 

Nothing can be clearer than the description of the Scale given 
by Guide d' Arrezzo, the great Musician of the eleventh century, 
in his celebrated treatise, the Micrologus.^ It is to be foimd in his 
third chapter, " On the disposition of the notes on the Monochord;" 
the Monochord being an instrument, consisting of a single string 
stretched over a piece of wood. He says, "the Gamma, or starting 
point, being in the first place fixed upon, then divide the inter- 
mediate space between it and the end of the string into nine equal 
parts, and at the termination of the first division place the letter A, 
from which all the ancients began their Scale. Then from A to 
the end, calculate the ninth part, in the same manner, and place 
at that point the letter B. After this, returning to the Gamma, 
divide the string into four equal parts, and at the end of the first 
part you wQl find the note C. By a similar division by four, as with 
the Gamma, is found C ; so in relation with A, you wUl find D ; with 
B, E ; with C, F ; with D, G ; and with E, a above ; which process 
being worked out, all the intermediate intervals will be discovered 
in due order: so that, for example, if you divide the string from B 
to the end into two equal parts, you will find the Octave b above; 
a similar division from C will give the c above : and so you may go 
on, almost without limit, either above or below." 

The Scale, thus constructed, is, as you will perceive, purely 

Diatonic, without accidentals. There was, however, one accidental 

admitted, viz., b flat, which was introduced in order to obviate what 

the ancients considered the false relation between F and b natural, 

' Scriptorcs Mueicoc. Oerbert. Vol. II. 

2 T 2 

320 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

when those two notes formed the extreme notes of a musical phrase. 

It has been a subject of very keen controversy whether the F sharp 

and C sharp were not also used ; but it is quite clear to me that 

they were unknown to the best periods of Gregorian Music, and 

owe their introduction chiefly to the organists of the 14th and 15th 

centuries, who made their final cadences on the Chord of the 

Dominant. I shall not lead you through the labyrinth of this 

vexed question, but I cannot help referring to a posthumous work 

of the Pere Lambillotte, recently published at Paris, in which the 

authority of Guido, which would be quite conclusive on the point, 

is attempted to be introduced in proof of the use of these two 

additional accidentals. Now having, on previous occasions, had 

some experience of the lengths to which even the best disposed 

persons will sometimes go in support of a darling theory, I have been 

induced to examine the passage quoted with the original text, and 

so far from Guido's meaning being that which is attributed to him, I 

found that it is the very reverse. These are his words :^ 

" When you have divided the Monochord into nine parts, and 
have found out a, then divide the string from that point into seven 
parts, and at the end of the first division you will find the first 
Diesis;" (which word is improperly translated by Lambillotte as 
sharp,) "between b natural and c. In lilie manner if you divide 
the string from the d into seven parts, in the same order, you will 
find the second Diesis between e and/." 

So that in point of fact instead of the notes spoken of by Guido, 
being C sharp and F sharp, or notes between C and D, and F and G, 
they are intervals between c and b, and /and e, and would be more 
properly described as c flat and / flat. 

An instance such as this ought not to be lost upon Archaeologists, 
who if they really desire to find out what our ancestors thought, 
said, and did, will seek for it in the works and monuments of the 
past, and not rely with too much confidence upon quotations, even 
when given by authors of celebrity, especially when an opponent 
has to be silenced, or a favorite theory defended. 

From the Scale, as given above, were constructed the Modes of 
the mediaeval Music, each Mode commencing on a difierent note, 

1 Micrologus. c. 10. 

By John Lambert, Esq. 321 

and consisting of a perfect fifth and a perfect fourth, forming to- 
gether an Octave. In this manner the relative positions of the 
tones and semitones, or of the whole notes and half-notes, differ in 
almost every one of the Modes, whilst in modern Music the Melody- 
is confined to one Major and one Minor Scale, which are the same 
in every Key. 

It was this variety in the disposition of sounds which constituted 
the peculiar character of the Greek Modes; and the four strings of 
the Lyre were tuned according to the Mode in which the Music was 
composed; thus in the first, or Dorian Mode, commencing on D, 
the strings represented the notes D E F Gr; in the second, or 
Phrygian, E F G a; and in the third, or Lydian, F G a & flat. 
Each one of these successions of notes forming a Tetracord, with a 
different disposition of notes, and deriving its distinctive name from 
the people or country where it was in most general use. 

It seems almost incredible that Music, so simple in its construction 
as that of the Greeks, could have produced such great effects, as 
those of which we read ; but, when we remember that the whole 
musical Scale consists of a few different sounds only, we shall have 
less difficulty in vmderstanding the varied sensations arising from 
the disposition of the four notes of the Tetracord. The Dorian 
Mode, with its plaintive minor third, sweet and soothing. The 
Phrygian, with its minor second and minor third, so decided and 
combative, that the Spartans excluded it from the education of 
their young men. And the Lydian, with its major second and 
major third, of which our own Poet so justly speaks, when he sings, 

" And ever against eating cares 

Lap me in soft Lydian Airs, 

Married to immortal verse. 

Such as the melting soul may pierce 

In notes, with many a winding bout 

Of linked sweetness long drawn out. 

With wanton heed and giddy cunning 

The melting voice through mazes running, 

Untwisting all the chains, that tie 

The hidden soul of Harmony." 

The Greek Modes, first consisting of Tetracords, were afterwards 
extended by Terpandrc, who added three notes to each Tetracord, 
thus giving to each Mode seven notes. 

322 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

The musical system of the Greeks was complete at the intro- 
duction of Christianity". The Romans adopted it, and by them, and 
with them, it was extended to all nations, wherever the Latin 
language was spoken. 

The Gregorian Modes, as ordinarily understood, consist in number 
of eight, but in reality they amount to twelve; the four last being 
usually transposed in the text, by the introduction of the b flat. 
In the time of Charlemagne a discussion arose as to the number of 
Modes, and upon being appealed to he decided that eight were 
enough for all practical purposes ; but as Canute could not command 
the waves of the sea, neither was Charlemagne able to control the 
limits of the musical Scale : and in spite of the mandate of the great 
Christian Emperor, the Eolien and Ionian Modes still held their 
ground in the musical system of that and every succeeding age. 

The Church Modes are of two kinds, authentic and plagal; each 
authentic Mode having its corresponding plagal, and differing from 
it only in the disposition of the fifth and fourth of which each is 

The following is a Table of the Eight Modes. 

5th. ith. 


Fii-st Mode, authentic DEFGabcd 

ith. 5th. 


>< > 

Second Mode, plagal ABODE F Ga . . . 

5th. 4th. 

< ^— .r—^ » 

Third Mode, authentic EFGabcde 

ith. 5th. 


Fovixth. Mode, plagal.... BCDEFGab . . . 

5th. Uh. 

, ^ 1- ' » 

Fifth Mode, authentic FGabcde f 

4th. 5th. 

, ' .r 

Sixth Mode, plagal CDEFGabc. .. 

5th. 4th. 


t \t 1 

Seventh Mode, authentic. . . . Gabcdefg 

4th. 5th. 

r--^ M '^ . 

Eighth Mode, _;;%«/ DEFGabcd... 

By John Lambert, Esq. 323 

The Scale of the first Mode, as will be seen, embraces the octave 
from D to d, having its fifth from D to a, and its fourth from aiod 

The second Mode reverses its fourth, placing it in the first part 
of its Scale, which commences on A, and extends to its octave, 
having its fourth from A to D, and its fifth from D to A above. 

The Tonic, or final note, of each of these two Modes is precisely 
the same, and all compositions in both always end on the first note 
of the authentic Mode, viz., D. 

The third Mode commences on F, having its fifth E to J natural, 
and its fourth from b natural to e. In like manner, as in the first 
Mode, the plagal of the second is formed by reversing its fourth, 
commencing on the lower B, its fourth being B to E, and its fifth 
the same as that of the authentic, viz., E to 6 natural. By a similar 
progression, ascending note by note up the Scale, the various Modes 
are constructed, except that no Mode has b natural for its Tonic, 
because its fifth / and the fourth above are both imperfect : so that 
by commencing on the note D, and taking each following note iu 
succession, viz., E, F, G, a and c, (with the exception of b natural,) 
in all six, the number of Modes, (each authentic Mode having its 
corresponding plagal,) may be increased to twelve: and each of 
these Modes will be found to vary from the others, either in the 
distribution of its tones and semitones, or in the position of its 
fourth and fifth ; and thus every Mode has a sentiment peculiar to 
itself, and is quite distinct in character from any other. In the 
words of the old writers : — 

" The first is grave, the second sad, 
Impetuous the third, the fourth is bland, 
Joyfxil the fifth, the sixth devout, 
The seventh angelic, and the eighth most sweet." 

The Notation of the Greek Music was by letters, and sometimes 
by numbers, placed under or above the words ; and the same system 
was continued by the Romans, from whom it was adopted by the 
Church l^Iusicians. 

There are few examples extant of this kind of Notation, but it 
seems to have prevailed until the seventh or eighth century, when 
the system known as the Saxon and Lombardic Notation was intro- 

324 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

duced. This consists of various signs or marks, termed nettmes, 
resembling somewhat in appearance the characters of short-hand. 
These neumes were not always uniform, but varied considerably from 
each other, and although many of them can be deciphered with 
tolerable accuracy, still the exact nature and value of them has 
yet to be discovered ; and to a person having leisure, I know of no 
more interesting object of antiquarian investigation than this one 
branch. The task of imravelling the secrets of Egyptian Hiero- 
glyphics was infinitely more hopeless than the one I have suggested, 
and who knows that there may not be a Rosetta Stone in store 
for some future student of Saxon and Lombardic Notation ? As it 
is, we know the exact meaning of several of the signs : we can dis- 
tinguish the ascending from the descending passages, and tell the 
precise number of notes in each ; but our difficulty lies in. ascer- 
taining the relative position of the whole tones from the half-tones, 
because there is no Key or Clef, shewing either on what note the 
Music commences or terminates, so that even Guido, living in the 
eleventh century, when this Notation was in use, compares it to 
water in a well, which we see, but are unable to reach, for want of 

a bucket. 

" Q,uasi funem dum non habet puteus, 
Cujus aquae, quamvis multse, nil prosunt videntibus." 

Independently, however, of these neumes merely designating 
certain notes, it has been recently suggested by M. Coussemaker, 
that they indicated also the value of each note in point of duration, 
just as the grave and acute accents marked the measure and beat 
in classic poetry; a suggestion which must not be lost sight of in 
future investigations of this interesting subject. 

"We may easily imagine the difiiculties in the way of the singer, 
during the existence of this system of Notation, and of the immense 
facilities imparted to musical art by Guide's invention of lines and 
spaces, in the eleventh century. These lines consisted of four: one 
being coloured red, to mark the note F, and the other green, to 
mark the note C; the other lines were not coloured, but at their 
commencement he put two other letters of the Scale, so that each one 
of these lines having its letter or its clef mark, the notes which were 
placed, either on the lines or in the spaces, were at first sight so 

By John Lambert, Esq. 325 

easily discovered, that in a short time there was no necessity either 
to continue to distinguish the lines by colours, or to multiply 
letters, or Clefs; and for many centuries past it has been found 
sufficient to mark one line only with the Clef. 

The Stave of Guido, consisting of four lines, which continues to 
be used in the Gregorian Chant at the present time, was also intro- 
duced into the secular Music of the period; but within two centuries 
afterwards we find the number of lines increased, sometimes to 
five, and sometimes even to six or more, according to the compass 
of the piece, as at that time they had no idea of writing above or 
below the Stave, as we do now. 

But whilst the system of Guido gave a clear idea of each note, 
as regarded its position in the Scale, still it was deficient in indi- 
cating either the rhythm or measure of the Music ; and this remark 
brings me to the principal object of this Lecture, which is to 
endeavour to throw some new light on its mode of execution. 

At the outset I must mention to you, that the ancient Music was 
neither divided into Bars, nor indicated by a particular measure, 
nor did the formation of the notes mark their exact relative pro- 
portions, as is the case in our modern musical compositions. It is 
quite true that in what was termed measured Music, in the 13th 
and two subsequent centuries, the Long, the Breve, and the Semi- 
breve, had a distinct value attached to them ; but this was confined 
chiefly to secular Music, such as Canons, and other Music sung in 
parts; and from this circumstance, almost all the writers on the 
subject, from the 16th century to the present time, have treated the 
Plain Chant as if it were destitute of rhythm or measure, and con- 
sisted entirely of notes of equal duration. 

Glarien says of it: 

" The Plain Chant, as regards the notes, is simple and uniform." 

" The old and Plain Gregorian Music," I quote the words of 
Alstedius, "preserves an equal measure in its notes." 

Franchinus tells us that " Musicians have disposed the notes of 
Plain Chant by an equal measure of time." 

Cardinal Bona, in his great work, "Do Divina Psalmodia," in 
the 16th century, says that " St. Gregory instituted the l*laiu Chant, 

2 V 

326 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

which proceeding as from a plain surface is measured by equal notes 
of short time." And after him comes Jumilliac, who asserts, that 
the essence of this Music consists " in the equality of its notes and 

I could multiply quotations to the same effect, without limit, but 
to my mind there is no proof of the opinion of the musicians of the 
15th and 16th centui'ies so strong, as the fact that Palestrina, and 
the great ecclesiastical Harmonists of that period, invariably treat the 
text of the Plain Chant on which they have founded their unrivalled 
Harmonies, as consisting of notes of equal length. Indeed every 
musician knows that the Canto Fermo, as it is termed, is invariably 
used by the great contrapuntal masters as a mere peg whereon to 
display all the ingenious and mazy devices of modern harmony. 

Now I have long thought that even these great authorities could 
not be absolutely relied upon : because, by analogy with language, 
no less than by reference to the Scale itself, I felt satisfied that to 
execute Music without rhythm, (by which I mean a mixture of notes 
of long and short measure,) would not only be intolerable to the 
hearer, but impossible to the performer. Everybody knows that 
each sentence we speak is more or less rhythmical ; that we could not, 
even if we would, make every syllable of equal duration; and that 
one of the greatest charms of oratory consists, less in the nicely 
balanced sentences, and well modulated voice of the speaker, than 
in the matter of the oration itself. Nay so universal is this 
rhythmical sentiment, that it is not confined to mere sounds; but it 
extends to every motion of our frame, from the pulsations of the 
heart to the graceful steps of the most accomplished dancer. 

As a further presumptive proof of the artistic character of me- 
diaeval Music, I may refer to the place it held in our university 
courses: for whilst Grammar, Rhetoric, and Dialectics constituted 
the studies of the Trivium or lower school, Music was associated 
with Arithmetic, Geometry, and Astronomy, in the Quadrivium or 
higher form; not constituting an isolated branch of study, or separated 
from the fundamental principles of the other sciences, but embracing 
a knowledge of the philosophy of language, of Oratory, of Poetry, 
of numbers, and the laws of vibration. How superior must have 

Btj John Lambert, Esq. 327 

been the knowledge of a well-educated musician of those days to 
the accomplishment of being able to play a Jullien Polka, or sing 
a modern sentimental song! 

But setting aside mere presumption, and turning to the authors 
of antiquity, what do we find ? 

Aristides Quintilian, one of the seven Greek authors whose 
works are published by Meibomius,^ states that vocal Music consists 
of three things, viz.. Melody, Rhythm, and Words, and he defines 
Rhythm to consist of various times or beats joined together in a 
certain order. Again, he tells us that by simple time he means an 
interval so short as to be indivisible, just as the Geometricians define 
a point to be something without parts. Compound time is that which 
is capable of division : of which one is double, another treble, another 
quadruple the length of the first, and so on. And the same author 
afterwards states that sometimes musical Rhythm is merely prosaic, 
and not depending upon a regular return of the same measure, as 
in Poetry. 

To the same efiect are all the Greek authors, and we find Plato 
affirming that none can be a Poet or Musician to whom the nature 
of Rhythm is unknown. 

Amongst the Romans, Cicero and Quintilian are equally clear 
as to the nature and importance of Rhythm. Indeed it would be 
impossible to find an opposite sentiment in a single writer of 
classical antiquity. 

Amongst the early Christian writers the most important is St. 
Augustine, who felt so keenly the importance of Rhythm as the basis 
of Music, that he devotes the whole of his six books on Music to 
that one point alone; and he tells us, that in the necessary ad- 
mixture of long and short words, of accented and unaccented 
syllables, accompanied with an appropriate elevation or depression 
of the voice, as in ordinary conversation, we daily practice the 
principles which guide the Poet and Musician in the cultivation of 
their respective arts. 

But of all those who have written on this subject, there is no one 
who has thrown so much light on the construction of the Music 

1 AntiiiuEO Musicte AuctorcB. Amstoidam: 1762. 

2 u 2 

328 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

of the Middle Ages as Guido himself, living at the very time, 
and profoundly skilled in the art. 

The fifteenth chapter of the Micrologus is devoted entirely to 
this branch of the subject, and the following are the most important 
passages in it: 

" In Hke manner as in Poetry there are letters and syllables, 
words, feet, and verses ; so in Music there are Phthongi, or sounds, 
of which one, two, or three are adapted to a syllable ; and these, 
either separately or in duplicate, constitute a neume, that is a part 
of the strain; and one or more of these parts make a phrase, or a 
convenient place to take breath." 

" It is necessary that the Melody should be marked by a beat, as 
is the case in metrical feet." 

"Some notes derive a slight pause from the circumstance that 
others are doubly longer, or doubly shorter, or of different duration ; 
and great care must be taken to avoid such a division of neumes, 
that when they are formed of the same note repeated, or of two or 
three different notes; nevertheless they should correspond to each 
other, either in the number of the notes, or duration of the tones." 
" Let then the Musician propose to himself of what sequences of 
notes he will compose his Melody, as the Poet determines of what 
feet he will make his Poetry ; except that it is not necessary that 
the Musician should bind himself by the same strict rules, because 
this art admits of a considerable latitude in the disposition of its 

" It is necessary, however, that the musical phrases should be of 
equal length, like the verses in Poetry, and sometimes that the same 
should be repeated, or varied with a slight change." 

"Again each respective phrase should return the same way, and 
by the same steps as those by which it advances ; and if one phrase 
makes a circuit or line in descending from the higher notes, another 
one shoiild oppose to it a similar inclination in answering from the 
lower notes : as is the case when we look into a well, and have our 
face reflected back from the water. Moreover, sometimes one 
syllable may have one or more musical phrases associated with it, 
and at others one phrase is distributed over several syllables." 

By John Lambert, Esq. 329 

"There are also certain prosaic Chants which adhere less to the 
foregoing rules, and in which we find the neumes and phrases some 
greater, and some less throughout, without any fixed order, as is 
the case in prose compositions." 

" I call certain Music metrical, hecause we often sing it as if we 
were scanning the feet in Poetry; but we must be careful not to 
use too many neumes of two notes only, without a due admixture 
of others containing three and four. For there is a great resem- 
blance between Poetry and Music, since the neumes stand in the 
place of feet, and phrases in the place of verses : so that one neume 
runs in dactjdic, another in spondaic, and a third in iambic meter; 
and you at the same time perceive that the whole phrase, or dis- 
tinction, is either tetrameter, pentameter, or hexameter, or some 
other kind of measure." 

" We also frequently impart to certain notes the grave or the 
acute accent; sometimes they require to be more strongly marked 
than at others." 

I think it would be impossible to have more conclusive or satis- 
factory testimony as to the character of the Music of the Middle 
Ages, or indeed a more profound estimate of the various elements 
required in the composition of a Melody, than in these few extracts 
from a monk of the eleventh century, written at a time when 
Musical Notation was very imperfect, and the various appliances of 
modern Harmony almost unknown. 

Such testimony leaves no doubt whatever that Time and Rhythm 
were perfectly understood; and that even those compositions which 
were not strictly metrical consisted of melodious phrases, containing 
a due admixture of long and short notes. 

But if any doubt should still exist on this point, after the quota- 
tions from Guido, it would be removed by the Treatise of Aribo 
the scholar: who, a century afterwards, illustrated those very pas- 
sages which I liavc quoted by examples, adding that in the more 
ancient antiphonarios the letters C, T, M, were placed over the 
Music, — which letters represented the words Celcritas, Tarditas, 
and Mediocritat, and indicated whether the passage was to be 
quick, slow, or in moderate time. 

330 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

He also remarks that singers were as careful to execute, as authors 
were to compose their Music, according to rhythmical principles ; 
but that even in his time the practice had sadly fallen off: 
"Q,u8e consideratio jamdudum obiit, imo sepulta est." 

There can be no doubt that in those days, as at the present time, 
Music was often deplorably mangled through the ignorance, or 
pe rhaps what is still more common, the conceit of those who were 
entrusted with its execution; and towards the end of the 15th cen- 
tury, the fine old melodious and rhythmical Chant of St. Gregory 
had in many places degenerated into a slow drawling movement, 
perfectly intolerable to the cultivated ear. Of the ignorance of 
many of the singers, even in his day, Gruido speaks with the hearty 
indignation of a real musician. 

" Musicorum et cantorum magna est distantia. 
Isti dicunt, illi sciunt qua; componit musica. 
Nam qiii facit quod non sapit, diffinitur bestia." 

Which I have attempted to translate, as follows: 

Twixt tbose who sing and who compose 

The space can't be increased, 

The one prepare, the other serve, 

The sweets for Music's Feast; 

And he who serves, but knows not what, 

Is aptly termed a beast. 

But besides the ignorance of some there was another abuse, 
arising from the conceit of others, described in the following quaint 
extract from an English writer of the time of Richard the Second. 

"When there been fourty or fifty in a queer, three or four proud and 
lecherous Lords shullen knack the most devout service, that no man shall hear 
the sentence, and all others shallen be dumb, and look on them as fools : And 
then strumpets and thieves praisen Sire Jack or Hobb, and William the proud 
Clerk, how smallen they knacken their notes, and sejTi they serven well God and 
holy Church, when they despisen God in his face, and letten (hinder) other men 
of their devotion and compunction, and stirren them to worldly vanity." 

Wtcliffe. MS. of Prelates, apud. Lewis. 134. Q,uoted by Lingard. 

Vol. ii. 266. 

The abuses, however, in the mode of performance do not affect 
the principles upon which the Music was composed, and having 
established that it was essentially rhythmical in its nature, I must 

By John Lamhert, Esq. 331 

add a word to explain somewliat more clearly the exact meaning 
wliicli I wisli to attach to the word Rhythm itself. 

Rhythm then, as applied to Music, is nothing more than a certain 
well-proportioned series of sounds, arising from slow and quick move- 
ments,and when metre is joined to Rhythm, as in Poetry, it may be 
termed the measure of Rhythm itself; and hence, when speaking 
of Poetry, the term Rhythm is often used as including metre also. 
It is manifest, however, that they have distinct significations, as the 
following quotation from St. Augustine will shew : " Yousee,"says he, 
" how correctly both terms, viz.. Rhythm and Measure, have been 
applied to these things; for since the one moves on by certain feet 
it is rightly called rhy thmus or number, but inasmuch as its progress 
or movement is not systematic, nor does it determine on what foot 
it should end, it ought not to be called measure, because there is no 
measure of continuation; when, however, both rhythm and metre 
are united, they run in given feet, and terminate at a certain point." 

The Music, therefore, of the Middle Ages, when in its perfection, 
was principally of two kinds, viz., (1.) Rhythmical Chant, and (2.) 
Metrical Chant, each of which is susceptible of further divisions. 

The first in its more simple form was Psalmodic, consisting of a 
chief note of recitation, with modulated cadences at the middle or 
end of each verse, and regulated in its execution by the accent of 
language; whilst in its more elaborate pieces it had no reciting 
note, and was composed of a series of melodious phrases, more or 
less charged with notes depending for their proper efiect upon a due 
attention to the Musical accent. 

The Metrical Music was subdivided into two parts: 

Ist. That which was purely syllabic, and depended upon the 
measure of the words; and 

2nd. That which contained more than one note to all or some 
of the syllables, and required that the Rhythm of the Music should 
be taken into account, as well as the measure and accent of the 

In illustration of what I have advanced, I propose to give you 
Bome examples of the foregoing kinds of Music, under the following 

332 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

1. Rhythmical Chant in its simple or Psalmodic form. 

2. Metrical Chant in its syllabic form. 

3. Rhythmical Chant in its most elaborate form. 

4. Metrical and Rhythmical Chant united.^ 


The most simple form of the Psalmodic Chant is to be found in 
the eight tones for the Psalms, which in some form or another are 
well known to most musicians of the present day. These tones all con- 
sist of four parts, viz., the intonation, — the reciting note, — the media- 
tion, — and the termination. In the recitation the accent of language 
is the only thing to be attended to; but at the mediation and ter- 
mination each accented syllable of the text must be made to fall 
upon an accented note of the Music. 

The first illustration is the Doxology in the eighth Mode, Avith 
the second ending; and the second is in the first Mode, with the 
first ending. The Chant of the Te Deitm is of very high antiquity, 
and has been subjected to scarcely any variation from its first 


With regard to the Metrical Music of antiquity, there is no doubt 
whatever that the ancient Poets composed the Music to which their 
verses were chanted. " / sing," were the words with which they 
commenced their subject, and it would have been well for vocal 
Music if the unhappy divorce between Poet and Musician had 
never taken place. 

The object of the Poet being to add force to his language by 
uniting it with Music, he of course took care that the beat of the 
Music should be entirely subservient to the accent of the verse; 
and it is quite clear that the same principle guided the com- 
posers of the earliest Church Hymns ; so that in all cases where they 
are purely syllabic there is no difiiculty whatever in discovering 
the tune. 

1 For the sake of convenience the several Musical illustrations have been placed 
together at the end of this Lectiu-e. 

By John Lambert, Esq. 333 

The Classical metres of antiquity were governed by two accents, 
the Tonic and the Metrical. The former, being the accent of 
language, was always observed according to the rules of Prosody, 
and by the latter an emphasis was imparted to certain syllables, 
which otherwise would have been destitute of any accent. Many 
of the Christian Hymns were constructed in these metres; but 
others were written in what is called natural measure, consisting 
merely of successions of similar feet, and depending upon the ac- 
cent of language only. 

The second of the following examples, both of which are taken 
from the Sarum Hymnal, published at Cologne in 1525, is one of 
the finest specimens of the more simple Hymns. It is in the 
fourth Mode; and although syllabic, the Melody is so stately in 
its construction that a secular or frivolous movement cannot easily 
be imparted to it. 


I now come to a consideration of the mode of executing the 
Rhythmical Chant of the more florid kind, and it is here that the 
great difficulty exists. I have before shewn that Rhythm existed in 
all the Music of the Middle Ages; but how this Rhythm was to be 
brought out, when the Music was not associated with Poetry, has 
yet to be ascertained, 

M. Coussemaker, in the work already quoted by me, says, that 
" its Rhythm was neither founded on measure, nor on a return of 
phrases of the same duration." And Baini, whilst admitting that 
it is at present quite lost, says, that " like the Rh3fthm of Oratory, 
it must have been more free, more varied, more complicated, and 
more diversified than the Rhythm of modern Music; but it was at 
the same time well defined, easily distinguishable, and quite neces- 
sary." " It was," to use the happy expression of the same author, 
" the very soul of the Gregorian Chant." How then is this lost 
art to be regained? Wo have seen that the Music consisted of 
certain nicely balanced phrases, composed of notes varying in du- 
ration; but how are we to know tlie long notes from thcsliort ones? 

2 X 

334 On the BImic of the Middle Ages. 

Because if this question be answered, we have a key to tlie whole 


It is curious to observe how the mere suggestion, or suspicion 
of a difl&culty, disturbs the exercise of well-directed inves- 
tigation. Instead of seeking for a solution of it in simple 
principles, or obvious facts, we fly oif at once to the most improbable 
conjectures, sometimes even abandoning the inquiry altogether as 
hopeless. We all recollect how graphically Dickens, in his Pickwick 
Papers, describes the discovery of the stone on which Bill Stumps 
had carved his immortal name ; and, as a matter of fact, there are 
probably none of us who have not searched for a lost object in every 
conceivable place except the one where it was most likely to be 
found. Such I imagine to have been the case with those who have 
tried to discover the rules which guided the singer in the execution 
of the Music now under consideration; and who seem to have quite 
disregarded the following obvious considerations. 

In the first place, the organs of the human voice have always 
been the same, and the laws on which its various sounds depend are 
not susceptible of any change. Moreover some sounds are produced 
with less effort than others, and the motion from one sound to 
another is more or less difficult, according to the extent of the 
interval which separates them. 

Again when, in speaking, we wish to mark any particular word 
with peculiar emphasis we elevate our voice to a higher sound, 
dwelling longer on it than on others, and in the various inflexions 
we make we invariably find that the intermediate sounds are passed 
over rapidly. Independently of the final cadence at the end of the 
sentence, we have subordinate ones in its various members, 
accompanied by pauses more or less protracted. These simple 
principles, when applied to mediaeval Music, appear to me to solve 
the chief difficulties connected with it ; because having established 
that it was rhythmical, consisting of a mixture of long and short 
notes, the only point we have to clear up is to show how the long 
and how the short notes are to be distinguished, and this is to be 
done, as I believe, by accenting them as we should the various 
inflexions in Oratory, making the highest note of each ascending 
or descending passage emphatic ; treating the intermediate notes 

By John Lambert, Esq. 335 

of all ornamental phrases as unaccented or short, and giving full 
value to the notes which constitute the several cadences, whether 
subordinate or final. 

Of course these rules, like all others, are liable to various modi- 
fications, and all I can expect to do on such an occasion is to give 
you a general idea on the subject. 

Indeed it would be impossible to lay down such exact rules as 
would lead to imiformity in every little detail; as much must be left 
to the taste and skill of the singer: just as in modern Music, where 
even with the most exact division into regular Bars, with all the 
aid of crotchets, quavers, and semiquavers, one singer is found 
to impart to a certain song a peculiar character or charm, making 
it, according to the phrase, his own. 

Of the four examples which I have given of this kind of Music, 
the two Antiphons will be found the most elaborate and difficult. 
The phrases of each require to be very carefully studied, and a well- 
trained voice is essential to the due execution of them. The 
Hwc dies, which is the more florid composition of the two, contains 
no less than 241 notes to 19 words, and in several parts of it will 
be noticed an ornament in frequent use at the present day. I mean 
the peculiar effect produced by the repetition, or repercussion as 
the ancient authors termed it, of the same note two or three 
times in succession upon the same syllable. It will be obvious, on 
the most cursory glance, that the long divisions of notes contained 
in these examples were intended to be sung with considerable 
flexibility of voice ; and that such was the practice of the musicians 
of the Middle Ages we may learn from Guido, who expressly says 
that each musical phrase or neume is to be sung in one breath. 


In addition to that portion of the Metrical Music of the Middle 
Ages, which is merely syllabic, there are Hymns, the Music of 
which is of a more elaborate character, containing often several 
notes to a single syllable, and it has been confidently assei'tcd by 
at least one writer of great authority (M. Fetis) that in intro- 
ducing this form of treatment the Church composers have sacrificed 


336 On the Music of the Middle Ages. 

the poetic metre ; but so far from this being true of them, I should 
say that by prolonging and extending the musical measure, they 
have imparted a solemn and majestic movement to the Hymns, 
■which the mere syllabic form is quite inadequate to supply. In 
these Hymns the metrical and the tonic accent are never to be 
sacrificed, whilst the musical phrases themselves must be regulated 
by the principles of musical Ehythm already explained. 

It has formed no part of my plan either to explain the mode of 
harmonizing mediaeval Music, or to describe the gradual introduc- 
tion of modern measured Music, as indicated by the various forms 
of notes which we find gradually growing into use between the 
13th and 16th centuries. The former I have shown, not only 
theoretically but practically, in publications of some years' standing; 
and with regard to the latter the examples are so few, and so ex- 
ceptional, that I should scarcely be justified in detaining you with 

"With these remarks I bring my long and probably uninteresting 
Paper to a conclusion. 

Independently of the pleasure of complying with the request of 
your Committee, I should have felt it to be my duty, as a native of this 
County, to lay before its Archaeological Society the first-fruits 
of my researches into an art which, if not emanating from, 
at least was matured by the same genius as that to which we owe 
all the glories of Christian Architecture ; and, although many may 
feel that my subject is not interesting, or that it has been unskil- 
fvJly treated, still I must remind them that at the best garnished 
banquet there are, of necessity, some dishes of a less savoury kind 
than others, and even those may not always display the genius of a 
Soycr or a Francatelli. 

But there is one fault, perhaps, of which all may complain, viz:, 
the length of my Paper, for which I have no other apology to offer 
than that of Pascal, who excused a long letter by saying that he 
had no time to make it shorter. 

J. L. 





lafjsttmical ISlusic in its Simple or ^salmotiic jForm* 


Intonation. Reciting note. Mediation. 

Glo - ri - a Pa - tri, et Fi - li 

Reciting note. Termination. 

et Spi 

n - tu 

Sane - to. 



zjB irii—ii-zE -q-*— ■—■—■— ^—^z-'-r^n—Jiiril. 



Si - cut e - rat in prin - ci - pi - o, et nunc, et sem - per, 

Reciting note. Termination. 

— ■ ■ ■ ♦ ■ — — ■- ■- 


et iu sae - cu - la sse - cu - lo - rum. A - men. 

From the Direetorium Chori of Guidetti. 



IV. Mode. 


Te De - um lau - da - mus : te Do - mi • mun con - fi 


te - mur. Te » - tcr-num Pa-trem, om-nis ter - ra ve- 


ne - ra • t«r. 'J'i - l^i om - ncs an • ge • li : ti - bi coc - li 

S — .— 

et u - ni - ver - sse po - tes - ta - tes. Sane 





sane - tus, sane • tus. Do - mi-nus De - us Sa - ba - oth. 

From a Ms. of the 13th century in the 
Library of Salisbury Cathedral. 


VI. Mode. 


IL " ■— 

In - ci - pit La - men - ta - ti - o Je - re - mi - se 



Pro - phe - tse. A - leph. 


Quo - mo - do se - det 

__ ■ (;■■ _._■___ 

^g_5 — 1 ^_*_« — 1 — _■_ 

-■q_7 — =^_ .-bP^ 

so - la ci - vi - tas pie - na po - pu - lo : fac • ta est 



qua - si ^i - du - a do - mi - na gen - ti - um : prin - ceps 



pro - vin - ci - a - inxm fac - ta est sub tri - bu • to. 




-♦ — ■- 

Je - ru - sa - lem, Je - ru - sa - lem, con - ver - te - re 




ad Do - mi - num De - um tu 


Ex Officio Majoris Hebdomada, published 
by Guidetti, 1587. 


iHetrtcal iHustc in (ts Simple or ^sHaftic jform. 


VIII. MonB. 

Te lu - cis an - te ter - mi - num, Re - rum Cre - a- 
Now with tlie last de - part - ing lijjlit, Ma - ker of all ! 




tor po - sci - mus, Ut so - li - ta cle - men - ti - a 
we ask of thee, Of thy gi-eat mer - cy, through the night 


: — ■ — g 

Sis pra; - sul ad cus - to - di - am. A - men. 

Our guar - dian and de - fence to be. 

From the Sanim Hymnal, printed 
at Cologne, 1525. 


IV. Mode. 


Cre - a - tor al - me si - de - rum, JE - ter - na hix 
Cre - a - tor of the star - ry frame ! E - ter - nal hght 


cre - den - ti - um, Chris - te Re - demp-tor om - ni - um, 
of all who live! Je - su. Re- deem -er of man-kmd ! 


Ex - au - di pre - ces sup - pli - cum. 
An ear to thy poor suppliants give. 



From TJie Antiphonarium (a Ms. of tlie 14th Century), bequeathed 
by the late Bishop of Salisbury to the Dean and Chapter. 


iai)2tf)mical iHustc m its more (JHlaborate jForm, 


A A A A A A 

VIII. Mode. 





From an ancient Mitsal. 



I. Mode. 

Ky - ri - e 


- - Jfi - son. 
From an ancient Gniduale. 

2 Y 


XI. Mode. 

-i — ■— "^ - ■- 

Re - gi - na coe - li Is - ta 


re ; al - le - 

ta - re; al - le 





lu - ia. Re - sur - rex - it si - cut di - xit ; al - le 



lu - ia. 



ra pro no -bis . De-um; al-le 



lu - ia. 

From the before-mentioned Ms. Antiphonarium. 


X. Mode. 

Hsec . . di 



es, quam fe - cit . . 


Do - mi - nus: 

ex - ul - te 



to • - mur ui 

a. Coil - fi - te - mi - ni 


^■B -1 Vl tlgBBZ X 



rni - no 



quo - m - am m sse 




im - se - - n - cor 




ili - a e 


From the same. 


fHctrical anti H^fjgttmirnl i^xistc unttcti. 


A A 

VIII. MoijE. 



ve - ra, Chris -te, clia - ri-tas! Tu nos - tra pur- 
Oh Christ, thou ve - ry love it - self ! Blest hope of man, 




ga cii - mi - na, Tu cor - da re - pie gra - ti - a, 
through tliC'c furgiv'n ! Oh touch our spi - rits from a - hove. 

W — IT 

'J'u rcil -de co; - 11 pre - mi - a. A - mca 

And fiu - ri - fy our souls for heaven. 

From the Mechlin Veupcralc. 





I. Mode. 




Je - su Re-demp - tor om - ni - um, Quern lu - cis an - te o- 
Je - su, Re-deem - er of the world ! Who, ere the ear - liest 




ri - gi-nem Pa - rem pa - ter - nse 
dawn of Ught, Wast from e - ter - nal 


n - te 
ges born. 

-■-- ^ 

Pa - ter su - pre - mus 
Im-mense in glo - ry 

e - 

di - dit. 

A - men. 


in might. 

From the same 


The preceding illustrations are not facsimiles, but they are given in the notation 
used for Gregorian music at the present time, in order that they may be more 
generally understood. 

The adaptation of the syllables to the musical text has not been altered from 
the originals, and this will account for some of the short syllables in the two 
Antiphons being overcharged with notes, as was frequently the case at the period 
when the prosody of the Latin language came to be neglected. 

The two clefs used are the Do clef -Cj- and the Fa clef -bIS" the line through 
the former indicating the position of the note C, and the latter of the note F. 

The Long (■) always bears an accent, and the other notes which reqiure 
special emphasis in a greater or less degree are marked with the accent (A) over 

The Breve (■), which is the note most commonly used, must not be supposed 
to possess always one uniform length. In music purely syllabic it is governed 
by the accent of the poetry, or the words; but its musical accent depends upon 
the character of the phrase in which it is used ; and in the more elaborate pas- 
Bugctt it requires to be executed with greater rapidity than in those which consist 
of a few notes only. 

The Semibreve (4) when used singly is invariably short, but when found in 
a series, especially in cadences, it often requires a retarded movement. 

A musical ear will very soon detect and adjust the rhythm of each successive 
phrase, but it is extremely difficult to describe in writing the various modifica- 
tions U> wliich each is liable ; and Guido d'Arezzo himself was quite sensible of 
this when, in treating of the same subject in the eleventh century, he used these 
words, "Sed hiec et hujusmodi melius colloquendo quam conscribendo monstran- 
tur." — Miorulot/us, c. 15. 


(S)u \l)t (Drmtjjnlngi) uf 'iinlts. 

No. 6.— FALCONID^. (Falcons.) 

" So when a Falcon skims the airy way, 
Stoops from the clouds, and pounces on his prey ; 
Dash'd on the earth the feather'd victim lies, 
Expands its feeble wings, and flutt'ring dies." 

P. Whitehead. The Gymnasiad, book 3. 

My previous papers on the Ornitliology of Wilts having treated 
of the general structure and the classification of birds, and the 
particular characteristics of the various orders and tribes, with 
especial reference to the beaks and feet, which generally point out 
with sufficient clearness their habits and consequent position, I come 
now without further preface to describe in order the families into 
which those orders and tribes are subdivided, and to give some short 
account of each individual species, which, as a resident, a periodical 
or an occasional visitant in our county, has come under my 

I have already shewn that the first order, " Birds of Prey," con- 
sists of three families, the Vultures, Falcons, and Owls : of the first of 
these no member has ever occurred in this county, and indeed it is 
only from the very rare occurrence of a straggler or two on our 
shores, probably driven out of their course by strong and adverse 
winds, that the Vultures have of late obtained a place amongst 
British birds: their habits bespeak them as denizens of tropical 
climates, for their food consists of carrion and putrid substances, 
and very useful as scavengers do they prove in their native coun- 
tries, and very wisely arc tliey protected as such by tlio inhabitaiits; 
for as the storks in Holland, and the dogs in Constantinople and 

1 A reference to thi^ taltlo of classification in vol. I., facing page 114, will 
show the order in which tLcHc fumilicii come. 

2 z 

338 On the Ornitholofjy of Wilts \_FaIco»id(p']. 

the East, so in Egypt and South. America the Vultures arriving in 
vast numbers from all parts of the heavens, may be seen clearing 
away the offal and garbage, to which they are in some mysterious 
manner attracted, and which would otherwise poison the atmosphere. 
The second family, ' Falconidse,' embraces the Eagles, Falcons, 
Buzzards, Harriers and Hawks, of all descrijations. In common 
with all other birds of prey, (and in this again they resemble the 
carnivorous quadrupeds,) they are monogamous or live in pairs; 
they seldom drink, but during the heat of summer delight to wash 
themselves : they usually swallow part of the fur and feathers of 
their victims with their food, but this and all other indigestible 
parts, as bones &c., they afterwards disgorge in large pellets, or 
castings by the mouth, and they will often skin animals and pluck 
birds with the greatest dexterity. In the whole family of Falcons 
there is a very remarkable difference in size between the male and 
female, the latter being (contrary to what we see in other kinds) by 
far the largest and strongest ; and from the fact of the male being 
usually a third less in size than its mate, it always received the name 
of Tiercelet or Tiercel, as a Tiercel Peregrine, a Tiercclet Sparrow- 
hawk, meaning the males of those species.^ They are divided into 
the long- winged or ' noble,' and the short-winged or ' ignoble,' as 
they were respectively denominated in the good old days of 
hawking: the long- winged, or true Falcons, were those most 
highly prized, and most frequently reclaimed; and there are a few 
plain points of difference by which they may be easily distinguished 
from their more ignoble brethren. Thus, in the beak of the true 
Falcon we shall find a prominent tooth in the upper mandible, and 
a corresponding notch in the lower one; while in the short- winged 
genera we shall see instead of the notch a small festoon, or mar- 
ginal lobe, as it is styled. Again, in the true Falcons, the iris, or 
coloured circle surrounding the pupil of the eye, will be always 
seen to be dark ; while in the ignoble birds the irides are universally 

1 Shakspeare uses the word, coiTupted into Tassel, in tlie famous balcony 
scene of Romeo and Juliet : — 

" 0, for a falconer's voice, 
To lure this tassel-gentle back again ! " — Act ii. scene 2. 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 339 

bright yellow. And again, in flight, the true Falcon soars to a great 
height, and descends with a swoop upon its prey, while the short- 
winged pursue it in a direct line near the earth ; but both display con- 
siderable strength, boldness, and activity, and of both I am proud to 
enumerate a goodly list as belonging to this county. Doubtless in 
olden time, when every gentleman and lady also, had a cast or two 
of hawks, our wide open Wiltshire downs were much resorted to 
for the noble sport of Falconry, and called forth such commen- 
dations for remarkable suitability for the sport, as were bestowed 
on it a few years since by the only genuine Falconer remaining in 
the kingdom, Mr. Pells, when he exercised on the downs above 
Lavington the royal Falcons, six magnificent Peregrines, the pro- 
perty of the hereditary grand Falconer, the Duke of St. Albans. 
Hawking has long since gone by, and the hound has usurped the 
place of the Falcon ; but it must have been a goodly sight to see a 
hawking-party equipped for the field, prancing steeds bearing 
gallant knights, and palfreys carr3dng ladies fair; the Falconer 
with his stand of hawks, and each Falcon bearing a silver bell on 
his foot, and capped with a gay hood, surmounted by a plume. 
Then when the open down was reached, and the game was flushed, 
what excitement to watch the unhooded Hawks start in pursuit, 
the rapidity of their flight, their graceful soaring in circles above 
their victim, the sudden pounce, the deadly swoop, the terrific blow; 
what galloping, (and that somewhat blindly and dangerously, with 
eyes directed upwards) to come up with the Falcon, which has 
*■ bound ' to its victim, and fluttered with it to the earth ; what en- 
ticing with the lure, what caressing it when recovered and safely 
hooded once more. But these daj's have gone by, and though our 
downs remain inviting to the sport, and the Falcons and Hawks 
range over thcin in considerable numbers, they are looked upon no 
longer with favour, but are persecuted, hunted, and destroyed by 
every gamekeeper and sportsman ; no longer the honoured, the 
petted, and the prized, but the special objects of vengeance, the 
marked victims of the gun and the snare. And yet, though no 
longer trained for the chacc, but hunted down by the preserver of 
game aa his most deadly foes, who can forbear to admire the sym- 

2 /. 2 

340 On the Ornithology of Wilts \_Falconi(J(e']. 

metry and strength of body, the boldness, the courage, the sagacity 
of this whole family ? Who can withold admiration at their noble 
bearing, their velocity of flight, the keenness of their sight, the 
gracefulness of their evolutions in the air ? But as I am not writing 
a panegyric on Falcons, but only a plain history of them, I will 
proceed at once to enumerate the species which have occurred in 
this county. 

"The White-tailed Eagle," (Raliceetus alhiciUa.) First and 
foremost in the ranks of the Falconidae stands the lordly Eagle, no 
less the king of birds, than the lion is allowed to rank monarch of 
quadrupeds : the strength and courage of this genus so commended 
it to the heathen poets, that they made it the attendant of Jupiter, 
and declared that alone of the feathered tribes it could brave the 
thunderbolt, or gaze with fixed eye at the sun's dazzling orb; for 
the same reasons the Romans, Assyrians, and Persians adopted it 
as their standard in ancient times, and it forms the crest or emblem 
of monarchy in Russia, Prussia, Austria, France, and other empires 
of modern days. Its longevity too, (for it has been proved to live 
above a hundred j^ears,) and its love of solitude, combine to give it 
dignity and majesty; so that in appearance and habits, as well as 
by general consent, it is allowed to be a ** right royal bird." In 
Great Britain the cliffs of Scotland and Ireland, and the wildest 
parts of our sea-coast are the abode of the Eagles; and there, on 
the most inaccessible rocks, and on the edges of the most dizzy 
precipices, they place their eyries, and from thence they sally forth 
in quest of prey, and goodly and ample and of great variety is the 
stock of game, in addition to an occasional lamb or fawn, with which 
they supply their young, as the rocks adjoining their nest have 
often testified, converted during the breeding season by these in- 
satiable marauders into a well-filled larder. 

Of the different species of Eagles, the ' Golden' one, (Aqiiila 
chrysattos,) is generally considered the first, as it is the boldest and 
most active, as well as the largest ; and I had hoped to have enu- 
merated it among the birds of Wilts, in consequence of a notice 
which appeared in the Berkshire Chronicle and the Zoolofjiat, in 
Januaiy, 1847, to the effect that a fine specimen of this species had 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 341 

been killed by tbe gamekeeper at Littlecote, wbo discovered it 
feeding on a dead doe, and so gorged with venison as to be nnable 
to fly off; on enquiry, however, I learn from Mr. Popham that 
tbe species was mistaken, and tbat it was tbe 'Cinereous,' or 'White- 
tailed' (not tbe Golden) Eagle, which was killed in his park; tbe 
confusion seems to have arisen from the unwonted size of the 
specimen killed, its length being 37 inches, and its breadth from 
tip to tip of the extended wings eight feet, a very unusual magni- 
tude for this species. There is, however, in addition to the fulvous 
or golden plumage of the one, and the white tail of tbe other, 
(whence their specific names,) an unfailing mark of distinction by 
which these two species of Eagles may be distinguished at all ages, 
which I will give in the words of Mr. Yarrell : " In the foot of 
tbe Golden Eagle each toe is covered with small reticulations as far 
as tbe last phalanx, then with three broad scales. In tbe foot of 
tbe White-tailed Eagle the reticulations are confined to tbe tarsus, 
tbe whole length of each toe being covered with broad scales." 
But the Golden Eagle is a very much rarer bird so far south, and 
indeed is almost unknown in these latitudes; and I am inclined with 
Mr. Knox, the amusing author of " Ornithological Eambles in 
Sussex," to regard with considerable suspicion the announcement 
in local papers, which of late have frequently caught my eye, of tbe 
occurrence of the Golden Eagle in the neighbouring counties of 
Somerset and Berks. In addition to tbe example of the White- 
tailed Eagle, or Erne, given above, I am informed by tbe Rev. G. 
Marsh, of Sutton Benger, (whose thorough knowledge of birds, 
and ready kindness in imparting information have been most ser- 
viceable to me,) tbat a splendid specimen of this species was caught 
in a trap, in May, 1841, by Lord Suffolk's gamekeeper in Braydon 
forest; it had previously been observed by the keeper soaring very 
high in the air, and it committed great devastations amongst tbe 
game : consequently a gin was set for it, and in this it was caught, 
and when first found by tbe keeper was alive, and but little 
injured; its fierceness, however, prevented its being taken alive, for 
tlic man dared not remove it from the trap, till he liad killed it: 
it is now preserved in bis Lordship's house at Charlton. In ad- 

342 On the Ornithology of Wilts \_Falconid(e]. 

dition to these I have but one other record of the occurrence of the 
Eagle in Wiltshire, and that is an extract from the Salisbunj 
Journal, bearing date as long ago as the middle of the last century, 
kindly sent me by Mr. Waylen : it is to the eflfect that " one summer 
evening an Eagle was observed sailing towards the summit of 
Salisbury Cathedral; he reposed there all night and early in the 
morning set sail northwards." 

" The Osprey," (Pandion haliceetus.) This fine species generally 
lives altogether on fish, and to seize its slippery prey with its 
powerful talons it hesitates not to plunge into rivers and lakes, on 
the borders of which it may therefore be looked for. I have 
described its remarkable conformation of foot, so exactly fitted to 
this purpose, in my paper on the Feet of Birds, (vol. II., p. 298.) 
So its plumage too, and especially on the under parts of the body, 
is not composed of long feathers, such as we generally see in the 
other members of this family, but is close and firm, like that of the 
waterfowl. Hovering over the waters, with an undulatory motion of 
wing, no sooner has its eagle glance discovered a fish near the surface, 
than down it dashes with the velocity of an arrow, and bearing its 
quivering and slippery but firmly-clutched victim away in its feet, 
retires to some secluded rock, where, unmolested, it can devour it 
at leisure: so deep are its talons embedded in the fish, that it 
seldom cares to relax its hold till the fish is almost consumed, 
picking out the flesh from between its toes with great dexterity. 
Frequently, however, the poor Osprey is not sufiered to enjoy its 
hardly-earned prize in peace, for the last-named species, the White 
tailed Eagle, not fitted itself for plunging into the sea, but liking 
to vary its diet of flesh and fowl with an occasional fish, sits on 
some rock or bough a patient but interested spectator of the sport, 
watching the Osprey's manoeuvres and eager for its success : then, 
no sooner has it made a successful pounce, and risen from the 
waters, rejoicing in its prey, than down comes the Eagle in pursuit, 
and gives instant chase : its superior strength and speed usually 
bring success, and though the poor "Fish-hawk" will not sur- 
render its booty without an effort, but rises in circles higher and 
higher, yet encumbered with its burden, it is no match for its 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 343 

assailant, and is at last compelled to drop the fish, which the Erne 
with astonishing quickness manages to seize before it falls into the 
water, and bears off with a scream of victory and triumph. The 
Osprey has a very wide range, but America seems to be its strong- 
hold, and there it congregates for breeding in vast numbers, just as 
rooks do in this country ; and of which the American ornithologist, 
Wilson, gives many interesting particulars : its general colour is 
brown above, and white below, with a white crown to its head ; 
legs pale blue. In allusion to the rapidity with which it darts 
upon fish, it is called by the Italians " Aquila Piombino," or Leaden 
Eagle. K^otwithstanding the scarcity of large sheets of water in 
this county, this bird has been often killed in diflferent parts of it, 
and not unfrequently within the last few years. Mr. Rowland 
shot a very fine specimen at Ramsbury, near the river Kennet, 
about two years since, at a piece of water in the occupation of Sir 
R. Burdett ; and at the adjoining fishery belonging to Mr. Popham, 
that gentleman informs me he has also met with and killed it. 
The Rev. Gr. Marsh has one in his collection which the keeper ob- 
tained in Draycot Park in 1830, and was, when seen, prejang on a 
rabbit, (contrary to its usual habits,) and was very poor ; and 
another, a very fine one, was killed at Brinkworth, near Malmes- 
bury, in August, 1852. In addition to these, I learn from Mr. 
Stratton that two were killed some years ago in the neighbourhood 
of "Warminster ; and as recently as last summer, a fine male bird 
was caught at Longleat, being accidentally trapped in a pole-trap, 
with a trout of two lbs. in its talons, which it never dropped. 

" The Gyr- Falcon," (Fa/co gyrfuko,) nearly approaching to the 
Eagles in size, and by far the most rare, as well as the strongest 
and most valuable of the Falcons trained for the chase, is the Ice- 
land or Gyr-Falcon ; for these I cannot but consider to be one and 
the same bird in different stages of plumage, though for many 
years they were presumed to be distinct, and even now are declared 
to be so by some, and those no mean Naturalists. Their prevailing 
colour is white, spotted with brown, but each year diminishes the 
dark spots, so that in very old Hpccimens, the bird assumes a plumage 
of almost perfect whiteness; from which constant variations in 

344 On the Ornithology of Wilts [Falconidfc]. 

colour have arisen the many conflicting opinions as to the identity 
of the (so-called) two species. They are natives of the most 
northern latitudes, and though nowhere numerous, have, from their 
excessive value, often tempted falconers to their capture on the in- 
hospitable shores of Greenland, Iceland, Lapland, and Norway : so 
highly were they prized in bygone days, that the king of Denmark 
reserved for his own use all that were found in his dominions, and 
sent his falconer annually to Iceland to obtain a fresh supply ; and 
so rigid was this game law, that the penalty of death was the 
result of an infringement of it, by destroying one of the royal 
birds. In this country, and in more modern days, no less than 
£1000 have been given for a well-trained cast (or couple) of these 
Falcons, which were used for fljang at the larger kinds of game — 
herons, cranes, wild geese, &c. Much doubt has existed as to the 
origin of the specific appellation " Gryr ; " it is by some said to be 
derived from the German word " geyer," a vulture, from a sup- 
posed resemblance in this splendid Falcon to that ignoble bird, 
or from its being of a Vulture size ; but others, apparently with 
more reason, attribute it to the wide gyrations which this species, 
above all others, makes before its stoop, which on all hands is 
allowed to be remarkably grand, rapid, and daring. It is very 
seldom that the Gyr-Falcon makes its appearance in England, 
though in Scotland it is not very infrequent : but I place it among 
the birds that have occurred in Wiltshire without the least hesi- 
tation, on the authoritj^ of Mr. Benjamin Hayward, of Easterton, 
than whom no one in the county has devoted more attention to, 
or has had greater experience of, the whole family Falconidse, as 
an out-door observer and accurate Naturalist. From him I learn 
that he saw this fine and, when once known, immistakeable species 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Cliffe Hall, at a place called 
Ramsclifie, on the 9th December, 1842, but at the time, having 
never seen or heai'd of the Gyr-Falcon, he mistook it for an 
albino variety of the Peregrine, and marvelled at its beauty and 
size ; farther enquiry, however, proved to him beyond a doubt that 
it was a genuine Icelander. 

" Peregrine Falcon," (Falco peregrinus.) Hitherto I have re- 


By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 345 

corded the occurrence of species, all of wliicli have been only 
occasional and very rare stragglers in the county; now I come to 
one which is comparatively abundant, and may be met with quite 
as much, if not more, in Wiltshire, than in any other part of 
England ; our wide open downs being, as I before remarked, so 
admirably adapted to its habits. From its greater abundance, as 
well as from its size and strength, the Peregrine has been princi- 
pally trained for Falconry, and among the few who still pursue 
that noble sport, this is the species usually kept for the purpose : 
it is, moreover, a docile tractable bird, and repays the trainer's care 
and attention by its remarkable courage, strength, and activity in 
the chase, and no less peculiar teachableness and obedience to his 
call. It received the specific name of ' Peregrine ' on account of its 
immense geographical range ; its wonderful powers of flight, both 
as regards speed and endurance, enabling it to traverse vast dis- 
tances in an extremely short space of time, and scarcely a country 
in the world exists in which the Peregrine has not been noticed by 
Naturalists. In this county we may almost call it abundant ; and 
where it is so frequently seen, it seems scarcely necessary to parti- 
cularize localities of its capture or occurrence. I have frequently 
seen it on the Poundway downs, and on the downs between Marl- 
borough and Devizes : notices have been sent me of its occurrence 
in almost all parts of the county, and Mr. Withers, the able bird- 
stuflfer of Devizes, has usually one in his hands. Mr. Stratton, of 
Gore Cross Farm, above La\^ngton, (who is a great lover of Fal- 
cons, and watches them keenly,) assures me that his farm is seldom 
without one, and that no sooner is one shot or trapped, than 
another makes her appearance in its place ; and as a proof of their 
abundance, I extract the following interesting notes of his success 
with these birds, from a register kept by Mr. B. Ilayward : — 

Jan. 1, 183G. Peregrine (a Falcon) caught at Ramsclifle. 

March 28, 1812. Another (a Falcon) caught at ditto. 

Deo. .30, 1842. Another (a Fah;oii) at liamscliflb. 

Dee. 8, 1819. Another (a male) weight lib. Goz. 

Nov. 9, 1850. Another (a male) weight 1 -|lb. 

Jan. 22, lK/i;3. Another (a Falcon) weight 2[lhs. 

The above extract proves two interesting facts — the plenlifiJncss 

3 A 

346 On the Oniitlwlogy of Wilts IFakonidcc']. 

of the species in tliat locality, and tlae clifFcrence in size between 
the female, (called par excellence the Falcon,) and the male, (called 
the Tiercel, as above described.) The boldness of the Peregrine is 
so great, that it will wait upon the sportsman, and no sooner has 
he sprung a covey of birds, than down comes the Falcon, despite 
the shooter and his dogs, singles out a partridge for herself, fells it 
to the earth with one deadly stroke, and bears it ojff in triumph ; 
a manosuvre which she will repeat day after day, and frequently 
more than once in a day. Mr. Stratton tells me that he has him- 
self witnessed this, and Mr. Selby gives a pleasing account of it in 
his Illustrations of British Ornithology, as does Mr. Knox very 
fully in his interesting work on " Game Birds and Wild Fowl." 
I learn from Mr. Marsh that in the south of the county the keepers 
call the Peregrine by the provincial name of ' Trammel Hawk.' 

" The Hobby," (Fulco subhuteo.) This beautiful little Falcon is 
in every respect like a diminutive Peregrine ; and in proportion to 
its size (which seldom exceeds a foot in length) vies with its con- 
gener in strength, speed, activity, and endui'ance : it is a periodical 
summer visitant to this country, arriving in April, and departing 
again in October, and I believe is rarely seen in the northern 
counties of England : it loves thick plantations and woods, and at 
the time of incubation usually takes possession of the deserted nest 
of the Magpie or Crow : its food consists of insects as well as small 
birds, in taking which it displays great adroitness : it was formerly 
trained to fly at larks and snipes, the former of which constitute its 
favourite game in its wild state ; hence arose one of its old specific 
names ' alaudarius : ' with less apparent reason, I am told that its 
provincial name in Wiltshire is the " Rook Hawk." It has been 
taken in many parts of the county, and I believe it to be somewhat 
sparingly distributed annually throughout our enclosed districts. 
I have also received many instances of its nesting and rearing its 
young in various localities ; thus Mr. Hay ward has taken two 
young ones from a deserted crow's nest, in August, 1839 ; and 
from the same tree in which the Hobbies had reared their yoimg 
the previous year : this was in the neighbourhood of Lavington, 
where he has subsequently seen them almost annually. Mr. 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 347 

Stratton says they return regularly every summer to the enclosures 
in the vale below him : Mr. Marsh speaks of them as not un- 
common in the woods of Wilts, and has repeatedly had the young 
brought to him both in the neighbourhood of Chippenham, and at 
Winterslow, near Salisbury, and they have bred in the woods at 
Christian Malford ; moreover, I am aware of two separate localities 
to which these birds now return annually to breed, though, for 
obvious reasons, I think it better not to describe them too minutely. 
"Red-footed Falcon," (Falco rufyies.) Very similar to the 
last species both in appearance and habits is the Red-footed or Red- 
legged Falcon, or Orange-legged Hobby, as it is variously called ; 
the principal distinguishing characteristics being the red colour of 
the legs and feet, (as its specific name implies,) and this distinction 
exists in both sexes and at all ages, though, in almost all other 
respects, the male and the female, the young and the adult differ 
widely from one another : like its congener described above, it 
prefers wooded and enclosed districts, and feeds on beetles and 
other insects as well as small birds, and has the same length of 
wing, and consequent rajjidity and endurance of flight ; it is, how- 
ever, extremely rare in this country, its native haunts being the 
steppes of Russia, and the eastern portions of the Austrian domi- 
nions. Scarcely a dozen instances arc recorded of its appearance 
in Britain, but of these, one is described in the Zoologist for 1843, 
as having occurred at Littlecoto Park, near Ilungerford, in 1825 : 
it was seen by a countrj'man to be pursued and struck down by a 
raven, when he went up to it and caught it on the ground before 
it recovered ; and, according to his account, it laid an egg after its 
fall, which was broken. The peculiar markings of the hawk 
struck the author of the communication, who bought the bird of 
the countryman, and not being able to identify it with any of the 
English huwks which he knew, he made a drawing of it, suffi- 
ciently accurate to recognize it by: it was fortunate he did so, for 
the bird, which was very wild and untameable, escaped after a few 
days' captivity, and was probably killed, as it had one wing clipped: 
subsequently, his memory being aided by the drawing, he recog- 
nized it as an Orange-legged Hobby, when he saw that bird at the 

3 A 2 

348 On the OmitJiology of Wilts [^Falconidce]. 

Zoological Gardens. This is the only instance which has come to 
my knowledge of the occurrence of this very rare Falcon in 

" The Merlin," (Falco a'salon.) This beautiful little Falcon, not 
much bigger than a blackbird, is so bold, so active, and so strong, 
that it has been known to strike down a partridge at a blow, 
though twice its own size and weight. It was formerly much es- 
teemed for Falconry, and was trained to fly at woodcocks, snipes, 
and larks. In speaking of the Peregrine, I have shewn how that 
bird would accompany the sportsman to the field, and select a 
victim from the coveys when sprung, neither terrified by man, 
dog, or gun, as described by Mr. Knox and others : that same 
amusing writer gives a similar very interesting account of a Merlin 
which regularly attended him when he was out snipe shooting in 
Ireland, in order to get a share of the game. It seemed to have 
no fear of his gun, but would follow him at a little distance and 
watch the birds that he fired at ; if they were killed by the shot 
the Merlin never meddled with them, but seemed to consider them 
the lawful share of the sportsman ; if, however, any bird was 
wounded and partially disabled, it instantly pursued and caught it, 
and carried it off. At first there was but one, but subsequently a 
second — a female — joined it, and they regularly made their ap- 
pearance as long as the sportsman continued in the neighbourhood. 
Sometimes, at the very commencement of the day's sport, the 
merlins might not be there, but the first report of the gun was 
generally sufiicient to summon one or both of them to the scene of 
action, and a wounded snipe, however slightly touched by the shot, 
had no chance of escape from their united efibrts. First, one 
would rise above it in a succession of circular gyrations, (for he 
was unable to ascend in such a direct line as the snipe,) then he 
would make a swoop, and if he missed, his companion, who in the 
meantime had been working upwards in a similar manner, would 
next try her luck, and in this manner they would pursue the 
quarrj^, until the persecuted bird, unable to ascend higher, or any 
longer avoid the fatal stroke, was at last clutched by one of the 
little falcons, when the other would hasten to " bind to it," and all 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 349 

three descend together into the bog. After a performance of this 
sort an hour woidd occasionally elapse before the return of either 
of the merlins, sometimes more, sometimes less, but they never 
seemed -svilling to give up the sport until at least three snipes had 
fallen to their own share. The Merlin is often called the Stone 
Falcon, from its habit of perching on a large stone in the 
open country, which it frequents : for the same reason it is 
called in France Le Rochier, and Faucon de Roche, and in 
Germany Stein Falke. Bewick supposed it did not breed here, 
but Selby, Yarrell, and others prove that it does so, at any rate 
in the northern and midland counties. With us it is a winter 
visitant, arriving in October, and leaving us in the spring. I 
have myself seen it at Yatesbury, where it frequented a splendid 
old yew tree in the churchyard, and I have notices of its occurrence 
in the neighbourhood of Salisbury, 1837 ; Chippenham, 1840 ; 
Devizes and "Warminster 1850 ; while Mr. Stratton tells me it is 
a constant visitor on the downs at Gore Cross ; and that he caught 
no less than three specimens from one stump on his farm : he tells 
me also, that he has been astonished at its amazing boldness and 
dexterity in pursuit of starlings, chasing them, singling one out, 
and as certainly bearing it off in triumph. 

" The Kestrel," (Faico tinnunmlus.) The most common, the 
most harmless, and the most persecuted of all the Falconidas is the 
elegant Kestrel : it abounds in vast nimibers throughout the county, 
and one can scarcely cross the downs in any direction without 
seeing it hovering in the air, with wings rapidly quivering and tail 
outstretched, and with head invariably turned to the wind : from 
this habit it has derived the two provincial names of * Windhover' 
and ' Stonegall,' or ' Standgale.' It may easily be distinguished 
from the other members of the family by the prevailing rufous 
fawn colour, which is common to the plumage of both sexes. It 
preys almost exclusively on mice, of which it destroys an incredible 
quantity, dropping upon them suddenly from above ; but occasion- 
ally varies this diet with coleopterous insects, reptiles, and small 
birds ; but I think it has very rarely been known to molest a young 
partridge or pheasant, or commit the smallest trespass on game : 

350 On the Ornithology of Wilts \_Falconidce\. 

nevertheless it is a hawk, and as such is the enemy of the indiscri- 
minating gamekeeper, who can see no difference in the Kestrel and 
Sparrow-hawk, but looks upon both as his mortal foes, and traps 
and destroys them accordingly. There can, however, be no ques- 
tion that the Kestrel, far from being injurious, confers the greatest 
benefit on man, ridding him of thousands of field mice, which are 
destructive alike to the farm, the garden, the orchard, and the 
plantation. Like many other species of the true Falcons, it prefers 
adopting the deserted nest of the magpie, or other large bird, to 
building a nursery for itself. Though some may always be seen, 
Mr. Waterton (who has a great liking for this hawk, and has 
defended it most perseveringly in his charming Essays on Natural 
Historj-) expresses his conviction that by far the greater part 
migrate in autumn to more southern lands ; and in this he is fully 
supported by Mr. Knox, who has bestowed much attention to the 
point, and, dwelling on the coast of Sussex, has admirable oppor- 
tunities for observing the migration of birds. 

This closes the list of the true Falcons, which have always been 
considered as more " noble" than the others. We now come to 
other genera, and we shall see that their habits, as well as their 
make, difi'er in many respects from the above. 

" Sparrow Hawk," {Accijntcr nisus.) The short-winged hawks (of 
which this is our commonest species) take their prey in a difierent 
manner from the long-winged or true Falcons; instead of rising 
above it in circles, and then stooping with wonderful velocity and 
force, they pursue them on the wing, as a greyhound would a hare, 
gliding after them at great speed for a short distance, even dashing 
after them through woods and thick plantations : but should they 
fail to come up with their quarrj-, they are unable to prolong the 
chase, and so abandon it and await another chance. Of all the 
short-winged hawks, none is more bold, active, and destructive, 
especially in the breeding season, than the Sparrow Hawk. There 
are many interesting accounts of its wholesale plunder and insa- 
tiability in destroying young birds and game at that time, but the 
most extraordinary that has come under my notice, is that lately 
published by Mr. Knox, who counted the following victims laid up 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 351 

in store in their nest for the half-fledged young, — " Fifteen young 
pheasants, four young partridges, five chickens, a bullfinch, two 
meadow pipits, and two larks, all in a fresh state." From such 
well-known voracity and penchant for game, I can scarcely hope 
that the Sparrow Hawk will be spared b}' the gamekeeper, though 
at the same time he deserves our respect and admiration for his 
bravery and skill : but at any rate let his sins be visited on his own 
head, and not on the inoffensive insectivorous kestrel, which is so 
often made to suffer for the misdemeanors of another. The Sparrow 
Hawk prefers birds to quadrupeds, and thus we see it furnished 
with long and slender legs, and toes (especially the middle 
one) remarkably elongated, and these are admirably adapted 
for grasping and penetrating the dense plumage of its victim. 
The female, flying low, and skimming over the ground with great 
swiftness, often seizes the partridge or the pigeon, with no gentle 
stroke, while her diminutive partner is content to pick off the 
sparrow or the finch from the hedge, or even the rickyard, whither 
his boldness will lead him undismayed. In none of the whole 
family is the difference in size between the male and female so 
conspicuous as in this species, and as the difference in colour is also 
great, no wonder that they should often be mistaken for distinct 
species. In this country it is sparingly met with throughout, 
nowhere very numerous, and nowhere entirely wanting, though the 
more wooded and enclosed parts are its favourite haunts. 

" The Kite," (Falco Milviis). Though once the terror of the 
poultry yard, and the admiration of the Naturalist, this graceful 
bird is now, alas ! almost (I fear I must say quite) extinct in this 
country, and I much doubt whether many individuals, unless 
stragglers, are to be found south of the Tweed or east of Wales ; 
and j'ct but a very few years since they were not uncommon 
in our homesteads and woods. Mr. Marsh has seen them at 
Winterslow, and once possessed a tame bird wliicli was taken 
young in Clarendon Woods. Mr. TIayward, when a boy, saw a 
nest of them at Lavington. Mr. Stratton tells me that two lu^sts 
liave been taken, to his knowledge, by people now living in his 
neighbourhood, one at Fiddington Down, the other at West 

352 On the Ornithology of Wilts \_Falconid(v]. 

Lavington. At Lydiard Millicont, the seat of Lord Bolingbroke, 
there was a tree, wliicli very probably still exists, called tbe Kite 
tree, and here Kites bred from time immemorial, and here they 
were always to be seen in the spring a few years ago, and most old 
people can recollect something of the " forky tailed" Kite or Glead. 
It was very easy to be distinguished from all others of the Fal- 
conidte, by its long and much-forked tail, and by its graceful 
gliding motion, whence its provincial name Glead ; and it delighted 
to soar in circles, and to sail on almost motionless wing. Though 
it would occasionally seize a chicken or a duckling (as the hen- 
wife knew to her cost) rats, mice, leverets and other small qua- 
drupeds, composed its principal prey, and when it did take a bird it 
was generally one of the gallinaceous order, for the mode of seizing 
its victim, by pouncing upon it on the ground, differed from that 
of m.ost of the preceding species. But though so elegant and 
graceful, the Kite was not remarkable for courage ; a hen has 
been often known to beat off the intruder from her chickens, and 
indeed it was selected as the quarry at which to fly large falcons in 
olden times, and from the sport it thus often afforded to royalty, 
are derived the continental names it still bears, "Milvus regalis," 
" Milan royaV Though small in bulk and light in weight, the 
Kite is, in reality, a large bird, exceeding two feet in length, and 
five from tip to tip of the extended wings. 

" Common Buzzard," {Buteo Vulgaris.) Like the species last 
described, the Buzzard is not now the common bird it once was, and 
which its specific name implies. At one time it abounded in our 
woodland districts, but now it is rarely to be met with. Mr. Marsh 
speaks of one which was brought to him from Draycot Park, in 
1840. Mr. Stratton has occasionally seen the bird as it passed 
over or rested in his locality, but states that it does not remain 
there. Mr. Hayward had often observed it on Fiddington Common 
some years since, but now seldom sees it. Like all the other 
species of this genus, it has a slow flight, an indolent, lazy, heavy 
aspect, and a timid disposition. It preys upon small birds, quad- 
rupeds and reptiles, which it will strike upon the ground, but which 
it does not care to pursue, and often it will stand motionless for 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 353 

hours on the bare limb of some decayed tree, watching the acci- 
dental arrival of a victim. Its legs and feet are comparatively- 
short and strong, as we generally find to be the case with those 
genera or species which prey on quadrupeds in preference to birds. 

" Rough legged Buzzard," (Bufeo Lagopus.) Though rarer as 
a species than the last, this has been occasionally met with in 
various parts of the county. The last occurrence was iu 1854, 
when two were seen in the neighbourhood of Ogborne, one of which 
was killed by Mr. Godwin, of Brimslade. Mr. Marsh possesses one 
which was taken in the parish of Briakworth, at Somerford Common, 
in 1839, and reports it as very rare there, indeed that is the only 
specimen which has come under his notice ; and I have a note of 
another killed near Wroughton. In habits, food, and mode of 
obtaining it, this species much resembles the preceding, but may 
easily be distinguished from its congeners by the feathering of its 
legs down to the toes, whence its specific names, both English and 
scientific, lagopiis signifying " footed like a hare." 

" Honey Buzzard," [Pernis apivorus.) Very different from all 
other members of the Falconidae, both in habits and the prey it 
seelcs is this elegant bird. Though universally styled the Honey 
Buzzard, honey forms no portion of its food, and it is not for this 
that it searches out the nests of bees and wasps, scratches away the 
bank in which they are placed, and tears out the comb ; the larvae 
or immature young, are the objects of its diligent search, and these 
it devours with great greediness, picking them out and demolishing 
them without any regard to the anger or the stings of their owners. 
The scientific name it bears declares this habit clearly enough, and 
it would be well was the English specific name exchanged for the 
' Gentle' Falcon (as has been suggested), the word gentle sigmiymg 
the nymphic of wasps, bees, &c., as the readers of honest old Isaac 
Walton well know : tlie present name of Honey Buzzard is apt to 
mislead. But though so partial to young bees and wasps, thesedo not 
form the entire food of this large bird, indeed it would be diflicult 
to satisfy a voracious appetite with such delicacies ; rats, mice, 
frogs, and small birds, all go to fill its capacious craw. However, 
it makes its appearance in tliis country only in the summer, when 

3 D 

354 On the Ornithology of Wilts [FalconidcB], 

its favourite food is to be found. In order to defend its head from 
the stings of tlie insects it robs, all the vulnerable parts between 
the beak and eyes are clothed with close-set, scale-like feathers, and 
these seem to act as a helmet of mail, proof against the weapons of 
its innumerable assailants, whose vengeance its wholesale attacks are 
sure to excite. In addition to this generic character, wherein it 
differs from all others of the same family, the tarsi are reticulated 
and the claws only partially curved. These are plain marks of 
distiuction, but in plumage it presents a more extraordinary variety, 
scarcely two specimens being found to resemble each other. Mr. 
Fisher, of Yarmouth, has taken great pains to compare different 
individuals which have occurred, and to trace the remarkable change 
of plumage to which this species is liable ; and he shows, with consi- 
derable probability of correctness, which the subsequent observations 
of others have amply corroborated, that the younger the bird the 
darker its plumage, which every year increases in whiteness from 
the almost uniform dark clove brown of the immature bird, to the 
almost perfect whiteness of the adult. When it has the ash grey 
plumage on the head, it has often been called the ' capped' Buzzard. 
It is of a gentle, kind, and amiable disposition, and may easily be 
domesticated, and soon becomes attached to its owner : Mr. Knox 
(who had a good opportunity of observing it) says, it has a humble 
subdued look about it, quite sufficient to distinguish it from the 
more martial members of the family, and that its gait was different 
also ; instead of the hop of the sparrow-hawk or the leap of the 
falcon, and the erect attitude of those birds, its mode of progression 
was a rapid run, after the fashion of a lapwing, the head being at 
the time partially depressed ; this confirms the statement of 
Willoughby, which has been copied by Buffon and Veillot, that the 
Honey Buzzard " runs very swiftly, lilfe a hen," as was shewn by 
Mr. Grurney in the Zoologist for 1844, page 492. I have but two 
authentic instances on which I can rely, of the occurrence of this 
rare bird in Wiltshire ; one of these was seen at Roundway Park 
about ten years since, and was shot by the keeper in the act of 
destroying a wasp's nest : Mr. Withers, who preserved it, tells me 
that he took about a dozen wasps and larva) from its stomach. 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 355 

Another, a young one, at about the same date, was killed at "West 
Lavington, at Mr. Beckett's, and is now in the possession of Mr. 
Hayward, at Easterton. 

" Marsh Harrier," (Circus ceniginosus.) The Harriers differ from 
the Buzzards in their more slender and elegant form, their 
longer and more naked legs, and especially in the distinct ruff of 
close-set feathers, which surrounds their face ; their flight, though 
not swift, is light and buoyant, and they are able to continue it 
for a considerable time : from their habit of sweeping over the 
surface of the ground, at no great elevation above it, and in this 
manner hunting for game like dogs, they have derived the generic 
name " Harrier : " their prey consists chiefly of small quadrupeds 
and reptiles, but occasionally they will take birds as well. Yarrell 
adds that a remarkable trait in the whole genus is, that the males, 
when adult, are all more or less ash grey in colour, while the females 
retain their original tints of red or brown. The Marsh Harrier is 
the largest of our three British species, being about 22 inches in 
length : Bewick, who places it erroneously among the Buzzards, 
gives it the provincial name of Harpy, though why it was so styled I 
cannot discover. Though formerly not by any means uncommon, I 
have not heard of the recent capture or occurrence of one of these 
birds in Wilts. It loves marshy districts and moors, from which it 
derives the specific name " Marsh" Harrier, and the provincial one 
of " Moor" Buzzard, and here in a tuft of grass or rushes it makes 
its nest. In the fenny districts of England and Wales it was 
formerly very abundant, but now even in its favourite haunts it is 
becoming scarcer every day, and will doubtless soon be extermi- 
nated, owing to the draining and reclaiming of waste lands, which 
however profitable to the agriculturist, is annually destroying many 
of our most interesting birds. 

"Hen Harrier," {Circus cyaneus.) Far more common than the 
last, at any rate in this part of England, is the Hen Harrier or 
Ringtail, for Montagu in this country, and Mr. Temminck on the 
continent, have both clearly proved, what is now universally 
acknowledged by ornithologists, that these two titles apply to the 
same bird, though to the two sexes, which when adult diflcr 

a u 2 

356 On the Ornithohgy of Wilts [Fakomd(f\. 

very ^videly both in size and colour: the male, to whicli alone 
the title of Hen Harrier was originally given, was so named from 
its supposed liking for fowls ; it was also called the " Blue Hawk," 
and " Dove Hawk," from its pearl-grey colour : the female bore the 
title of Ringtail, from the bars of dark and light brown so conspi- 
cuous in her tail : in habits and haunts this species very much 
resembles the last, but it oftener leaves the marshes and fens in 
which it delights, for commons and moors, and breeds in the thick 
furze covers on the open wastes. It is said to be a great destroyer of 
game, and to beat its hunting grounds with great regularity and 
at stated intervals, crossing them in various directions, day after 
day, and at the same hour of the day. It is still to be met with in 
"Wilts, though like its congener yearly becoming scarcer. Mr. 
Marsh has a pair in his collection, which were killed in Clarendon 
Park in 1823, and states that though not uncommon near Salisbury, 
he never sees them in the neighbourhood of Chippenham. Mr. 
Stratton often sees them on the downs above Lavington, and thinks 
it probable they breed every year in the gorse near him, but as the 
gorse is being taken up, the bii'd will soon be driven away. On 
the same downs Mr. B. Hay ward has shot three specimens in one 
day, at a clump of trees, called Ashington Pennings, and another 
was killed at Market Lavington by Mr. Stagg. 

"Montagu's Harrier," {Circus Montagiii.) So called from the 
worthy ornithologist whose residence in this county we are proud 
to boast, who did so much for Natural History, and who devoted so 
much attention to the genus we are now considering. In gratitude 
for his indefatigable researches, and in compliment to his acute 
discrimination, which unravelled the confusion prevailing among 
the Harriers, and ranged them under three species, which the 
diligent investigation of half a century has since proved to be 
correct, the ash-coloured Harrier (as he himself named this species, 
which he first discovered to be distinct from the two others,) has 
been named by all the continental authors " Circus Montagui" and 
" Le Busard de Montagu, " and by our own " Montague's Harrier." 
It may be distinguished from its congener, the Hen Harrier, with 
which it had hitherto been confused, and to which it bears a great 

By the Rev. A. C. Smith. 357 

resemblance, by its comparative lightness, thougli at the same 
time greater dimensions, botb in length and stretch of wing ; by its 
more distinct ruff of feathers encircling the head, and by its greater 
elegance and slimness of form. In all other respects, as regards 
its habits, haunts, food, &c., it is quite similar to the last-named 
species ; but of late years it has been proved by several naturalists, 
that it occasionally varies its diet with the eggs of small birds, 
those of the thrush, sky-lark and willow wren, having been dis- 
covered in its stomach. Two instances have reached me of its 
recent capture in this county; one (now in Mr. Marsh's collection,) 
was killed by Mr. "Wightwick's keeper in 1841, at Somerford 
Common, described as a very wooded district ; the other was caught 
in a gin at Wans, about two years since, and (in confirmation of 
what I have stated above respecting its occasional food,) I learn 
from Mr. C. WjTidham, that it was attracted to the trap by an egg 
set there for a magpie. 

I will now bring this long paper on the Falcons to a close, with 
one more extract from the register of Mr. Hayward, who has dis- 
covered the following interesting facts from personal observation. 
" Hawks do not moult their wing and tail feathers as do other 
birds, and this is a wise provision of Nature, otherwise during the 
season of moulting, they must starve ; but now they moult but one 
feather on each wing at a time, and when a feather drops from one 
wing, the corresponding feather on the other wing drops out within 
seven hours ; this is, without doubt for the sake of equilibrium ; 
then as the new feathers come up and are grown, another pair in 
like manner falls out, and so with the tail." Mr. Hayward also 
observes that " hawks, in fighting, would score one another's backs 
with their talons at a swoop, to avoid which catastrophe the one 
attacked invariably turns over and presents her feet to the assailant." 

Alfred Charles Smith. 

Yatcsbury Rectory, Calne, 
January 2, 1857. 

358 Colerne Church. 


Cljurrli nf $i gnljti tjje ^Bnpfet, U\mt 

By E. "W. Godwin, Esq. 

This Church, as will be seen by the accompanying plan, (plate 1) 
consists of a nave, with aisles, chancel, north chapel, south porch, 
and tower at the west end. 


The Toicer (of the 15th century) is a bold, lofty structure of 
three stages, with good projecting buttresses at three of its angles, 
and an octagonal staircase turret at the north-east. 

The lower story contains in the west wall a small four-centred 
arched doorway, over which is a four-light window, originally of 
good design, but now sadly mutilated. The north and south walls of 
this story are enriched with deeply recessed pannelling of the same 
character as the west window, but elongated to the basemold and in 
a much better state of preservation ; the tracery in the head is sub- 
arcuated, and the lights throughout cinquefoliated. The walls 
above the stringcourse in the second stage are ornamented on all four 
sides by a series of long cinquefoliated pannels, the centre one on 
the north, south, and west sides being occupied by an elegant 
canopied niche, which is as usual, void. The belfry windows are 
in pairs, double lighted, transomed, and with deeply recessed jambs ; 
the lights are filled with "ashlare," solid below the transoms, but 
perforated above ; the parapet is pierced with trefoliated triangles, 
surmounted by four pinnacles, which are evidently too small for 
the height of the tower; this becomes more evident when viewed 
from the north-east, where the pinnacle over the turret appears 
rather to sink into than rise out of it. 

The present appearance of the south aisle is " perpendicular," 
though remnants of earlier date still exist. It has a square-headed 

~~— — ^ 

A.A iotu1)oidX blockebup 
8. loxD buttrt^t/. 
c. pisCcitia vjitbdia. 
DO fabler j^epulc()ryC. 

IT" V" 

I"' US: a 




c(0lf I'nt- (([] ui? I- Ij , Wi It » . 





By E. W. Godicin, Esq. 359 

"decorated" window of two lights, a two-light "perpendicular" 
window, and a large one of four lights, the tracery of which has 
been destroyed. The porch has an elegant niche over the outer 
doorway deserving notice, and the angle buttresses are of rather an 
uncommon form, rising in one continuous set-off from the ground. 
There is a south clerestory of early date, but the windows, except 
the outline of the centre one, have been destroyed ; the eave-string, 
(or molding immediately under the lower course of slabs,) is almost 
the only evidence of its age. The Chancel, from the insertion of 
square-headed windows of late date, and the almost total annihila- 
tion of its early lancet ones, has lost nearly all its original character 
and beauty. There is, however, enough left to form some approxi- 
mation as to its former appearance. In the south wall the outlines 
of two lancet windows, and in the east the boundaries of a triple 
lancet may yet be seen. At the south-east angle, and rising not 
more than three feet six inches from the present level of the ground 
are two buttresses, (if such they may be termed,) the use of which 
seems, however, somewhat obscure. The present east window is of 
debased character, with semi-circular-headed lights. The east end 
of the Chapel is in a line with the chancel, but the junction of the 
earlier and later masonry is clearly marked ; the east window is an 
elegantly proportioned, yet simple specimen of its class ; the hood 
molding is remarkably delicate and consists of the "roll" and "bead," 
the terminations to which represent female heads that to the south 
has the chin cloth and other characteristics of the head of a 
" religieuse ; " the buttresses at the north-east angle arc good early 
decorated examples of two stages with returned strings below each 
set off. The rest of the Chapel has been entirely rebuilt — an old 
two-liglit window, the corbel-table, and some internal portions have 
been preserved in the new erection, though the destruction of one 
of the windows and the insertion of a doorway is not altogether 
pleasing. The east gables of the nave, chancel, and chapel, as well 
as the west gable of the latter are, with the exception of the crosses, 
in their original state, although the roof of the chancel and chapel 
are entirely modem and covered with date. Continuing our pro- 
gress round the building wo arrive at the north aisle, whicli is 

360 Colerne ChurcJi. 

almost straight with the chapel ; it is of the same age as the tower, 
and is divided into four bays by buttresses of two stages ; the first, 
third, and fourth baj's (reckoning from the west) contain good 
three-light windows, the remaining bay being left blank — a pro- 
vision, doubtless, for a north porch or doorway, which some cause 
prevented being carried out. This aisle has a base-mold of a bold 
form, and is surmounted by a plain parapet, which returns along a 
very depressed gable at the west end ; the roof is covered with lead 
and nearly flat. The interior effect of the tower — the lower story 
of which is vaulted with good ribbed groining — has been destroyed 
by boarding up the lofty, well-moulded arch, and inserting a floor 
midway, with a far projecting gallery. 


It is only on entering the body of the Church we become aware 
of remains, the leading features of which at once proclaim them to 
be Norman. The Nave is of four bays, the pillars are cyKndrical 
with circular bases, the three arches (reckoning from the east) on 
the south side with the intermediate piers, respond, and half of the 
western pier are the oldest portions of the church, and though 
presenting some points reconcileable to the " early English" stjde, 
possess yet so many more characteristic of the Norman period, that 
I consider them to belong rather to the close of the latter than the 
commencement of the former era. The arches are pointed with 
plain soffits, recessed, however, on the nave side, and surmounted 
by a hood-mold with trefoil terminations ; the abaci are square 
and of the usual Norman section, and the capitals though designed 
upon what is commonly called the " cushion shaped," have each a 
different appearance, presenting an interesting exemplification of 
the power of form, even in. the most common and simple detail ; 
the bases rest on low square sub-plinths, the upper edge of which 
is chamfered. The three opposite arches on the north side are of a 
later date, they are of two chamfered orders, and spring from 
octagonal abaci with foliaged capitals, each of which also differs in 
design and degree of beauty. The piers are much smaller in cir- 
cumference than those on the south side, but of the same height. 
The westernmost arch on either side yet remains to be described : 



By E. W. Godwin, Esq. 361 

they are coeval witli the tower, the western part abutting against 
the buttresses, and the eastern side being supported by inserted 
semi-piers of the same date. The South Aisle retains its original 
width and general proportions, the masonry in the foundations 
being left undisturbed. In the walls of the North Aisle are corbel 
heads which supported the principal timbers of the roof, the second 
from the east is the head of a bishop or abbot, with a mitre, bear- 
ing on its front an elegant Greek cross in relief, (see plate 2.) The 
other heads are those of a saint, a queen, and some " religieuse." 
The Chancel floor is slightly raised above the nave, and the entrance 
arch is crossed by an oak screen of perpendicular character, with 
the doors, fastenings, and handles remaining. The arch itself is of 
two orders chamfered, the outer chamfer is carried to within a few 
inches of the floor, and the inner order rests on short pillar brackets 
with molded capitals ; the shafts are detached, and are supported 
by corbel heads of a knight on the north, (see plate 2,) and a saint 
on the south, the latter is immediately under the neck molding of 
the capital. The arches communicating with the chajDcl are 
blocked up on this (the chancel) side, the hood molds being the 
only part visible. But the most interesting point in the chancel, 
and indeed the attraction of the church are the accompaniments of 
the high altar. They present us with admirable examples of the 
work of three different periods in conjunction with each other, 
producing an anomaly as beautiful as it is singular. The elevation 
(plate 3), will more clearly explain the arrangement. The 
eacrarium is raised 24 inches above the floor of the chancel, and, 
together with the south wall of the latter, is skirted by a base 
molding of bold character.^ The Chapel is entered from the chancel 
by a doorway in the eastern arch, and the floor is nearly on a level 
with the eacrarium. The arches on this side are comparatively 
free. The piers are cylindrical, but of smaller proportions than 
those in the nave, they liavo octagonal abaci and bases, and tho 
capitals, which differ materially from each other in the adaptation 
of tho foliage, are similar in cliaracter to, though perhaps some- 
what more effective than, those already described ; tliat of the 

1 A modern continuation of an old fragment. 

3 c 

362 Colerne Church. 

eastern respond (shown in plate 2) is remarkably rich in light and 
shade, and shows that even at this period the form of the cushion 
shape was not lost sight of. The arches are of two orders, cham- 
fered with returned hoodmolds on either side. The arch which 
led into the north aisle is blocked up in the upper part by a wooden 
partition supported by an old stone screen, the former being a 
portion of a private gallery. The scoinson arches of the windows 
of the chapel are segmental pointed, chamfered, and finished with 
good bold hoodmolds. The terminations to the north window are 
the heads of a queen and ecclesiastic, and those to the east represent 
the heads of some religious ladies ; the one to the south having 
the chin-cloth, and other appurtenances of the dress, of a professed 
nuxi. In the north wall, below the window, is a recess nearly the 
whole thickness of the wall ; the arch, which is segmental pointed, 
springs from within a few inches of the floor, and is molded with a 
series of quarter rounds and fillets ; at the back of this recess is the 
oldest monumental record in the church. It is a small rough stone, 
built in the wall, upon which is cut in Roman letters " arter coslet 
WAS HERE BVRED IN THE YERE 1625." The font, which is octagonal, is 
a very poor example of the 15th century — the lead lining and drain 
remains. The roofs of the chancel and chapel are new, that on the 
nave is concealed by a plaster ceiling, the removal of which, together 
with the obstructions in the tower arch, the reparation of the west 
window, the opening of the chapel arches, and the annihilation of the 
gallery in the north aisle, are objects greatly to be desired. This 
latter encroachment hides the upper part of one of the aisle windows, 
having remnants of stained glass, amongst which the head of a 
young queen (with long light auburn hair, and a richly foliated 
crown) is still preserved. 

In the absence of all documentary evidence relative to the history 
of this church, we are obliged to refer to the character of the archi- 
tecture for the dates of the several portions. As has already been 
intimated, the three easternmost arches and piers on the south side 
of the nave, as well as the foundations of the south and east walls 
of the south aisle, belong to the first church, and must have been 
erected about the year 1190. The chancel was built in the 13th 

li\. VV.^ 


By E. W. Godwin, Esq. 363 

century (c. 1240) at which period the church appears to have 
consisted only of a nave, south aisle and chancel, the existence of a 
tower being doubtful. It was not long, however, before the increased 
population of the parish made it requisite to enlarge the structure, 
and consequently we find that early in the reign of Edward I (1280) 
a chapel of the same size as the chancel, ^ a north aisle, and a cleres- 
tory to the nave were added. This addition of a chapel involved 
the almost total destruction of the original north wall of the chancel, 
in order to admit the arches of communication ; it is, therefore, more 
than probable that the Easter Sepulchre was destroyed in taking 
down the old wall, for not many years after the date of these alter- 
ations, the masonry in the south wall was disturbed and a new 
sepulchre inserted. Late in the 14th century the mason's hand 
appears to have been again busy ; alterations were made in the 
south aisle, a clerestory and new roof to the nave constructed, whilst 
in the chancel the old " Early English" sedilia, and portions of the 
piscina and sepulchre were cut away to make room for three new 
sedilia. From this time the church remained imaltered till towards 
the middle of the 15th century, about which time (c 1450) the old 
north aisle was taken down and the present one erected ; the arch 
leading from the aisle into the chapel considerably altered, a stair- 
case to the roodloft and screens to the chapel and chancel constructed, 
the south aisle lengthened, and a parapet and a new roof added, 
and the present tower with adjoining nave arches erected. From 
this last alteration it appears that the nave, prior to the 15th cen- 
tury, extended only as far westward as the third pier from the east. 
This is evinced by more than one circumstance, and principally 
by the fact of the hoodmolding on the north side, returning over 
the western pier, or what was originally the respond, and being 
abruptly cut off at the line of junction. 

It is not improbable that a church existed here in the time of the 
Saxons, for the manor of Colcrne is mentioned in Domesday, as one 
of the " vills" held directly of the King by Humphrey de I'lsle, 

1 The junction of the latx-r with tho earlier mtisoury, is clearly defined by a 
fissure in tlie wall, and by tho old abhlar (^uoin htoues. 

3 c 2 

364 Colerne Church. 

The history of Colerne is so united with that of Castle Combe, 
the lords of the manor being either Barons of Combe or mesne 
lords holding of them, that we may consider them indirectly if not 
directly, as the builders and founders of the earlier portions of the 

The semi- Norman, or transitional features which belong to the 
first church of which we have any substantial record, must have 
been built during the life of "Walter de Dunstanville, the first baron 
of Castle Combe. Upon his marriage his father-in-law gave him 
only half the lordship of Colerne, and it was not until 1190 that he 
obtained full possession.^ From this I would infer that the oldest 
part of the present church was built by Walter de Dunstanville, 
between this date and the year of his death, 1195. The chancel, 
which I presume to have been built soon after 1240, would conse- 
quently be the work of Walter, the third baron, who died in 1270. 
It appears from the " Testa de Nevill," that one knight's fee in 
Colerne was held of the king by this Walter de Dimstanville, and 
he it was who first obtained the grant of a market for Colerne.^ 
Those portions of the church to which I have afiixed the date 1280, 
must have been erected during the tenancy of Sir John Delamere, 
who died in 1313. I have not been able to look into the "Acts of 
William de Colerne, Abbot of Malmsbury," (MS. penes Sir Thos. 
Phillipps, Bart.,) but the well-known fondness of the Abbot for 
building and enlarging churches, his very name, and the constant 
occurrence in this part of the building of heads, bearing testimony 
of a convent life, seem to point to him as the author of the work. 
The "Perpendicular" additions and alterations were doubtless 
efiected soon after the manor and church came into the possession 
of New College, Oxford, which took place in the year 1389. 

It appears from the Colerne muniments, in the possession of 
New College, that the manor passed from Henry de Burghersh, 
Bishop of Lincoln, to Bartholomew de Burghersh, his nephew, 
who married for his second wife, Margaret, sister of Bartholomew, 
Lord Badlesmere, and that William of Wykeham purchased the 

1 History of Castle Combe by Gr. Poulett Scrope, Esq., p. 32. 

2 History of Castle Combe, p. 37. 

By E. W. Godwin, Esq. 365 

reversion of the estate from Elizabeth, his daughter, wife of Edward 
le Despenser, for the sum of TOO marks, in the 11th year of 
Richard II., and conveyed it to the CoUege in the following year. 

Henry VI. granted to the warden and scholars of New College 
(a.d. 1447), a market at Colerne every Friday, and a fair for three 
days, on the vigil-day, and morrow of the decollation of St. John 
the Baptist (August 28, 29, 30.) 

P.S. — Since the above accoxmt was written, sundry alterations 
and reparations have been effected. The boundary of the Early 
English triplet in the chancel can no longer be discerned, for the 
east wall has been rebuilt, and a new " Geometrical" window takes 
the place of its debased predecessor. The chancel has been cleared 
of its " boxed-up pews," and open seats with returned ends against 
the screen substituted. The chancel screen has been deprived of the 
numeroiis coats of paint with which it was attired, and the old pulpit 
and reading-desk, than which nothing could have been more cum- 
bersome, has given place to a new arrangement, for a portion of 
which an ancient precedent was found. The stone screen between 
the chapel and the north aisle, and which tends to support the 
gallery, used as a private pew, has been partially exposed. In the 
south aisle the head of a " Decorated" two-light window has been 
discovered; it is similar to the one east of the porch, and must 
have been blocked up when the porch was added. Amongst the 
stones used in filling up this window were fragments of the jambs 
of a semi-Norman doorway. A new roof has been put over this 
aisle of the same dimensions as the old one, differing only in the 
quantity of molded work. The large four-light window has been 
furni.shed with new tracery, and together with the east window of 
the chancel, is filled with stained glass by Bell, of Bristol. The 
central window of the clerestory has had its cusps and muUion re- 
paired, and windows of similar character, but of three lights, have 
been inserted in the place of large, unsightly dormer windows. In 
doing this it was seen that the clerestory had formerly but two 
" Decorated" windows, each of two lights, consequently the west- 
ernmost window is an insertion altogether without authority, but 
whicli can scarcely be deemed a deception, as it actually pierces 


the '•Perpendicular" wall wMch was added when the tower and 
western nave arches were erected. In the course of these repairs, 
and alterations, it became evident that the church had once been 
literally covered with polychromatic decorations, but this it was 
not thought advisable to retain. Such, then, is the present state 
of a church which, at one time, must have been one of the most 
beautiful in the deanery, and which may still be made to rival in 
beauty, as it does in Archaeological interest, any in the neigh- 
bourhood. Edward "W. Godwin. 
Bristol, Aiigust, 1855. 


I have much, pleasure in announcing that the "Flora of "Wiltshire" is in a 
forward state of preparation ; that during the past summer many interesting 
additions have been made, so that there are now between 600 and 700 species of 
rioweiing Plants, natives of the county. In order, therefore, to render the 
Flora still more complete, it has been considered advisable to direct the atten- 
tion of all Botanists, resident in the county, to the following heads of enquiry, 
viz. : — 

Ist. — Lists of the species, and more remarkable varieties of the plants, (rare 
or common,) growing wild in any portion of the county; the general distribu- 
tion of the commoner species, and the exact localities in which the rarer ones 
may be found. 

2nd. — The relative degree of scarcity, or abundance of species, in particular 

3rd. — The periods of their flowering. 

4th. — The dates (if carefully noted) of the first flowering of any of the more 
generally diffused wild plants. 

5th. — The soils and situations afiected by each species. 

6th. — The possible, or probable introduction, of particular species by human 

7th. — Changes that have occurred in the comparative scarcity or abundance 
of species. 

8th. — Alterations in character, size, or general habit and appearance, result- 
ing from differences in situations, soil, season, or botanical cultivation. 

9th. — The wild, or apparently wild, localities of our native trees, wioh anec- 
dotes, and memoranda of any remarkable for size, beauty, or connexion with 
the real or legendary history of the neighbourhood. 

tOth, — The results of examination of the woody concentric zones of trees, 
with a view to ascertain their probable age. 

11th. — The highest and lowest places at which species occur, whether in ab- 
solute height, in comparison with the appearance or cessation of other species, 
or in relation to the parts of particular hills, as at the base, middle, or summit. 

12th. — Any other information of an historical, ceconomical, and philosophical 
natm-e, tending to illustrate the Flora of Wiltshire, or the Science of Botany. 

Thos. Betjges Floweb. 


jffiijskiauB Dmtlj nf a ICnrh-iCintteatit nf Wilb; 


13th July, 1683. 

[Being an Hjnsode in the History of Wiltshire during the Civil Wars."] 

The following narrative refers to the closing period of the reign 
of Charles II., when the voluntary confessions of two of the con- 
spirators in what was called " the Rye-House Plot," had occasioned 
the arrest of some of the more distinguished opponents of the Duke 
of York's succession to the crown. Of these the principal were 
Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex and Lord Lieutenant of Wiltshire, 
Lord William E,uss(^, and the Hon. Algernon Sydney. Without 
mentioning all the names concerned, that of Dr. Gilbert Burnet, 
afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, may hardly be omitted, since, 
though himself neither suspected, nor in any sense inculpated, he 
remained throughout the painful scene the unabashed friend and 
adviser of the accused lords, and his name is mixed up with the 
following events. 

It was while the trial of Lord William Russell was in actual 
course of procedure, that news arrived from the Tower that the 
Earl of Essex had cut his own throat, and the event was imme- 
diately urged by the Judges as a proof of conscious guilt in the 
conspirators. But beyond the reach of the Lord Chief Justice's 
terrible voice, the muttering of public discontent became louder 
and louder. Thousands refused to believe that Capel's death was 
an act oi felo-de-se; and as soon as the other two noblemen were 
sacrificed, enquiries were set on foot by a barrister of the Temple, 
named Lawrence Braddon, Esq., with a view to implicate the Earl's 
keepers in the crime of murder. It seems pretty certain that, by 
some means or other, a report of his death was in circulation in 

368 Mysterious Death of a Lord-Lieutenant of Wilts; 

Wiltshire and Somerset, and other places at a distance from London, 
on or before the day of its occurrence, giving birth to the suspicion 
that it was a premeditated act. Of this there was no direct proof; 
but a letter to that effect from the turbulent town of Marlborough 
was quite enough to set Mr. Braddon in motion, and was the cir- 
cumstance which introduces us to his adventures in this coimty in 
search of further evidence. He had first taken down the testimony 
of divers persons, principally children, who had heard cries pro- 
ceeding from the Earl's chamber in the Tower, and had seen a 
bloody razor thrown from the window, a feat which it was na- 
turally supposed the sufferer himself could not have performed 
after using the instrument. Braddon's next step was to visit Tun- 
bridge, after which he repaired into "Wiltshire in order to make the 
acquaintance of Mr. JS^ehemiah Burgess, a pin-maker of Marl- 
borough, who was reported to be in possession of valuable informa- 
tion. But, preparatory to starting, he called, late in the evening, 
on his friend, Mr. Hugh Speke, to get an introduction to another 
Protestant partisan, Sir Robert Atkyns, of S4ow-on-the-"Wold, in 
Gloucestershire ; and the imfortunate letter then written by Mr. 
Speke (under the influence, so he afterwards pleaded, of liquor) 
involved him also in Braddon's misfortunes, Mr. Hugh Speke, it 
may here be remarked, was a member of the wealthy Somersetshire 
family who soon after engaged in Monmouth's rebellion. His 
letter on the present occasion was as follows : — 

" For the ever-honoured Sir JRobert Atkyns, Knight of the Bath, at his house 
at Netherswell, near Stow-on-the- Wold, in Glostershire. 

"HojroTJEED Sir, — The bearer hereof is one Mr. Braddon, a very honest 
gentleman, whose father has at least £800 per annum in Cornwall. It seems it 
is his fate to be the only person that follows and prosecutes the murder of the 
Earl of Essex, and he has made a very considerable discovery already of it, not- 
withstanding the hard stream he rows against, as things stand and are carried 
at present. But indeed I think it could never have fallen on so fit a man, for 
he has been a very hard student, is a person of a very good reputation, life, and 
conversation ; and has a great deal of prudence, and as much courage as any 
one living whatsoever. He went away on a sudden hence post towards Marl- 
borough to make some further discovery, and what he has discovered he will 
give j'ou a full account, and of all the transactions hitherto about it. I lent 
him mv man to go with him, for fear he should come to any mischief, for most 
here fear he will either be stabbed or knocked on the head if he do not take 

or, the Stori/ of the Marlborough Pin-Maker. 369 

great care of himself. Seeing he came into these parts, I thought it not amiss 
to go and advise with 5-ou how he had best proceed in it, and I did charge him 
not to let any body know who he was, that it might not be known he had been 
with you : for I would not for the whole world that you should come to any pre- 
judice in the least for your kindness towards us. For we labour under many 
difficulties as the tide runs at present. 

"Pray call Mr. Braddon by the name of Johnson when he is with you. I 
have given him the same item. We hope we can bring the Earl of Essex's 
murder on the stage before they can any of those in the Tower to a trial. He 
being in great haste, I have not time to write more, but to assiu-e you that Mr. 
Braddon is a person of that integrity and coui-age that nobody need fear to 
trust him. I was very willing that he should take youi" advice in this case 
which is of so great moment, seeing he came within twenty or thirty miles or 
thereabouts of your house. He will give you a full and clear relation of every- 
thing in that affaii-, and how hard they have been iipon him. Sir Henry Capel 
[brother to the deceased Earl] told him that it was a thing too great for him, 
&c. All which, Mr. Braddon (that you are to call Johnson whilst he is with 
you at your house) will give you a true relation of. Mr. Braddon hath been at 
a great trouble and charge abeady about it. I know few that would have ven- 
tured to undertake this affair besides himself, as times go. 

" I received yours this day, with the great pains you took ; and the letter to 
the Lady Russel, which finding unsealed, I sealed without looking into it and 
carried it myself. She returns you ten thousand thanks, and says she knows 
not what return to make you for your most extraordinary kindness. I have 
not time to write any more at present, by reason that Mr. Braddon, alias John- 
son, stays only for this my letter. I am, Sir, your most obliged friend and 
most humble servant, 

" Hugh Speke." 
"Lincoln's Inn, 15 August, 1683, 
"Wednesday night, ten o'clock." 

Having possessed himself of the above document, Mr. Braddon 
may as well describe, in his own language, his progress into the 
West. At the time of calling on Speke he had just been down to 
Tunbridge to verify a report similar to those circulated in Wiltshire, 
but the witness, it appears, was shy and unwilling to be made con- 
spicuous, " I had no sooner returned" he says " to London, but I 
was told the same report was at Marlborough, in Wiltshire, about 
70 miles from London on the very morning of the Earl's death. 
Whereupon I rode to Marlborough resolving to trace the report as 
near as I could to the author. When I came to Marlborouuh I 
met with one Jeremiah Burgess, whom before this I never to my 
remembrance saw or heard of; who declared, — that, the very 
morning my Lord died, he was at Fromo, in Somersetshire, about 

3 1) 

370 Mystenous Death of a Lord- Lieutenant of Wilts; 

thirty miles distant from Marlborough, and an hundred miles from 
London, and, being there at The Boljihin, he was informed that 
the Earl of Essex had cut his throat in the Tower. I did desire 
Burgess to write me a letter to the master of the house at Frome, 
to inform me if he could remember who it was that reported this 
at his house. I did at Marlborough likewise speak with one Lewis, 
who informed me, that about two o'clock the day the Earl died, as 
he was riding up Husband's Hill, not far from Andover, he overtook 
a gentleman riding a very easy traveller's pace, and as they were 
discoursing of the news in the country, the gentleman said he had 
heard a report of the Earl of Essex that he had cut his throat in 
the Tower ; but the gentleman was altogether a stranger to him, 
and therefore he could not inform me how or where to find him. 
"With Burgess's letter I was riding to Frome, but when I came 
within six miles of the place, at a town called Bradford, I stopped 
at an inn-door to drink a glass of cider; upon which, one Beach, ^ 
an attorney notorious in his country and generation, informed a 
Justice of Peace [Colonel William Eyre] then there, that I looked 
like a disafiected person, by wearing band and cufis, and, therefore, 
in that dangerous time, I ought to be examined. Upon which the 
Justice came out [of the inn] to examine me ; and there came with 
him one who knew me, so that the Justice seemed well satisfied. 
But Beach taking the Justice aside, tells him that he ought to be 
more strict and search me, for by my wearing band and cufis it 
was plain I was disafiected to the Government. Of this I have 
been often told by some then there. Upon this the Justice told 
me he must search me. "When I perceived this, I thought it proper 
to give the Justice a particular account of the occasion of my being 
in the country, as also of what papers I had about me ; which 
papers being read, after some debate and advising with Beach, he 
made a warrant for my commitment, the form whereof in the con- 
clusion was the most illegal I ever saw. It ran in these words : — 

1 Thomas Beach, of "West Ashton and Bradford, Steward under the Crown, 
for the Manor of Steeple Ashton, and of the Manor of Trowbridge for the 
Seymour Family. He married Anne Martyn, of East Town ; died 1 729, aged 92, 
and was buried at Steeple Ashton. He is mentioned by Aubrey, Nat. His., 
ofWUts, p. 41. 

or, the Story of the Marlborough Pin-Maker. 371 

""Wilts. — To the Keeper of His Majesty's Gaol of Fisherton Anger, in tliis 
county, or his sufficient deputy, — These. I send you herewithal the body of 
Lawrence Braddon, apprehended in the tovra. of Bradford, in the county afore- 
said, this present two and twentieth day of August, taken upon suspicion of 
being a dangerous and ill-affected person to the government, and for refusing 
to give an account of his business in these parts, and for having letters of dan- 
gerous consequence about him. These are therefore in the King's Majesty's 
name to will and require you that upon sight thereof you receive him the said 
Lawrence Braddon into your gaol, and him there safely keep, not permitting 
him to have pen, ink, or paper, or person to converse or speak with him, until 
you shall receive further orders from His Majesty and Privy Council. Hereof 
you are not to fail at your peril. Given under my hand and seal at Bradford, 
this 22nd day of August aforesaid, anno regni Caroli secundi Angl. .35, a.b., 

Mr. Braddon having, with some difficulty, got a sight of this 
instrument, expostulated with Colonel Eyre as to the construction 
of the final clause, urging that by virtue of such wording he might 
lie in prison for ever without conviction or trial, for that all such 
warrants ought to conclude " till he be discharged by due course 
of law." Colonel Eyre, fortified by the presence of several attor- 
neys who had collected in the inn, told him he would maintain the 
legaKty of the warrant, and forthwith despatched him to Fisherton, 
some 30 miles distant ; where, as Braddon says, he found the keeper 
possessed of more sense and honesty than either his worship or his 
cabal, for the gaoler immediately assured him that he might con- 
verse with and write to whomsoever he would, himself being by. 
Taking advantage of which civility, he at once demanded a copy of 
his commitment, and wrote to London for his Habeas corjms thereon ; 
whither he was shortly after removed, and in the following month 
was, together with Hugh Speke, tried before Lord Jeffercys for a 
misdemeanor in suborning witnesses to prove that the Earl of Essex 
was murdered by his keepers. They were both found guilty and 
fined, Braddon in £2000, Speke in £1000. Braddon lay in prison 
for five years, that is to say till the close of James II's. reign. 
Speke and his father paid first and last £5000 to the King, but the 
young man seems to have been finally won over to act as James's 
spy on William of Orange. 

But wo have not yet done with Braddon's trial. He, himself, 
assorts tliat the authorised printed report repressed much of the 

3 D 2 

372 Mysterious Death of a Lord-Lieutenant of Wilts ; 

vituperation with whicli lie was assailed, yet it still retains a fair 
average of the commingled drollery and abuse cliaracteristic of the 
Lord Chief Justice. Twice he flew out at Wallop, the prisoner's 
counsel, and the next minute he could be as merry as ever about 
" the famous pin-maker of Marlborough." Jeffereys probably knew 
better than most present that the Presbyterians or " populars" of 
that town were old hands at the theory and practice of mar-popery. 
But if the humour of the Judge be occasionally pennitted to relieve 
the narrative of these (happily long past) scenes, we shall seek in 
vain for any such sentiment as prompting the witnesses for the pro- 
secution. Beach, the Bradford attorney, was evidently as hungry 
a hound as his masters could desire. Catching scent before any of 
his neighbours, he had posted off to Frome the moment Braddon 
was arrested, in order to obtain from Compton, the post-master, 
and his family, a refutation of Jeremiah Burgess's statement as to 
the early circulation of the report in that town. From Frome he 
passed with all speed to Longleat, and obtained from Lord "Wey- 
mouth the like assurance, to the effect, viz., that his lordship had 
heard of Essex's death, by letter, on Sunday 15 July, two d^ajs after 
the event ; and that such he believed was the earliest intelligence 
of the fact in that part of the country. Beach's evidence also was 
designed to show that Braddon had adopted a very circuitous route 
from London to Marlborough, taking Oakingham and Salisbury in 
his way, and occupying an entire week, in order to spread evil 
reports, as the Attorney General suggested. Colonel Eyre, the 
Justice who committed the prisoner, had died almost immediately 
after, so that Beach was the only witness at this stage of the pro- 

The trial was principally sustained by witnesses brought forward 
to prove Braddon's ofiiciousness in getting up evidence touching the 
events in the Tower of London ; but as our object is rather to dis- 
cover the state of feeling in the provinces, the Marlborough wit- 
nesses must sufiice to conclude this affair. 

Evidence of Jeremiah Burgess, (examined by the Lord Chief 
Justice.) — ^Was a pin-maker, and resided at Marlborough ; was at 
work in his trade on the 21st of August, 1683, when his friend, Mr. 

or, the Story of the Marlborough Pin-Maker. 373 

Butcher, also of Marlborougli, and a grazier by trade, called upon 
him and told him there was a gentleman [Braddon] come from 
London about the Earl of Essex's affair, and desired his attendance 
at the White Hart Inn (the principal posting house in Marlborough) 
to state what he had heard at The Do/phin, at Frome. He accord- 
ingly waited upon the stranger, and at his request wrote the fol- 
lowing letter to Mr. Compton, of Frome, to induce him to recall to 
remembrance the conversation said to have taken place at his 
(Compton's) house on the 13th July, the very day of Essex's death. 

"Mr. CoiTPTOx, 

' ' My kind love to you. These are to desire you to call to mind that I was 
in Frome the 6th of July, being Friday, where I heard the report that the Earl 
of Essex had cut his own throat. I would desii-e you to enquire into it, to know 
who first reported it, and give this gentleman the ti'uth of it. And ia so doing 
you vnH oblige me who am yoiu: friend, 


"Marlborough, 21 August, 1683." 

Burgess's Examination continued. — In this letter he had inadver- 
tently written 6th of July for 13th of July, which Braddon per- 
ceiving, requested him to correct on the spot. — He could not say 
for certain whom he had heard utter the report at Frome. Mr. 
Compton was certainly not present himself, yet might, very possibly, 
remember the company in his house speak of it. Mr. Braddon did 
not dictate the letter to him, but perused it at his house after it was 
written, and having caused the erroneous date to be corrected, put 
it in his pocket and departed for Frome. — Had never sent a letter 
to Braddon directing him to come to Marlborough. — Did not know 
that his friend Butcher had sent for him either : — Or that a non- 
conformist parson had been the means of his coming. 

Mr. Butcher does not appear to have been examined. Mr. 
Fielder, of Andover, proved that the Earl of Essex's suicide was 
the town talk at his residence on the Wednesday and Thursday 
before the Friday on which it happened ; and another IMarlborough 
witness, named Lewis, was then brought forward for a similar 
purpose ; but he was no friend to the accused, as the following 
dialogue will shew : 

Crier : Lay your hand on the book. 

Lewis : My lord, I desire my charges may be paid before I swear. 

374 Mi/sterioiis Death of a Lord- Lieutenant of Wilts; 

Lord Chief Justice : Prithee, wliat have I to do with thy charges ? 
I won't make bargains between you. If you have any evidence to 
give and will give it, do ; — if not, let it alone. 

Lewis : My lord, I shall not give any evidence till I have my 

L. C J. : Mr. Braddon, if you will have your witnesses swear, 
you must pay them their charges. 

Braddon : My lord, I am ready to pay it : I never refused it ; 
but what shall I give him ? 

L. C. J. : Nay, I am not to make bargains between you. Agree 
as you can. 

Mr. Thompson, counsel for prisoner : My lord, we are willing to 
do what is reasonable. You, Lewis, what do you demand ? 

Lewis : He can't give me less than six shillings a day. 

L. 0. J. : Why, where dost thou live ? 

Lewis : At Marlborough. 

L. C. J. : Why, canst thou earn six shillings a day by thy 
own labour at Marlborough ? 

Leicis : My lord, I am at forty shillings or three pounds a week 
charge with my family and servants. 

L. C. J. : What trade art thou ? 

Leivis : A Stapler. 

L. C. J. : And does your trade stand stUl while you are here in 

Lewis : Yes, to be sure, it can't go well on. 

L. C. J. : Well, I say that for you, you value your labour high 
enough. I know not what your evidence may be [worth]. But, 
Mr. Braddon, you must pay your witness if you will have him. 

Braddon : I wUl, my lord, very readily. — What will you have ? 
I have paid you something already. 

Lewis : Give me twenty shillings more then. You can't give me 
less. (Then Mr. Braddon paid him twenty shillings and he was 

L. C. J. : Well, what do you ask him, Mr. Thompson ? 

Thomjjson : We ask him what report he heard of the Earl of 
Essex's death, and when ? 


or, the Story of the Marlborough Pin-Maker. 375 

[Lewis's testimony tlien simply declared that as he was riding up 
Husband's Hill, four miles from Andorer, and fifty-two from 
London, though he could remember neither the day of the month 
nor the name of the month, and only knew it was on a Friday 
during the summer, a stranger asked him if he had heard of the 
Earl of Essex's death. On the next day he went home to Marl- 
borough, and on recounting to his neighbours the report of the 
previous day, they remarked " why, how could you have heard of 
it yesterday, when the deed was done but yesterday ?"] 

Mr. Williams : By the best conjecture you can make, was it that 
very day the Earl of Essex cut his throat ? 

Lewis : I do not know that ever any such man cut his throat, 
but this I heard, and I tell you the time as well as I can. 

Mr. Williams : Then, pray, let us have our money again. 

Lord Chief Justice : Thou art well paid, I vrill say that for thee. 

The result of the trial has been already stated above. It only 
remains to notice what was the belief which finally prevailed out 
of Court as to the real cause of Essex's death. 

The testimony of children in a court of Justice, so long as they 
are really children, always carries great consideration. So it was 
in the present case, with reference to the story of the razor thrown 
from the Tower window. Not only were the public much in doubt 
about the matter, but Lady Essex very naturally was induced to 
collect all the facts which had been sworn to, and to lay them 
before her confidential adviser, Gilbert Burnet. But the sagacious 
Doctor, having given the aflPair his best attention, could not re- 
commend her ladyship to prosecute the enquiry ; and it was pro- 
bably through his means that the Earl's surviving relatives generally 
came to acquiesce in the verdict of a felo-de-se. In the Bishop's 
Jlistori/ of his own times he adds sundry reasons for his decision ; 
attributing the fatal event, in fact, to temporary derangement as 
the result of excitement operating upon a diseased frame ; and the 
Bishop's well-known political bias naturally tending to a conclusion 
opposite to that which ho expressed, secures his opinion from the 
charge of prejudice. 

376 Wilts Notes and Queries. 

Master Jercmiali Burgess, on rejoining his fellow townsmen, 
must, we cannot but think, have trodden the streets of Marlborough 
with a sense of more conscious dignity than neighbour Lewis. 
And long afterwards, when King James's flight had left his subjects 
in peace, we may imagine how often the scenes before the judgment 
seat of the terrible Jeffereys were the theme of conversation around 
the Presbyterian hearths of Marlborough. In the municipal records 
of that town, Burgess's name may be traced, associated with those of 
Gough, Merriman, Hawkes, Foster, and others, as the supporters 
of the "Whig interest, far into the 18th century. The present 
representatives of the old family of Burgess, now generally write 
their name "Bruges." J. "Waylen. 

Wiltshire During the Civil Wars ; or, a Political, Military, 
and Domestic History of this County, during the Stuart controversy, 
embracing a period of one himdred years, that is to say, commen- 
cing with the outbreak of the war in 1640, and terminating with 
the rebellion of 1745. This, which has already, in part, appeared 
in the Wiltshire Indejjendeni, J. Waylen proposes to re-publish in a 
thick imperial octavo, with additions, and illustrated with numerous 
engravings ; price not to exceed a guinea. Subscribers' names to 
be sent to Mr. N. B. Randle, or Mr. H. Bull, of Devizes. In fur- 
therance of such a scheme, the loan of, or privilege of access to, 
original documents, such as warrants, inquisitions, parish entries, 
and private letters, will be esteemed a favour, and will be duly 

As the work will contain an elaborate account of the estates of 
the royalists in the county on the one hand, and lists of the Par- 
liament's friends on the other ; it is conceived that the genealogist 
will here find many an unexplored field. The engravings to be 
principally historical groups. 


Wilts Notes and Queries. 377 

The accompanying illustration, being one of the series, represents 
a catastrophe which befel Charles, the son of the poet Dryden, by 
his -wife Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Howard, first Earl of 
Berkshire, of Charlton Park, near Malmesbury. The occurrence 
arose out of the following remarkable circumstances : — 

Soon after the birth of his second son Charles, Dryden took 
occasion to inform his wife, the Lady Elizabeth, that he had been 
calculatiag the child's nativity, and was grieved to discover that 
he was born in an evil hour, " Jupiter, Venus, and the Sun, being 
all under the Earth, and the lord of his ascendant being afilicted 
with a hateful square of Mars and Saturn." The poet thereupon 
proceeded to address the afflicted mother, who sat petrified with 
dismay, after the following manner: — "If he live to arrive at his 
eighth year," said he, "he will go near to die a violent death on his 
very birthday: but should he escape this calamity, of which I see 
but small hopes, he will, in his twenty- third year, lie under 
the very same evil influence. And should he, which seems almost 
impossible, escape this crisis also, the thirty-third or thirty-fourth 

year is, I fear" Here the convidsive grief of the Lady checked 

at once the predictions of the seer, and appealed to the sympathy 
of the husband. Dryden did his best to comfort her, and even to 
disabuse her mind of the prejudice ; but the anticipated catastrophe, 
already a realitj'^ to himself, had taken equal possession of her own 
imagination ; and when the inauspicious month of August, in which 
their little son was to enter his eighth year, arrived, the mutual fears 
of the parents revealed themselves. The Court being just then " in 
progress," and the poet-laureate at leisure, he was invited by his 
brother-in-law, the young Earl of Berkshire, to keep the long va- 
cation at Charlton in Wilts ; the lady Elizabeth being invited, at 
the same time, to her uncle Mordaunt's. It was agreed that each 
parent should take one of the two surviving children, John and 
Charles ; but each was anxious to secure Charles. The husband 
was peremptory, and the parting Avas in anger. The long-expected 
day soon after arrived; and the absent mother, unable to control licr 
anxiety, became herself almost the victim of a violent fever. Sho 
was assured, in a letter by Dryden, of the child's preservation, but 

3 E 

378 Wilts Notes and Queries. 

it was not until six more weeks had elapsed, that it was conceived 
safe to divulge to her the following narrative : — 

The hazardous anniversary day, every moment of which Dryden 
was anxious to pass with his son, had unfortunately been chosen by 
the young lord as the occasion of a great stag-hunting match, to 
which all the neighbouring gentry were invited. Dryden, having 
no wish to be thought an astrologer, joined the party with apparent 
good will as to himself, but determined if possible to keep the child 
out of harm's way. "With this view he gave him a long Latin 
lesson, with strict injunctions not to stir out of the room till his 
retm-n. But though Charles might not look after the stag, fate drove 
the stag, after a long chase, back to Charlton. The affrighted 
animal, after standing some time at bay near the Court-gate, took 
to the wall and cleared it, just where little Charles was standing 
with a servant to see the sport. The dogs followed in a body, and 
the wall being very ruinous, ten yards of it fell down and covered 
the child with debris. He was immediately dug out ; and, though 
considerably injured, at last recovered after six weeks languishing. 

Thus far the oracle seemed to be ratified. In the twenty-third 
year of his age, Charles fell from the top of an old tower attached 
to the Vatican in Rome, the heat of the day having occasioned a 
swimming in his head. He again recovered, but was ever after- 
wards in a sickly state of health ; and in the thirty-third year of 
his age he was drowned near Windsor. He had, with a companion, 
twice crossed the river, but at the third attempt was, it is supposed, 
seized with cramp ; as he called for help, though too late. Such 
was the story of his doomed career, as taken from his mother the 
lady Elizabeth's own mouth, and preserved in Charles Wilson's Life 
of William Congreve. 

J. Waylen. 

Cloth-Making, Time of Henry VIIL, 1516. — " Charges brought 
against the Alnager-seals and Surveyor of Seals, within the counties 
of Wilts, Somerset, and Gloucester, ready to be approved" [proved 
on oath]. 

" Note. — They be not expert in cloth-making, according to the 
statute ; [that is, the alnagers are not themselves acquainted with 

Wilts Notes and Queries. 379 

the art and mystery of clotli-making, which by statute they ought 
to be,] but, contrary to the laws, do let the seal to farm unto 
clothiers that have mills, in their own hands ; whereby infinite 
abuses and deceits in cloth-making are committed." 

" The Alnager and Sealer neglect the execution of their office, in 
that they do not make due search of every cloth made, to be 
measured both length and breadth, being wet from the mill, and 
before they be set upon the rack to be dried ; but sufier the clothiers, 
having the seal at farm and in their own custody, to set to the seal 
before the cloths be measured accordingly. And thereby great 
defect in cloth making encreaseth. 

" The Alnager executeth not his office, in that he causeth [not ?] 
every clothier to set to his seal of lead unto every of their cloths 
and kerseys, in which seal the true and just length of every cloth 
and kersey should be contained ; but sufiereth the clothier to put 
the Alnager's seal without controlment, or survey that the cloth be 
ordered accordingly to the intent of the laws. "Whereby such 
letting of the seals to farm, deceit in clothmaking aboundeth, and 
the Alnager forfeiteth his office." 

"Therefore, — Peter Blackborough deferreth [proposeth] in 
recompence of all his charge, time, and travail, to be Alnager and 
Sealer in the said three counties ; who, being expert [acquainted 
with the trade] will not only execute the office duly, but also pay 
£20 more yearly for every county than heretofore hath been paid." 

[About the period in question, or at any rate a little previously, Devizes and 
Beckington had a name for blankets, termed in medieval Latin, blanchetti, 
from their whiteness, in the same manner as blue and scarlet cloths bore tho 
epithets of bluetti and cochinelli.] 

J. Wayi-en. 

Birthplace of Pitt. — William Pitt first Earl of Chatham was 
long supposed to have been born at Old Sarum, and in this belief tho 
editor of Seward's Anecdotes published an engraved view of tho old 
Manor house ^ there, as the spot signalised by that occurrence. 

1 Mawarden Court, the ilanor House of Stratford sub Castro, a house which 
(as »ugf^«id by Mr. II. J. F. Swaync) very probably takes its name from tho 
Mawardyn family, one of whom appears as Shorill' in 1389 and 1394. It has long 
been the property of the Deana of Salisbury, frequently hold on lease by diflerent 

380 iniis Notes and Queries. 

But from Mr. Peter Cunningliam's researches among the London 
parish registers it appears most likely that Pitt's birth took place 
in St. James's parish, Piccadilly, on the 15th of November, 1708, 
his christening being recorded there on the 13th of December 
following, as " the son of Robert and Henrietta Pitt." 

J. Waylen. 

NoYES. — This name occurs copiously in the Registers at Great 
Bedwyn, and also in those at Burbage, both in this county. The 
Rev. Adam Noyes was presented to the vicarage of Great BedAvyn 
by Queen Elizabeth, in the year 1595. The benefice was again 
vacant in 1598, but whether by death, cession, or resignation is not 
known. There is no genealogical mention of Adam Noyes in the 
Registers at Great Bedwyn. These books are indexed, as well 
alphabetically, as according to the rites entered in each volume. 
The entries of burials commence in 1538, of marriages in 1539, 
and of baptisms in 1533. 

Chi'istian wife of Robert Noyes, gent., was buried there 27 June, 1701. 

At Burbage is the following entry : — 

" 1679-80. The 7th Feb. was buried Francis, ye son of Francis Noyes and 
Elizabeth his wife. He dyed in Oxford in ye 9th year of his age, and was 
inteiTed in New Colledge Chappel." 

In 1589-90. John Noyes witnesses a marriage, at Burbage, on 
the 15th of Feb. between " Mr. Andrew Arnold, batchelawre of 
Divinity, and pcher in St. Pawles church, in London, and Sicely 
Polling, of Burbage, by Mr. John Polling, of Magdalen Colledge, 
in Oxford." 

Mr. Edward Nois was buried at Shalbourne, near Hungerford, 
12th October, 1708. J. Ward. 

From Collingbourne Ducis Register. 

1654. " JoHif, Son of John Noyes, and Margaret, his wife, born 31 March, 

1654, and baptized April 23rd." 

1655. EicHAED, son of John and Margaret Noyes, bom 22 Sept., and baptized 

21st Oct., 1655." ' W. C. L. 

persons : among others by " Governor" Pitt who new cased the back of it when 
he rebuilt the chui-ch about the year 1711. Lord Chatham certainly passed 
much of his early youth at this house. — [i^of.] 

':■'?' ^v,:*^;-..